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The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848

 

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846–48), was signed on February 2, 1848, at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city to which the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces.

With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico City, in September 1847, the Mexican government surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war. The peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott as a diplomat and President Polk’s representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with President Santa Anna, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico was as a conquered enemy. Nicholas Trist negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel Atristain, and Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas.

President Polk had recalled Trist under the belief that negotiations would be carried out with a Mexican delegation in Washington. In the six weeks it took to deliver Polk’s message, Trist had received word that the Mexican government had named its special commission to negotiate. Trist determined that Washington did not understand the situation in Mexico and negotiated the peace treaty in defiance of the President.

In a December 4, 1847, letter to his wife, he wrote, “Knowing it to be the very last chance and impressed with the dreadful consequences to our country which cannot fail to attend the loss of that chance, I decided today at noon to attempt to make a treaty; the decision is altogether my own.”

 

 

 

Transcript of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)

TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, LIMITS, AND SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED MEXICAN STATES CONCLUDED AT GUADALUPE HIDALGO, FEBRUARY 2, 1848; RATIFICATION ADVISED BY SENATE, WITH AMENDMENTS, MARCH 10, 1848; RATIFIED BY PRESIDENT, MARCH 16, 1848; RATIFICATIONS EXCHANGED AT QUERETARO, MAY 30, 1848; PROCLAIMED, JULY 4, 1848.

IN THE NAME OF ALMIGHTY GOD

The United States of America and the United Mexican States animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two Republics and to establish Upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits upon the citizens of both, and assure the concord, harmony, and mutual confidence wherein the two people should live, as good neighbors have for that purpose appointed their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States has appointed Nicholas P. Trist, a citizen of the United States, and the President of the Mexican Republic has appointed Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto, and Don Miguel Atristain, citizens of the said Republic; Who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have, under the protection of Almighty God, the author of peace, arranged, agreed upon, and signed the following: Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic.

ARTICLE I

There shall be firm and universal peace between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns, and people, without exception of places or persons.

ARTICLE II

Immediately upon the signature of this treaty, a convention shall be entered into between a commissioner or commissioners appointed by the General-in-chief of the forces of the United States, and such as may be appointed by the Mexican Government, to the end that a provisional suspension of hostilities shall take place, and that, in the places occupied by the said forces, constitutional order may be reestablished, as regards the political, administrative, and judicial branches, so far as this shall be permitted by the circumstances of military occupation.

ARTICLE III

Immediately upon the ratification of the present treaty by the Government of the United States, orders shall be transmitted to the commanders of their land and naval forces, requiring the latter (provided this treaty shall then have been ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic, and the ratifications exchanged) immediately to desist from blockading any Mexican ports and requiring the former (under the same condition) to commence, at the earliest moment practicable, withdrawing all troops of the United States then in the interior of the Mexican Republic, to points that shall be selected by common agreement, at a distance from the seaports not exceeding thirty leagues; and such evacuation of the interior of the Republic shall be completed with the least possible delay; the Mexican Government hereby binding itself to afford every facility in its power for rendering the same convenient to the troops, on their march and in their new positions, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants. In like manner orders shall be despatched to the persons in charge of the custom houses at all ports occupied by the forces of the United States, requiring them (under the same condition) immediately to deliver possession of the same to the persons authorized by the Mexican Government to receive it, together with all bonds and evidences of debt for duties on importations and on exportations, not yet fallen due. Moreover, a faithful and exact account shall be made out, showing the entire amount of all duties on imports and on exports, collected at such custom-houses, or elsewhere in Mexico, by authority of the United States, from and after the day of ratification of this treaty by the Government of the Mexican Republic; and also an account of the cost of collection; and such entire amount, deducting only the cost of collection, shall be delivered to the Mexican Government, at the city of Mexico, within three months after the exchange of ratifications.

The evacuation of the capital of the Mexican Republic by the troops of the United States, in virtue of the above stipulation, shall be completed in one month after the orders there stipulated for shall have been received by the commander of said troops, or sooner if possible.

ARTICLE IV

Immediately after the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty all castles, forts, territories, places, and possessions, which have been taken or occupied by the forces of the United States during the present war, within the limits of the Mexican Republic, as about to be established by the following article, shall be definitely restored to the said Republic, together with all the artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, and other public property, which were in the said castles and forts when captured, and which shall remain there at the time when this treaty shall be duly ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic. To this end, immediately upon the signature of this treaty, orders shall be despatched to the American officers commanding such castles and forts, securing against the removal or destruction of any such artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, or other public property. The city of Mexico, within the inner line of intrenchments surrounding the said city, is comprehended in the above stipulation, as regards the restoration of artillery, apparatus of war, & c.

The final evacuation of the territory of the Mexican Republic, by the forces of the United States, shall be completed in three months from the said exchange of ratifications, or sooner if possible; the Mexican Government hereby engaging, as in the foregoing article to use all means in its power for facilitating such evacuation, and rendering it convenient to the troops, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants.

If, however, the ratification of this treaty by both parties should not take place in time to allow the embarcation of the troops of the United States to be completed before the commencement of the sickly season, at the Mexican ports on the Gulf of Mexico, in such case a friendly arrangement shall be entered into between the General-in-Chief of the said troops and the Mexican Government, whereby healthy and otherwise suitable places, at a distance from the ports not exceeding thirty leagues, shall be designated for the residence of such troops as may not yet have embarked, until the return of the healthy season. And the space of time here referred to as, comprehending the sickly season shall be understood to extend from the first day of May to the first day of November.

All prisoners of war taken on either side, on land or on sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the exchange of ratifications of this treaty. It is also agreed that if any Mexicans should now be held as captives by any savage tribe within the limits of the United States, as about to be established by the following article, the Government of the said United States will exact the release of such captives and cause them to be restored to their country.

ARTICLE V

The boundary line between the two Republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, or Opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; from thence up the middle of that river, following the deepest channel, where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence, westwardly, along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town called Paso) to its western termination; thence, northward, along the western line of New Mexico, until it intersects the first branch of the river Gila; (or if it should not intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on the said line nearest to such branch, and thence in a direct line to the same); thence down the middle of the said branch and of the said river, until it empties into the Rio Colorado; thence across the Rio Colorado, following the division line between Upper and Lower California, to the Pacific Ocean.

The southern and western limits of New Mexico, mentioned in the article, are those laid down in the map entitled “Map of the United Mexican States, as organized and defined by various acts of the Congress of said republic, and constructed according to the best authorities. Revised edition. Published at New York, in 1847, by J. Disturnell,” of which map a copy is added to this treaty, bearing the signatures and seals of the undersigned Plenipotentiaries. And, in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California, it is agreed that the said limit shall consist of a straight line drawn from the middle of the Rio Gila, where it unites with the Colorado, to a point on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, distant one marine league due south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego, according to the plan of said port made in the year 1782 by Don Juan Pantoja, second sailing-master of the Spanish fleet, and published at Madrid in the year 1802, in the atlas to the voyage of the schooners Sutil and Mexicana; of which plan a copy is hereunto added, signed and sealed by the respective Plenipotentiaries.

In order to designate the boundary line with due precision, upon authoritative maps, and to establish upon the ground land-marks which shall show the limits of both republics, as described in the present article, the two Governments shall each appoint a commissioner and a surveyor, who, before the expiration of one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, shall meet at the port of San Diego, and proceed to run and mark the said boundary in its whole course to the mouth of the Rio Bravo del Norte. They shall keep journals and make out plans of their operations; and the result agreed upon by them shall be deemed a part of this treaty, and shall have the same force as if it were inserted therein. The two Governments will amicably agree regarding what may be necessary to these persons, and also as to their respective escorts, should such be necessary.

The boundary line established by this article shall be religiously respected by each of the two republics, and no change shall ever be made therein, except by the express and free consent of both nations, lawfully given by the General Government of each, in conformity with its own constitution.

ARTICLE VI

The vessels and citizens of the United States shall, in all time, have a free and uninterrupted passage by the Gulf of California, and by the river Colorado below its confluence with the Gila, to and from their possessions situated north of the boundary line defined in the preceding article; it being understood that this passage is to be by navigating the Gulf of California and the river Colorado, and not by land, without the express consent of the Mexican Government.

If, by the examinations which may be made, it should be ascertained to be practicable and advantageous to construct a road, canal, or railway, which should in whole or in part run upon the river Gila, or upon its right or its left bank, within the space of one marine league from either margin of the river, the Governments of both republics will form an agreement regarding its construction, in order that it may serve equally for the use and advantage of both countries.

ARTICLE VII

The river Gila, and the part of the Rio Bravo del Norte lying below the southern boundary of New Mexico, being, agreeably to the fifth article, divided in the middle between the two republics, the navigation of the Gila and of the Bravo below said boundary shall be free and common to the vessels and citizens of both countries; and neither shall, without the consent of the other, construct any work that may impede or interrupt, in whole or in part, the exercise of this right; not even for the purpose of favoring new methods of navigation. Nor shall any tax or contribution, under any denomination or title, be levied upon vessels or persons navigating the same or upon merchandise or effects transported thereon, except in the case of landing upon one of their shores. If, for the purpose of making the said rivers navigable, or for maintaining them in such state, it should be necessary or advantageous to establish any tax or contribution, this shall not be done without the consent of both Governments.

The stipulations contained in the present article shall not impair the territorial rights of either republic within its established limits.

ARTICLE VIII

Mexicans now established in territories previously belonging to Mexico, and which remain for the future within the limits of the United States, as defined by the present treaty, shall be free to continue where they now reside, or to remove at any time to the Mexican Republic, retaining the property which they possess in the said territories, or disposing thereof, and removing the proceeds wherever they please, without their being subjected, on this account, to any contribution, tax, or charge whatever.

Those who shall prefer to remain in the said territories may either retain the title and rights of Mexican citizens, or acquire those of citizens of the United States. But they shall be under the obligation to make their election within one year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty; and those who shall remain in the said territories after the expiration of that year, without having declared their intention to retain the character of Mexicans, shall be considered to have elected to become citizens of the United States.

In the said territories, property of every kind, now belonging to Mexicans not established there, shall be inviolably respected. The present owners, the heirs of these, and all Mexicans who may hereafter acquire said property by contract, shall enjoy with respect to it guarantees equally ample as if the same belonged to citizens of the United States.

ARTICLE IX

The Mexicans who, in the territories aforesaid, shall not preserve the character of citizens of the Mexican Republic, conformably with what is stipulated in the preceding article, shall be incorporated into the Union of the United States. and be admitted at the proper time (to be judged of by the Congress of the United States) to the enjoyment of all the rights of citizens of the United States, according to the principles of the Constitution; and in the mean time, shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property, and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction.

ARTICLE X

[Stricken out]

Article XI

Considering that a great part of the territories, which, by the present treaty, are to be comprehended for the future within the limits of the United States, is now occupied by savage tribes, who will hereafter be under the exclusive control of the Government of the United States, and whose incursions within the territory of Mexico would be prejudicial in the extreme, it is solemnly agreed that all such incursions shall be forcibly restrained by the Government of the United States whensoever this may be necessary; and that when they cannot be prevented, they shall be punished by the said Government, and satisfaction for the same shall be exacted all in the same way, and with equal diligence and energy, as if the same incursions were meditated or committed within its own territory, against its own citizens.

It shall not be lawful, under any pretext whatever, for any inhabitant of the United States to purchase or acquire any Mexican, or any foreigner residing in Mexico, who may have been captured by Indians inhabiting the territory of either of the two republics; nor to purchase or acquire horses, mules, cattle, or property of any kind, stolen within Mexican territory by such Indians.

And in the event of any person or persons, captured within Mexican territory by Indians, being carried into the territory of the United States, the Government of the latter engages and binds itself, in the most solemn manner, so soon as it shall know of such captives being within its territory, and shall be able so to do, through the faithful exercise of its influence and power, to rescue them and return them to their country. or deliver them to the agent or representative of the Mexican Government. The Mexican authorities will, as far as practicable, give to the Government of the United States notice of such captures; and its agents shall pay the expenses incurred in the maintenance and transmission of the rescued captives; who, in the mean time, shall be treated with the utmost hospitality by the American authorities at the place where they may be. But if the Government of the United States, before receiving such notice from Mexico, should obtain intelligence, through any other channel, of the existence of Mexican captives within its territory, it will proceed forthwith to effect their release and delivery to the Mexican agent, as above stipulated.

For the purpose of giving to these stipulations the fullest possible efficacy, thereby affording the security and redress demanded by their true spirit and intent, the Government of the United States will now and hereafter pass, without unnecessary delay, and always vigilantly enforce, such laws as the nature of the subject may require. And, finally, the sacredness of this obligation shall never be lost sight of by the said Government, when providing for the removal of the Indians from any portion of the said territories, or for its being settled by citizens of the United States; but, on the contrary, special care shall then be taken not to place its Indian occupants under the necessity of seeking new homes, by committing those invasions which the United States have solemnly obliged themselves to restrain.

ARTICLE XII

In consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States, as defined in the fifth article of the present treaty, the Government of the United States engages to pay to that of the Mexican Republic the sum of fifteen millions of dollars.

Immediately after the treaty shall have been duly ratified by the Government of the Mexican Republic, the sum of three millions of dollars shall be paid to the said Government by that of the United States, at the city of Mexico, in the gold or silver coin of Mexico. The remaining twelve millions of dollars shall be paid at the same place, and in the same coin, in annual installments of three millions of dollars each, together with interest on the same at the rate of six per centum per annum. This interest shall begin to run upon the whole sum of twelve millions from the day of the ratification of the present treaty by–the Mexican Government, and the first of the installments shall be paid-at the expiration of one year from the same day. Together with each annual installment, as it falls due, the whole interest accruing on such installment from the beginning shall also be paid.

ARTICLE XIII

The United States engage, moreover, to assume and pay to the claimants all the amounts now due them, and those hereafter to become due, by reason of the claims already liquidated and decided against the Mexican Republic, under the conventions between the two republics severally concluded on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and thirty-nine, and on the thirtieth day of January, eighteen hundred and forty-three; so that the Mexican Republic shall be absolutely exempt, for the future, from all expense whatever on account of the said claims.

ARTICLE XIV

The United States do furthermore discharge the Mexican Republic from all claims of citizens of the United States, not heretofore decided against the Mexican Government, which may have arisen previously to the date of the signature of this treaty; which discharge shall be final and perpetual, whether the said claims be rejected or be allowed by the board of commissioners provided for in the following article, and whatever shall be the total amount of those allowed.

ARTICLE XV

The United States, exonerating Mexico from all demands on account of the claims of their citizens mentioned in the preceding article, and considering them entirely and forever canceled, whatever their amount may be, undertake to make satisfaction for the same, to an amount not exceeding three and one-quarter millions of dollars. To ascertain the validity and amount of those claims, a board of commissioners shall be established by the Government of the United States, whose awards shall be final and conclusive; provided that, in deciding upon the validity of each claim, the boa shall be guided and governed by the principles and rules of decision prescribed by the first and fifth articles of the unratified convention, concluded at the city of Mexico on the twentieth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and forty-three; and in no case shall an award be made in favour of any claim not embraced by these principles and rules.

If, in the opinion of the said board of commissioners or of the claimants, any books, records, or documents, in the possession or power of the Government of the Mexican Republic, shall be deemed necessary to the just decision of any claim, the commissioners, or the claimants through them, shall, within such period as Congress may designate, make an application in writing for the same, addressed to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs, to be transmitted by the Secretary of State of the United States; and the Mexican Government engages, at the earliest possible moment after the receipt of such demand, to cause any of the books, records, or documents so specified, which shall be in their possession or power (or authenticated copies or extracts of the same), to be transmitted to the said Secretary of State, who shall immediately deliver them over to the said board of commissioners; provided that no such application shall be made by or at the instance of any claimant, until the facts which it is expected to prove by such books, records, or documents, shall have been stated under oath or affirmation.

ARTICLE XVI

Each of the contracting parties reserves to itself the entire right to fortify whatever point within its territory it may judge proper so to fortify for its security.

ARTICLE XVII

The treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, concluded at the city of Mexico, on the fifth day of April, A. D. 1831, between the United States of America and the United Mexican States, except the additional article, and except so far as the stipulations of the said treaty may be incompatible with any stipulation contained in the present treaty, is hereby revived for the period of eight years from the day of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, with the same force and virtue as if incorporated therein; it being understood that each of the contracting parties reserves to itself the right, at any time after the said period of eight years shall have expired, to terminate the same by giving one year’s notice of such intention to the other party.

ARTICLE XVIII

All supplies whatever for troops of the United States in Mexico, arriving at ports in the occupation of such troops previous to the final evacuation thereof, although subsequently to the restoration of the custom-houses at such ports, shall be entirely exempt from duties and charges of any kind; the Government of the United States hereby engaging and pledging its faith to establish and vigilantly to enforce, all possible guards for securing the revenue of Mexico, by preventing the importation, under cover of this stipulation, of any articles other than such, both in kind and in quantity, as shall really be wanted for the use and consumption of the forces of the United States during the time they may remain in Mexico. To this end it shall be the duty of all officers and agents of the United States to denounce to the Mexican authorities at the respective ports any attempts at a fraudulent abuse of this stipulation, which they may know of, or may have reason to suspect, and to give to such authorities all the aid in their power with regard thereto; and every such attempt, when duly proved and established by sentence of a competent tribunal, They shall be punished by the confiscation of the property so attempted to be fraudulently introduced.

ARTICLE XIX

With respect to all merchandise, effects, and property whatsoever, imported into ports of Mexico, whilst in the occupation of the forces of the United States, whether by citizens of either republic, or by citizens or subjects of any neutral nation, the following rules shall be observed:

(1) All such merchandise, effects, and property, if imported previously to the restoration of the custom-houses to the Mexican authorities, as stipulated for in the third article of this treaty, shall be exempt from confiscation, although the importation of the same be prohibited by the Mexican tariff.

(2) The same perfect exemption shall be enjoyed by all such merchandise, effects, and property, imported subsequently to the restoration of the custom-houses, and previously to the sixty days fixed in the following article for the coming into force of the Mexican tariff at such ports respectively; the said merchandise, effects, and property being, however, at the time of their importation, subject to the payment of duties, as provided for in the said following article.

(3) All merchandise, effects, and property described in the two rules foregoing shall, during their continuance at the place of importation, and upon their leaving such place for the interior, be exempt from all duty, tax, or imposts of every kind, under whatsoever title or denomination. Nor shall they be there subject to any charge whatsoever upon the sale thereof.

(4) All merchandise, effects, and property, described in the first and second rules, which shall have been removed to any place in the interior, whilst such place was in the occupation of the forces of the United States, shall, during their continuance therein, be exempt from all tax upon the sale or consumption thereof, and from every kind of impost or contribution, under whatsoever title or denomination.

(5) But if any merchandise, effects, or property, described in the first and second rules, shall be removed to any place not occupied at the time by the forces of the United States, they shall, upon their introduction into such place, or upon their sale or consumption there, be subject to the same duties which, under the Mexican laws, they would be required to pay in such cases if they had been imported in time of peace, through the maritime custom-houses, and had there paid the duties conformably with the Mexican tariff.

(6) The owners of all merchandise, effects, or property, described in the first and second rules, and existing in any port of Mexico, shall have the right to reship the same, exempt from all tax, impost, or contribution whatever.

With respect to the metals, or other property, exported from any Mexican port whilst in the occupation of the forces of the United States, and previously to the restoration of the custom-house at such port, no person shall be required by the Mexican authorities, whether general or state, to pay any tax, duty, or contribution upon any such exportation, or in any manner to account for the same to the said authorities.

ARTICLE XX

Through consideration for the interests of commerce generally, it is agreed, that if less than sixty days should elapse between the date of the signature of this treaty and the restoration of the custom houses, conformably with the stipulation in the third article, in such case all merchandise, effects and property whatsoever, arriving at the Mexican ports after the restoration of the said custom-houses, and previously to the expiration of sixty days after the day of signature of this treaty, shall be admitted to entry; and no other duties shall be levied thereon than the duties established by the tariff found in force at such custom-houses at the time of the restoration of the same. And to all such merchandise, effects, and property, the rules established by the preceding article shall apply.

ARTICLE XXI

If unhappily any disagreement should hereafter arise between the Governments of the two republics, whether with respect to the interpretation of any stipulation in this treaty, or with respect to any other particular concerning the political or commercial relations of the two nations, the said Governments, in the name of those nations, do promise to each other that they will endeavour, in the most sincere and earnest manner, to settle the differences so arising, and to preserve the state of peace and friendship in which the two countries are now placing themselves, using, for this end, mutual representations and pacific negotiations. And if, by these means, they should not be enabled to come to an agreement, a resort shall not, on this account, be had to reprisals, aggression, or hostility of any kind, by the one republic against the other, until the Government of that which deems itself aggrieved shall have maturely considered, in the spirit of peace and good neighbourship, whether it would not be better that such difference should be settled by the arbitration of commissioners appointed on each side, or by that of a friendly nation. And should such course be proposed by either party, it shall be acceded to by the other, unless deemed by it altogether incompatible with the nature of the difference, or the circumstances of the case.

ARTICLE XXII

If (which is not to be expected, and which God forbid) war should unhappily break out between the two republics, they do now, with a view to such calamity, solemnly pledge themselves to each other and to the world to observe the following rules; absolutely where the nature of the subject permits, and as closely as possible in all cases where such absolute observance shall be impossible:

(1) The merchants of either republic then residing in the other shall be allowed to remain twelve months (for those dwelling in the interior), and six months (for those dwelling at the seaports) to collect their debts and settle their affairs; during which periods they shall enjoy the same protection, and be on the same footing, in all respects, as the citizens or subjects of the most friendly nations; and, at the expiration thereof, or at any time before, they shall have full liberty to depart, carrying off all their effects without molestation or hindrance, conforming therein to the same laws which the citizens or subjects of the most friendly nations are required to conform to. Upon the entrance of the armies of either nation into the territories of the other, women and children, ecclesiastics, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of the earth, merchants, artisans, manufacturers, and fishermen, unarmed and inhabiting unfortified towns, villages, or places, and in general all persons whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind, shall be allowed to continue their respective employments, unmolested in their persons. Nor shall their houses or goods be burnt or otherwise destroyed, nor their cattle taken, nor their fields wasted, by the armed force into whose power, by the events of war, they may happen to fall; but if the necessity arise to take anything from them for the use of such armed force, the same shall be paid for at an equitable price. All churches, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, and other establishments for charitable and beneficent purposes, shall be respected, and all persons connected with the same protected in the discharge of their duties, and the pursuit of their vocations.

(2). In order that the fate of prisoners of war may be alleviated all such practices as those of sending them into distant, inclement or unwholesome districts, or crowding them into close and noxious places, shall be studiously avoided. They shall not be confined in dungeons, prison ships, or prisons; nor be put in irons, or bound or otherwise restrained in the use of their limbs. The officers shall enjoy liberty on their paroles, within convenient districts, and have comfortable quarters; and the common soldiers shall be dispose( in cantonments, open and extensive enough for air and exercise and lodged in barracks as roomy and good as are provided by the party in whose power they are for its own troops. But if any office shall break his parole by leaving the district so assigned him, or any other prisoner shall escape from the limits of his cantonment after they shall have been designated to him, such individual, officer, or other prisoner, shall forfeit so much of the benefit of this article as provides for his liberty on parole or in cantonment. And if any officer so breaking his parole or any common soldier so escaping from the limits assigned him, shall afterwards be found in arms previously to his being regularly exchanged, the person so offending shall be dealt with according to the established laws of war. The officers shall be daily furnished, by the party in whose power they are, with as many rations, and of the same articles, as are allowed either in kind or by commutation, to officers of equal rank in its own army; and all others shall be daily furnished with such ration as is allowed to a common soldier in its own service; the value of all which supplies shall, at the close of the war, or at periods to be agreed upon between the respective commanders, be paid by the other party, on a mutual adjustment of accounts for the subsistence of prisoners; and such accounts shall not be mingled with or set off against any others, nor the balance due on them withheld, as a compensation or reprisal for any cause whatever, real or pretended Each party shall be allowed to keep a commissary of prisoners, appointed by itself, with every cantonment of prisoners, in possession of the other; which commissary shall see the prisoners as often as he pleases; shall be allowed to receive, exempt from all duties a taxes, and to distribute, whatever comforts may be sent to them by their friends; and shall be free to transmit his reports in open letters to the party by whom he is employed. And it is declared that neither the pretense that war dissolves all treaties, nor any other whatever, shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for which it is provided; and, during which, its stipulations are to be as sacredly observed as the most acknowledged obligations under the law of nature or nations.

ARTICLE XXIII

This treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and by the President of the Mexican Republic, with the previous approbation of its general Congress; and the ratifications shall be exchanged in the City of Washington, or at the seat of Government of Mexico, in four months from the date of the signature hereof, or sooner if practicable. In faith whereof we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement, and have hereunto affixed our seals respectively. Done in quintuplicate, at the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo, on the second day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight.

 

N. P. TRIST
LUIS P. CUEVAS
BERNARDO COUTO
MIGL. ATRISTAIN

THE WESTMINSTER CONFESSION OF FAITH (1646)

THE WESTMINSTER
CONFESSION OF FAITH
(1646)


Chapter I. Of the holy Scripture
Chapter II. Of God, and of the Holy Trinity
Chapter III. Of God’s Eternal Decree
Chapter IV. Of Creation
Chapter V. Of Providence
Chapter VI. Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof
Chapter VII. Of God’s Covenant with Man
Chapter VIII. Of Christ the Mediator
Chapter IX. Of Free Will
Chapter X. Of Effectual Calling
Chapter XI. Of Justification
Chapter XII. Of Adoption
Chapter XIII. Of Sanctification
Chapter XIV. Of Saving Faith
Chapter XV. Of Repentance Unto Life
Chapter XVI. Of Good Works
Chapter XVII. Of The Perseverance of the Saints
Chapter XVIII. Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation
Chapter XIX. Of the Law of God
Chapter XX. Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience
Chapter XXI. Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath-day
Chapter XXII. Of Lawful Oaths and Vows
Chapter XXIII. Of the Civil Magistrate
Chapter XXIV. Of Marriage and Divorce
Chapter XXV. Of the Church
Chapter XXVI. Of the Communion of the Saints
Chapter XXVII. Of the Sacraments
Chapter XXVIII. Of Baptism
Chapter XXIX. Of the Lord’s Supper
Chapter XXX. Of Church Censures
Chapter XXXI. Of Synods and Councils
Chapter XXXII. Of the State of Man After Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead
Chapter XXXIII. Of the Last Judgment

CHAPTER I.

Of the holy Scripture.

I. Although the light of nature, and the works of creation and providence, do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men inexcusable; yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of his will, which is necessary unto salvation; therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal himself, and to declare that his will unto his Church; and afterwards for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing; which maketh the holy Scripture to be most necessary; those former ways of God’s revealing his will unto his people being now ceased.

II. Under the name of holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are now contained all the Books of the Old and New Testament, which are these:

 

Of the Old Testament

Genesis Ecclesiastes
Exodus The Song of Songs
Leviticus Isaiah
Numbers Jeremiah
Deuteronomy Lamentations
Joshua Ezekiel
Judges Daniel
Ruth Hosea
I Samuel Joel
II Samuel Amos
I Kings Obadiah
II Kings Jonah
I Chronicles Micah
II Chronicles Nahum
Ezra Habakkuk
Nehemiah Zephaniah
Esther Haggai
Job Zechariah
Psalms Malachi
Proverbs
Of the New Testament

The Gospels according to Thessalonians II
Matthew Timothy I
Mark Timothy II
Luke Titus
John Philemon
The Acts of the Apostles The Epistle to the
Paul’s Epistles to the Romans Hebrews
Corinthians I The Epistle of James
Corinthians II The First and Second
Galatians Epistles of Peter
Ephesians The First, Second, and
Philippians Third Epistles of John
Colossians The Epistle of Jude
Thessalonians I The Revelation

All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and life.

III. The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the Canon of Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings.

IV. The authority of the holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or Church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the Author thereof; and therefore it is to be received, because it is the Word of God.

V. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to an high and reverent esteem of the holy Scripture; and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation, the many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God; yet, notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.

VI. The whole counsel of God, concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man’s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men. Nevertheless we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word; and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God, and the government of the Church, common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word, which are always to be observed.

VII. All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all; yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.

VIII. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God who have right unto, and interest in, the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and, through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope.

IX. The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture, is the Scripture itself; and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it may be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.

X. The Supreme Judge, by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.

CHAPTER II.

Of God, and of the Holy Trinity.

I. There is but one only living and true God, who is infinite in being and perfection, a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or passions, immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible, almighty, most wise, most holy, most free, most absolute, working all things according to the counsel of his own immutable and most righteous will, for his own glory, most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; the rewarder of them that diligently seek him; and withal most just and terrible in his judgments; hating all sin; and who will by no means clear the guilty.

II. God hath all life, glory, goodness, blessedness, in and of himself; and is alone in and unto himself all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures which he hath made, nor deriving any glory from them, but only manifesting his own glory in, by, unto, and upon them; he is the alone foundation of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom, are all things; and hath most sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, for them, or upon them, whatsoever himself pleaseth. In his sight all things are open and manifest; his knowledge is infinite, infallible, and independent upon the creature; so as nothing is to him contingent or uncertain. He is most holy in all his counsels, in all his works, and in all his commands. To him is due from angels and men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or obedience he is pleased to require of them.

III. In the unity of the Godhead there be three Persons of one substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the Son is eternally begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.

CHAPTER III.

Of God’s Eternal Decree.

I. God from all eternity did by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass; yet so as thereby neither is God the author of sin; nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established.

II. Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass, upon all supposed conditions; yet hath he not decreed any thing because he foresaw it as future, as that which would come to pass, upon such conditions.

III. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others foreordained to everlasting death.

IV. These angels and men, thus predestinated and foreordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed; and their number is so certain and definite that it can not be either increased or diminished.

V. Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to his eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of his will, hath chosen in Christ, unto everlasting glory, out of his free grace and love alone, without any foresight of faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving him thereunto; and all to the praise of his glorious grace.

VI. As God hath appointed the elect unto glory, so hath he, by the eternal and most free purpose of his will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore they who are elected being fallen in Adam are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit working in due season; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by his power through faith unto salvation. Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only.

VII. The rest of mankind, God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of his own will, whereby he extendeth or withholdeth mercy as he pleaseth, for the glory of his sovereign power over his creatures, to pass by, and to ordain them to dishonor and wrath for their sin, to the praise of his glorious justice.

VIII. The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be handled with special prudence and care, that men attending to the will of God revealed in his Word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their eternal election. So shall this doctrine afford matter of praise, reverence, and admiration of God; and of humility, diligence, and abundant consolation to all that sincerely obey the gospel.

CHAPTER IV.

Of Creation.

I. It pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, for the manifestation of the glory of his eternal power, wisdom, and goodness, in the beginning, to create or make of nothing the world, and all things therein, whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good.

II. After God had made all other creatures, he created man, male and female, with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness after his own image, having the law of God written in their hearts, and power to fulfill it; and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject unto change. Besides this law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; which while they kept were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures.

CHAPTER V.

Of Providence.

I. God, the great Creator of all things, doth uphold, direct dispose, and govern all creatures, actions, and things, from the greatest even to the least, by his most wise and holy providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, and the free and immutable counsel of his own will, to the praise of the glory of his wisdom, power, justice, goodness, and mercy.

II. Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, the first cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly, yet, by the same providence, he ordereth them to fall out according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.

III. God, in his ordinary providence, maketh use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at his pleasure.

IV. The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God, so far manifest themselves in his providence, that it extendeth itself even to the first Fall, and all other sins of angels and men, and that not by a bare permission, but such as hath joined with it a most wise and powerful bounding, and otherwise ordering and governing of them, in a manifold dispensation, to his own holy ends; yet so, as the sinfulness thereof proceedeth only from the creature, and not from God; who being most holy and righteous, neither is nor can be the author or approver of sin.

V. The most wise, righteous, and gracious God, doth oftentimes leave for a season his own children to manifold temptations and the corruption of their own hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to discover unto them the hidden strength of corruption and deceitfulness of their hearts, that they may be humbled; and to raise them to a more close and constant dependence for their support upon himself, and to make them more watchful against all future occasions of sin, and for sundry other just and holy ends.

VI. As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God, as a righteous judge, for former sins, doth blind and harden; from them he not only withholdeth his grace, whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings, and wrought upon their hearts; but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which they had; and exposeth them to such objects as their corruption makes occasion of sin; and withal, gives them over to their own lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of Satan; whereby it comes to pass that they harden themselves, even under those means which God useth for the softening of others.

VII. As the providence of God doth, in general, reach to all creatures, so, after a most special manner, it taketh care of his Church, and disposeth all things to the good thereof.

CHAPTER VI.

Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of

the Punishment thereof.

I. Our first parents, begin seduced by the subtlety and temptations of Satan, sinned in eating the forbidden fruit. This their sin God was pleased, according to his wise and holy counsel, to permit, having purposed to order it to his own glory.

II. By this sin they fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and so became dead in sin, and wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

III. They being the root of mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by original generation.

IV. From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do proceed all actual transgressions.

V. This corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain in those that are regenerated; and although it be through Christ pardoned and mortified, yet both itself, and all the motions thereof, are truly and properly sin.

VI. Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the righteous law of God, and contrary thereunto, doth, in its own nature, bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God, and curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all miseries spiritual, temporal, and eternal.

CHAPTER VII

Of God’s Covenant with Man.

I. The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto him as their Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of him, as their blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescension on God’s part, which he hath been pleased to express by way of covenant.

II. The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience.

III. Man by his fall having made himself incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a second, commonly called the covenant of grace: wherein he freely offered unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life, his Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.

IV. This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in the Scripture by the name of a testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ, the testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed.

V. This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel: under the law it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all fore-signifying Christ to come, which were for that time sufficient and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation, and is called the Old Testament.

VI. Under the gospel, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed, are the preaching of the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper; which, though fewer in number, and administered with more simplicity and less outward glory, yet in them it is held forth in more fullness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy, to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles; and is called the New Testament. There are not, therefore, two covenants of grace differing in substance, but one and the same under various dispensations.

CHAPTER VIII.

Of Christ the Mediator.

I. It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only-begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and men, the prophet, priest, and king; the head and Savior of the Church, the heir or all things, and judge of the world; unto whom he did, from all eternity, give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.

II. The Son of God, the second Person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance, and equal with the Father, did, when the fullness of time was come, take upon him man’s nature, with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof; yet without sin: being conceived by he power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, of her substance. So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion. Which person is very God and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.

III. The Lord Jesus in his human nature thus united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure; having in him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, in whom it pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell: to the end that being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth, he might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety. Which office he took not unto himself, but was thereunto called by his Father; who put all power and judgment into his hand, and gave him commandment to execute the same.

IV. This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake, which, that he might discharge, he was made under the law, and did perfectly fulfill it; endured most grievous torments immediately in his soul, and most painful sufferings in his body; was crucified and died; was buried, and remained under the power of death, yet saw no corruption. On the third day he arose from the dead, with the same body in which he suffered; with which also he ascended into heaven, and there sitteth at the right hand of his Father, making intercession; and shall return to judge men and angels, at the end of the world.

V. The Lord Jesus, by his perfect obedience and sacrifice of himself, which he through the eternal Spirit once offered up unto God, hath fully satisfied the justice of his Father; and purchased not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father hath given unto him.

VI. Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ till after his incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits thereof were communicated into the elect, in all ages successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices wherein he was revealed, and signified to be the seed of the woman, which should bruise the serpent’s head, and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world, being yesterday and today the same and for ever.

VII. Christ, in the work of mediation, acteth according to both natures; by each nature doing that which is proper to itself; yet by reason of the unity of the person, that which is proper to one nature is sometimes, in Scripture, attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.

VIII. To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption, he doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same; making intercession for them, and revealing unto them, in and by the Word, the mysteries of salvation; effectually persuading them by his Spirit to believe and obey; and governing their hearts by his Word and Spirit; overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdom, in such manner and ways as are most consonant to his wonderful and unsearchable dispensation.

CHAPTER IX.

Of Free Will.

I. God hath endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that is neither forced, nor by any absolute necessity of nature determined to good or evil.

II. Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that which is good and well-pleasing to God; but yet mutably, so that he might fall from it.

III. Man, by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation; so as a natural man, being altogether averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto.

IV. When God converts a sinner and translates him into the state of grace, he freeth him from his natural bondage under sin, and, by his grace alone, enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good; yet so as that, by reason of his remaining corruption, he doth not perfectly, nor only, will that which is good, but doth also will that which is evil.

V. The will of man is made perfectly and immutable free to good alone, in the state of glory only.

CHAPTER X.

Of Effectual Calling.

I. All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, and those only, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call, by his Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ: enlightening their minds, spiritually and savingly, to understand the things of God, taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them an heart of flesh; renewing their wills, and by his almighty power determining them to that which is good; and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ; yet so as they come most freely, being made willing by his grace.

II. This effectual call is of God’s free and special grace alone, not from any thing at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive therein, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it.

III. Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, who worketh when, and where, and how he pleaseth. So also are all other elect persons who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.

IV. Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word, and may have some common operations of the Spirit, yet they never truly come to Christ, and therefore can not be saved: much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, and the law of that religion they do profess; and to assert and maintain that they may is without warrant of the Word of God.

CHAPTER XI.

Of Justification.

I. Those whom God effectually calleth, he also freely justifieth: not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous; not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone; not by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness; but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, they receiving and resting on him and his righteousness by faith; which faith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God.

II. Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and his righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification; yet is it not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but worketh by love.

III. Christ, by his obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of all those that are thus justified, and did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction of his Father’s justice in their behalf. Yet inasmuch as he was given by the Father for them, and his obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead, and both freely, not for any thing in them, their justification is only of free grace, that both the exact justice and rich grace of God might be glorified in the justification of sinners.

IV. God did, from all eternity, decree to justify the elect; and Christ did, in the fullness of time, die for their sins and rise again for their justification; nevertheless they are not justified until the Holy Spirit doth, in due time, actually apply Christ unto them.

V. God doth continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified; and although they can never fall from the state of justification, yet they may by their sins fall under God’s Fatherly displeasure, and not have the light of his countenance restored unto them, until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance.

VI. The justification of believers under the Old Testament was, in all these respect, one and the same with the justification of believers under the New Testament.

CHAPTER XII.

Of Adoption.

All those that are justified, God vouchsafeth, in and for his only Son Jesus Christ, to make partakers of the grace of adoption: by which they are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and privileges of the children of God; have his name put upon them; receive the Spirit of adoption; have access to the throne of grace with boldness; are enabled to cry, Abba, Father; are pitied, protected, provided for, and chastened by his as by a father; yet never cast off, but sealed to the day of redemption, and inherit the promises, as heirs of everlasting salvation.

CHAPTER XIII.

Of Sanctification.

I. They who are effectually called and regenerated, having a new heart and a new spirit created in them, are further sanctified, really and personally, through the virtue of Christ’s death and resurrection, by his Word and Spirit dwelling in them; the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed, and the several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mortified, and they more and more quickened and strengthened, in all saving graces, to the practice of true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

II. This sanctification is throughout in the whole man, yet imperfect in this life: there abideth still some remnants of corruption in every part, whence ariseth a continual and irreconcilable war, the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.

III. In which war, although the remaining corruption for a time may much prevail, yet, through the continual supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regenerate part doth overcome: and so the saints grow in grace, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

CHAPTER XIV.

Of Saving Faith.

I. The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the saving of their souls, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts; and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word: by which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened.

II. By this faith, a Christian believeth to be true whatsoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of god himself speaking therein; and acteth differently, upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth; yielding obedience to the commands, trembling at the threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come. But the principle acts of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.

III. This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong; may be often and many ways assailed and weakened, but gets the victory; growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ, who is both the author and finisher of our faith.

CHAPTER XV.

Of Repentance Unto Life.

I. Repentance unto life is an evangelical grace, the doctrine whereof is to be preached by every minister of the gospel, as well as that of faith in Christ.

II. By it a sinner, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger, but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, as contrary to the holy nature and righteous law of God, and upon the apprehension of his mercy in Christ to such as are penitent, so grieves for, and hates his sins, as to turn from them all unto God, purposing and endeavoring to walk with him in all the ways of his commandments.

III. Although repentance be not to be rested in as any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon thereof, which is the act of God’s free grace in Christ; yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that none may expect pardon without it.

IV. As there is no sin so small but it deserves damnation; so there is no sin so great that it can bring damnation upon those who truly repent.

V. Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man’s duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins, particularly.

VI. As every man is bound to make private confession of his sins to God, praying for the pardon thereof, upon which, and the forsaking of them, he shall find mercy: so he that scandalizeth his brother, or the Church of Christ, ought to be willing, by a private or public confession and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance to those that are offended; who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in love to receive him.

CHAPTER XVI.

Of Good Works.

I. Good works are only such as God hath commanded in his holy Word, and not such as, without the warrant thereof, are devised by men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretense of good intention.

II. These good works, done in obedience to God’s commandments, are the fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith: and by them believers manifest their thankfulness, strengthen their assurance, edify their brethren, adorn the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify God, whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus thereunto, that, having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end, eternal life.

III. Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves, but wholly from the Spirit of Christ. And that they may be enabled thereunto, besides the graces they have already received, there is required an actual influence of the same Holy Spirit to work in them to will and to do of his good pleasure; yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless upon a special motion of the Spirit; but they ought to be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them.

IV. They, who in their obedience, attain to the greatest height which is possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate and to do more than God requires, that they fall short of much which in duty they are bound to do.

V. We can not, by our best works, merit pardon of sin, or eternal life, at the hand of God, because of the great disproportion that is between them and the glory to come, and the infinite distance that is between us and God, whom by them we can neither profit, nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins; but when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants: and because, as they are good, they proceed from his Spirit; and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection that they can not endure the severity of God’s judgment.

VI. Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted through Christ, their good works also are accepted in him, not as though they were in this life wholly unblamable and unreprovable in God’s sight; but that he, looking upon them in his Son, is pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, although accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections.

VII. Works done by unregenerate men, although for the matter of them they may be things which God commands, and of good use both to themselves and others; yet, because they proceed not from a heart purified by faith; nor are done in a right manner, according to the Word; nor to a right end, the glory of God; they are therefore sinful and can not please God, or make a man meet to receive grace from God. And yet their neglect of them is more sinful, and displeasing unto God.

CHAPTER XVII.

Of The Perseverance of the Saints.

I. They whom God hath accepted in his Beloved, effectually called and sanctified by his Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace; but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved.

II. This perseverance of the saints depends, not upon their own free-will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ; the abiding of the Spirit and of the seed of God within them; and the nature of the covenant of grace; from all which ariseth also the certainty and infallibility thereof.

III. Nevertheless they may, through the temptations of Satan and of the world, the prevalancy of corruption remaining in them, and the neglect of the means of their perseverance, fall into grievous sins; ad for a time continue therein: whereby they incur God’s displeasure, and grieve his Holy Spirit; come to be deprived of some measure of their graces and comforts; have their hearts hardened, and their consciences wounded; hurt and prevalancy others, and bring temporal judgments upon themselves.

CHAPTER XVIII.

Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation.

I. Although hypocrites, and other unregenerate men, may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions: of being in the favor of God and estate of salvation; which hope of theirs shall perish: yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love him in sincerity, endeavoring to walk in all good conscience before him, may in this life be certainly assured that they are in a state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God: which hope shall never make them ashamed.

II. This certainty is not a bare conjectural and probably persuasion, grounded upon a fallible hope; but an infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the divine truth of the promises of salvation, the inward evidence of those graces unto which these promises are made, the testimony of the Spirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of God; which Spirit is the earnest of our inheritance, whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption.

III. This infallible assurance doth not so belong to the essence of faith but that a true believer may wait long and conflict with many difficulties before he be partaker of it: yet, being enabled by the Spirit to know the things which are freely given him of God, he may, without extraordinary revelation, in the right use of ordinary means, attain thereunto. And therefore it is the duty of everyone to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure; that thereby his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance: so far is it from inclining men to looseness.

IV. True believers may have the assurance of their salvation divers ways shaken, diminished, and intermitted; as, by negligence in preserving of it; by falling into some special sin, which woundeth the conscience, and grieveth the Spirit; by some sudden or vehement temptation; by God’s withdrawing the light of his countenance and suffering even such as fear him to walk in darkness and to have no light: yet are they never utterly destitute of that seed of God, and life of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that sincerity of heart and conscience of duty, out of which, by the operation of the Spirit, this assurance may in due time be revived, and by the which, in the meantime, they are supported from utter despair.

CHAPTER XIX.

Of the Law of God.

I. God gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, by which he bound him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it; and endued him with power and ability to keep it.

II. This law, after his Fall, continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness; and, as such, was delivered by God upon mount Sinai in ten commandments, and written in two tables; the first four commandments containing our duty toward God, and the other six our duty to man.

III. Besides this law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a Church under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, his graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits; and partly holding forth divers instructions of moral duties. All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated under the New Testament.

IV. To them also, as a body politic, he gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the state of that people, not obliging any other, now, further than the general equity thereof may require.

V. The moral law doth forever bind all, as well justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof; and that not only in regard of the matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the Creator who gave it. Neither doth Christ in the gospel any way dissolve, but much strengthen, this obligation.

VI. Although true believers be not under the law as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified or condemned; yet is it of great use to them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life, informing them of the will of God and their duty, it directs and binds them to walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives; so as, examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin; together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ, and the perfection of his obedience. It is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin, and the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve, and what afflictions in this life they may expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law. The promises of it, in like manner, show them God’s approbation of obedience, and what blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof; although not as due to them by the law as a covenant of works: so as a man’s doing good, and refraining from evil, because the law encourageth to the one, and deterreth from the other, is no evidence of his being under the law, and not under grace.

VII. Neither are the forementioned uses of the law contrary to the grace of the gospel, but do sweetly comply with it: the Spirit of Christ subduing and enabling the will of man to do that freely and cheerfully, which the will of God, revealed in the law, requireth to be done.

CHAPTER XX.

Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience.

I. The liberty which Christ hath purchased for believers under the gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of God, the curse of the moral law; and in their being delivered from this present evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion of sin, from the evil of afflictions, the sting of death, the victory of the grave, and everlasting damnation; as also in their free access to God, and their yielding obedience unto him, not out of slavish fear, but a childlike love, and a willing mind. All which were common also to believers under the law; but under the New Testament the liberty of Christians is further enlarged in their freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which the Jewish Church was subjected; and in greater boldness of access to the throne of grace, and in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God, than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of.

II. God alone is Lord of the conscience, and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men which are in any thing contrary to his Word, or beside it in matters of faith or worship. So that to believe such doctrines, or to obey such commandments out of conscience, is to betray true liberty of conscience; and the requiring an implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy liberty of conscience, and reason also.

III. They who, upon pretense of Christian liberty, do practice any sin, or cherish any lust, do thereby destroy the end of Christian liberty; which is, that, being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.

IV. And because the powers which God hath ordained, and the liberty which Christ hath purchased, are not intended by God to destroy, but mutually to uphold and preserve one another; they who, upon pretence of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of God. And, for their publishing of such opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as are contrary to the light of nature, or to the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning faith, worship, or conversation; or, to the power of godliness; or, such erroneous opinions or practices, as either in their own nature, or in the manner of publishing or maintaining them, are destructive to the external peace and order which Christ hath established in the Church, they may lawfully be called to account, and proceeded against by the censures of the Church, and by the power of the civil magistrate.

CHAPTER XXI.

Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath-day.

I. The light of nature showeth that there is a God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over all; is good, and doeth good unto all; and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served with all the hearth, and with all the soul, and with all the might. But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by himself, and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture.

II. Religious worship is to be given to God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and to him alone: not to angels, saints, or any other creature: and since the Fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone.

III. Prayer with thanksgiving, being one special part of religious worship, is by God required of all men; and that it may be accepted, it is to be made in the name of the Son, by the help of his Holy Spirit, according to his will, with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and, if vocal, in a known tongue.

IV. Prayer is to be made for things lawful, and for all sorts of men living, or that shall live hereafter; but not for the dead, nor for those of whom it may be known that they have sinned the sin unto death.

V. The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear; the sound preaching, and conscionable hearing of the Word, in obedience unto God with understanding, faith, and reverence; singing of psalms with grace in the heart; as, also, the due administration and worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God: besides religious oaths, and vows, solemn fastings, and thanksgivings upon special occasion; which are, in their several times and seasons, to be used in an holy and religious manner.

VI. Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship, is now, under the gospel, either tied unto, or made more acceptable to, any place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed: but God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth; as in private families daily, and in secret each one by himself, so more solemnly in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or willfully to be neglected or forsaken, when God, by his Word or providence, calleth thereunto.

VII. As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in his Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in Scripture is called the Lord’s Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath.

VIII. This Sabbath is to be kept holy unto the Lord when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe an holy rest all the day from their own works, words, and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations; but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of his worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.

CHAPTER XXII.

Of Lawful Oaths and Vows.

I. A lawful oath is a part of religious worship, wherein upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calleth God to witness what he asserteth or promiseth; and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth.

II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence; therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred. Yet, as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old, so a lawful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be taken.

III. Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.

IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation. It can not oblige to sin; but in any thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man’s own hurt: nor is it to be violated, although made to heretics or infidels.

V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness.

VI. It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone: and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto.

VII. No man may vow to do any thing forbidden in the Word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance of which he hath no promise or ability from God. In which respects, monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Of the Civil Magistrate.

I. God, the Supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory and the public good; and to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.

II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate when called thereunto; in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth, so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.

III. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven: yet he hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire; that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed; all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed; and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed. For the better effecting whereof, he hath power to call synods, to be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God.

IV. It is the duty of the people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute and other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience’ sake. Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make void the magistrate’s just and legal authority, nor free the people from their obedience to him: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted; much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretense whatsoever.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Of Marriage and Divorce.

I. Marriage is to be between one man and one woman: neither is it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband at the same time.

II. Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife; for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the Church with an holy seed; and for preventing of uncleanness.

III. It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry who are able with judgment to give their consent. Yet it is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord. And, therefore, such as profess the true reformed religion should not marry with infidels, Papists, or other idolaters: neither should such as are godly be unequally yoked, by marrying with such as are notoriously wicked in their life, or maintain damnable heresies.

IV. Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden in the Word; nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any law of man, or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together, as man and wife. The man may not marry any of his wife’s kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own, nor the woman of her husband’s kindred nearer in blood than of her own.

V. Adultery or fornication, committed after a contract, being detected before marriage, giveth just occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that contract. In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue out a divorce, and after the divorce to marry another, as if the offending party were dead.

VI. Although the corruption of man be such as is apt to study arguments, unduly to put asunder those whom God hath joined together in marriage; yet nothing but adultery, or such willful desertion as can no way be remedied by the Church or civil magistrate, is cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage; wherein a public and orderly course of proceeding is to be observed; and the persons concerned in it, not left to their own wills and discretion in their own case.

CHAPTER XXV.

Of the Church.

I. The catholic or universal Church, which is invisible, consists of the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one, under Christ the head thereof; and is the spouse, the body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all.

II. The visible Church, which is also catholic or universal under the Gospel (not confined to one nation, as before under the law), consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion; and of their children: and is the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, the house and family of God, out of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation.

III. Unto this catholic and visible Church, Christ hath given the ministry, oracles, and ordinances of God, for the gathering and perfecting of the saints, in this life, to the end of the world; and doth by his own presence and Spirit, according to his promise, make them effectual thereunto.

IV. This catholic Church hath been sometimes more, sometimes less, visible. And particular Churches, which are members thereof, are more or less pure, according as the doctrine of the gospel is taught and embraced, ordinances administered, and public worship performed more or less purely in them.

V. The purest Churches under heaven are subject both to mixture and error: and some have so degenerated as to become apparently no Churches of Christ. Nevertheless, there shall be always a Church on earth, to worship God according to his will.

VI. There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ: nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the Church against Christ, and all that is called God.

CHAPTER XXVI.

Of the Communion of the Saints.

I. All saints that are united to Jesus Christ their head, by his Spirit and by faith, have fellowship with him in his graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory: and, being united to one another in love, they have communion in each other’s gifts and graces, and are obliged to the performance of such duties, public and private, as to conduce to their mutual good, both in the inward and outward man.

II. Saints by profession, are bound to maintain an holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God, and in performing such other spiritual services as tend to their mutual edification; as also in relieving each other in outward things, according to their several abilities and necessities. Which communion, as God offereth opportunity, is to be extended unto all those who, in every place, call upon the name of the Lord Jesus.

III. This communion which the saints have with Christ, doth not make them in any wise partakers of the substance of the Godhead, or to be equal with Christ in any respect: either of which to affirm, is impious and blasphemous. Nor doth their communion one with another as saints, take away or infringe the title or property which each man hath in his goods and possessions.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Of the Sacraments.

I. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace, immediately instituted by God, to represent Christ and his benefits, and to confirm our interest in him: as also to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the Church, and the rest of the world; and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to his Word.

II. There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified; whence it comes to pass that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments, rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither doth the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that doth administer it, but upon the work of the Spirit, and the word of institution, which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.

IV. There be only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the gospels, that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord: neither or which may be dispensed by any but a minister of the Word, lawfully ordained.

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard of the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Of Baptism.

I. Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible Church, but also to be unto him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, of his ingrafting into Christ, of regeneration, of remission of sins, and of his giving up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness of life: which sacrament is, by Christ’s own appointment, to be continued in his Church until the end of the world.

II. The outward element to be used in the sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully called thereunto.

III. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary; but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.

IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to be baptized.

V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance, yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it, or that all that are baptized are undoubtedly regenerated.

VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered; yet, notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God’s own will, in his appointed time.

VII. The sacrament of Baptism is but once to be administered to any person.

CHAPTER XXIX.

Of the Lord’s Supper.

I. Our Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord’s Supper, to be observed in his Church unto the end of the world; for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto him; and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body.

II. In this sacrament Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead, but a commemoration of that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all, and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ’s one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect.

III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants; but to none who are not then present in the congregation.

IV. Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest, or any other, alone; as likewise the denial of the cup to the people; worshipping the elements, the lifting them up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ.

V. The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to him crucified, as that truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ; albeit, in substance and nature, they still remain truly, and only, bread and wine, as they were before.

VI. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine, into the substance of Christ’s body and blood (commonly called transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to Scripture alone, but even to common-sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been, and is, the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries.

VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament, do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then not corporally or carnally in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.

VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord’s table, and can not, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries, or be admitted thereunto.

CHAPTER XXX.

Of Church Censures.

I. The Lord Jesus, as king and head of his Church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of Church officers, distinct from the civil magistrate.

II. To these officers the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven are committed, by virtue whereof they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require.

III. Church censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren; for deterring of others from like offenses; for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump; for vindicating the honor of Christ, and the holy profession of the gospel; and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the Church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.

IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the Church are to proceed by admonition, suspension from the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper for a season, and by excommunication from the Church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.

CHAPTER XXXI.

Of Synods and Councils.

I. For the better government and further edification of the Church, there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called synods or councils.

II. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers and other fit persons to consult and advise with about matters of religion; so, if magistrates be open enemies of the Church, the ministers of Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons, upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies.

III. It belongeth to synods and councils, ministerially, to determine controversies of faith, and cases of conscience; to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God, and government of his Church; to receive complaints in cases of maladministration, and authoritatively to determine the same: which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the Word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission, not only for their agreement with the Word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God, appointed thereunto in his Word.

IV. All synods or councils since the apostles’ times, whether general or particular, may err, and many have erred; therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith or practice, but to be used as a help in both.

V. Synods and councils are to handle or conclude nothing but that which is ecclesiastical: and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs which concern the commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition in cases extraordinary; or by way of advice for satisfaction of conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.

CHAPTER XXXII.

Of the State of Man After Death,
and of the Resurrection of the Dead.

 

I. The bodies of men, after death, return to dust, and see corruption; but their souls (which neither die nor sleep), having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them. The souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies; and the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day. Besides these two places for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture acknowledgeth none.

II. At the last day, such as are found alive shall not die, but be changed: and all the dead shall be raised up with the self-same bodies, and none other, although with different qualities, which shall be united again to their souls forever.

III. The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor; the bodies of the just, by his Spirit, unto honor, and be made conformable to his own glorious body.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

Of the Last Judgment.

I. God hath appointed a day, wherein he will judge the world in righteousness by Jesus Christ, to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father. In which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged; but likewise all persons, that have lived upon earth, shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds; and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.

II. The end of God’s appointing this day, is for the manifestation of the glory of his mercy in the eternal salvation of the elect; and of his justice in the damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient. For then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fullness of joy and refreshing which shall come from the presence of the Lord: but the wicked, who know not God, and obey not the gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments, and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.

III. As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there shall be a day of judgment, both to deter all men from sin, and for the greater consolation of the godly in their adversity: so will he have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come; and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly. Amen.

Charles Herle, Prolocuter.
Cornelius Burges, Assessor.
Herbert Palmer, Assessor.
Henry Robroughe, Scriba.
Adoniram Byfield, Scriba.

The Third Virginia Charter March 12, 1612

The Third Virginia Charter

 

The Third Virginia Charter


March 12, 1612

          James, by the grace of God [King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith;] to all to whom [these pres-ents shall come,] greeting. Whereas at the humble suite of divers and sundry our lovinge subjects, aswell adventurers as planters of the First Colonie in Virginia, and for the propagacion of Christian religion and reclayminge of people barbarous to civilitie and humanitie, we have by our lettres patent bearing date at Westminster the three and twentieth daie of May in the seaventh yeare of our raigne of England, Frannce and Ireland, and the twoe and fortieth of Scotland, given and grannted unto them, that they and all suche and soe manie of our loving subjects as shold from time to time for ever after be joyned with them as planters or adventurers in the said plantacion, and their succes-sors for ever, shold be one body politique incorporated by the name of The Treasorer and Planters of the Cittie of London for the First Colonie in Virginia;

          And whereas allsoe for the greater good and benefitt of the said Companie and for the better furnishing and establishing of the said plantacion we did further [give], grannte and con-firme by our said lettres patent unto the said Treasorer and Com-panie and their successors for ever, all those landes, contries and territories scituate, lyeing and being in that part of America called Virginia, from the point of land called Cape [or] Pointe Comfort all along the seacoste to the northward twoe hundred miles, and from the said point of Cape Comfort all along the seacoste to the sowthward twoe hundred miles, and all the space and circuit of land lying from the sea coste of the precinct afore-said up or into the land throughout from sea to sea, west and northwest, and allso all the islandes lying within one hundred miles along the coast of both the seas of the precinct aforsaid, with diverse other grannts, liberties, franchises, preheminences, privileges, profiitts, benefitts, and commodities, grannted in and by our said lettres patent to the said Tresorer and Companie, and their successors, for ever:

          Now for asmuchas we are given to undestande that in these seas adjoyning to the said coast of Virginia and without the com- passe of those twoe hundred miles by us soe grannted unto the said Treasurer and Companie as aforesaid, and yet not farr dis- tant from the said Colony in Virginia, there are or may be divers islandes lying desolate and uninhabited, some of which are al- ready made knowne and discovered by the industry, travell, and expences of the said Company, and others allsoe are sup-posed to be and remaine as yet unknowen and undiscovered, all and every of which itt maie importe the said Colony both in safety and pollecy of trade to populate and plant, in regard where of, aswell for the preventing of perill as for the better comodity and prosperity of the said Colony, they have bin hum-ble suitors unto us that we wold be pleased to grannt unto them an inlardgement of our said former lettres patent, aswell for a more ample extent of their limitts and territories into the seas adjoyning to and uppon the coast of Virginia as allsoe for some other matters and articles concerning the better government of the said Company and Collony, in which point our said former lettres patents doe not extende soe farre as time and experience hath found to be needfull and convenient:

          We, therefore, tendring the good and happy successe of the said plantacion both in respect of the generall weale of humane society as in respect of the good of our owne estate and kinge- domes, and being willing to give furtherannt untoall good meanes that may advannce the benefitt of the said Company and which maie secure the safety of our loving subjects, planted in our said Colony under the favour and proteccion of God Almighty and of our royall power and authority, have therefore of our especiall grace, certein knowledge and mere mocion, given, grannted and confirmed, and for us, our heires and successors we doe by theis presents, give, grannt and confirme unto the said Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the said Citty of London for the First Colony in Virginia, and to their heires and successors for ever, all and singuler the said iselandes [whatsoever] scituat and being in anie part of the said ocean bordering upon the coast of our said First Colony in Vir-ginia and being within three hundred leagues of anie the partes hertofore grannted to the said Treasorer and Company in our said former lettres patents as aforesaid, and being within or be-tweene the one and fortie and thirty degrees of Northerly lati-tude, together with all and singuler [soils] landes, groundes, havens, ports, rivers, waters, fishinges, mines and mineralls, as-well royal mines of gold and silver as other mines and mineralls, perles, precious stones, quarries, and all and singuler other com- modities, jurisdiccions, royalties, priviledges, franchises and pre-heminences, both within the said tract of lande uppon the maine and allso within the said iselandes and seas adjoyning, whatso-ever, and thereunto or there abouts both by sea and land being or scituat; and which, by our lettres patents, we maie or cann grannt and in as ample manner and sort as we or anie our noble progenitors have heretofore grannted to anie person or persons or to anie Companie, bodie politique or corporate or to any ad-venturer or adventurers, undertaker or undertakers of anie dis-coveries, plantacions or traffique, of, in, or into anie foreigne parts whatsoever, and in as lardge and ample manner as if the same were herein particularly named, mencioned and expressed: pro-vided allwaies that the said iselandes or anie the premisses herein mencioned and by theis presents intended and meant to be grannted be not already actually possessed or inhabited by anie other Christian prince or estate, nor be within the bounds, limitts or territories of the Northerne Colonie, hertofore by us grannted to be planted by divers of our loving subjects in the northpartes of Virginia. To have and to hold, possesse and injoie all and singuler the said iselandes in the said ocean seas soe lying and bordering uppon the coast or coasts of the territories of the said First Colony in Virginia as aforesaid, with all and singuler the said soiles, landes and groundes and all and singular other the premisses heretofore by theis presents grannted, or mencioned to be grannted, to them, the said Treasurer and Companie of Adventurers and Planters of the Cittie of London for the First Colonie in Virginia, and to their heires, successors and assignes for ever, to the sole and proper use and behoofe of them, the said Treasurer and Companie and their heires, successores and as-signes for ever; to be holden of us, our heires and successors as of our mannor of Eastgreenwich, in free and common soccage and not in capite, yealding and paying therefore, to us, our heires and successors, the fifte part of the oare of all gold and silver which shalbe there gotten, had or obteined for all manner of services, whatsoever.

          And further our will and pleasure is, and we doe by theis presents grannt and confirme for the good and welfare of the said plantacion, and that posterity maie hereafter knowe whoe have adventured and not bin sparing of their purses in such a noble and generous accion for the generall good of theire cuntrie, and at the request and with the consent of the Companie afore said, that our trusty and welbeloved subjects.

 

         George, Lord Archbishopp of Canterbury
         Gilbert, Earle of Shrewsberry 
         Mary, Countesse of Shrewes-
         Elizabeth, Countesse of Derby
         Margarett, Countesse of Com-berland 
         Henry, Earle of Huntingdon 
         Edward, Earle of Beddford 
         Lucy, Countesse of Bedford 
         Marie, Countesse of Pembroke 
         Richard, Earle of Clanrickard
         Lady Elizabeth Graie
         William, Lord Viscount Cram-bome
         William, Lord Bishopp of Du-resme
         Henry, Lord Bishopp of Wor-ceter
         John, Lord Bishopp of Oxon-ford
         William, Lord Pagett
         Dudley, Lord North
         Franncis, Lord Norries
         William, Lord Knollis
         John, Lord Harrington
         Robert, Lord Spencer
         Edward, Lord Denny
         William, Lord Cavendishe
         James, Lord Hay
         Elianor, Lady Cave [Carre]
         Maistres Elizabeth Scott, wid-dow
         Edward Sackvill, Esquier
         Sir Henry Nevill, of Aburga-venny, Knight
         Sir Robert Riche, Knight
         Sir John Harrington, Knight
         Sir Raphe Wimwood, Knight
         Sir John Graie, Knight
         Sir Henry Riche, Knight
         Sir Henry Wotton, Knight
         Peregrine Berly, Esquier [Berty]
         Sir Edward Phelipps, Knight, Maister of the Rolls
         Sir Moile Finche, Knight
         Sir Thomas Mansell, Knight
         Sir John St. John, Knight
         Sir Richard Spencer, Knight
         Sir Franncis Barrington, Knight
         Sir George Carie of Devonshire, Knight
         Sir William Twisden, Knight
         Sir John Leveson, Knight
         Sir Thomas Walsingham, Knight
         Sir Edward Care, Knight
         Sir Arthure Manwaringe, Knight
         Sir Thomas Jermyn, Knight
         Sir Valentine Knightley, Knight
         Sir John Dodderidge, Knight
         Sir John Hungerford, Knight
         Sir John Stradling, Knight
         Sir John Bourchidd, Knight [Bourchier]
         Sir John Bennett, Knight
         Sir Samuel Leonard, Knight
         Sir Franncis Goodwin, Knight
         Sir Wareham St. Legier, Knight
         Sir James Scudamore, Knight
         Sir Thomas Mildmaie, Knight
         Sir Percivall Harte, Knight
         Sir Percivall Willoughby, Knight
         Sir Franncis Leigh, Knight
         Sir Henry Goodere, Knight
         Sir John Cutt, Knight
         Sir James Parrett, Knight
         Sir William Craven, Knight
         Sir John Sammes, Knight
         Sir Carey Raleigh, Knight
         Sir William Maynard, Knight
         Sir Edmund Bowyer, Knight
         Sir William Cornewallis, Knight
         Sir Thomas Beomont, Knight
         Sir Thomas Cunningsby, Knight
         Sir Henry Beddingfeild, Knight 
         Sir David Murray, Knight 
         Sir William Poole, Knight 
         Sir William Throgmorton, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Grantham, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Stewkley, Knight 
         Sir Edward Heron, Knight 
         Sir Ralph Shelten, Knight 
         Sir Lewes Thesam, Knight 
         Sir Walter Aston, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Denton, Knight 
         Sir Ewstace Hart, Knight 
         Sir John Ogle, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Dale, Knight 
         Sir William Boulstrod, Knight 
         Sir William Fleetwood, Knight 
         Sir John Acland, Knight 
         Sir John Hanham, Knight 
         Sir Roberte Meller, Knight [Millor] 
         Sir Thomas Wilford, Knight 
         Sir William Lower, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Lerdes, Knight [Leedes] 
         Sir Franncis Barneham, Knight 
         Sir Walter Chate, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Tracy, Knight 
         Sir Marmaduke Darrell, Knight 
         Sir William Harrys, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Gerrand, Knight 
         Sir Peter Freetchvile, Knight 
         Sir Richard Trevor, Knight 
         Sir Amias Bamfeild 
         Sir William Smith of Essex, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Hewett, Knight 
         Sir Richard Smith, Knight 
         Sir John Heyward, Knight 
         Sir Christopher Harris, Knight
         Sir John Pettus, Knight 
         Sir William Strode, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Harfleet, Knight 
         Sir Walter Vaughan, Knight 
         Sir William Herrick, Knight 
         Sir Samuell Saltonstall, Knight 
         Sir Richard Cooper, Knight 
         Sir Henry Fane, Knight 
         Sir Franncis Egiok, Knight 
         Sir Robert Edolph, Knight 
         Sir Arthure Harries, Knight 
         Sir George Huntley, Knight 
         Sir George Chute, Knight 
         Sir Robert Leigh, Knight 
         Sir Richard Lovelace, Knight 
         Sir William Lovelace, Knight 
         Sir Robert Yaxley, Knight 
         Sir Franncis Wortley, Knight 
         Sir Franncis Heiborne, Knight 
         Sir Guy Palme, Knight 
         Sir Richard Bingley, Knight 
         Sir Ambrose Turvill, Knight 
         Sir Nicholas Stoddard, Knight 
         Sir William Gree, Knight 
         Sir Walter Coverte, Knight 
         Sir Thomas Eversfeild, Knight 
         Sir Nicholas Parker, Knight 
         Sir Edward Culpeper, Knight 
         Sir William Ayliffe, Knight, and 
         Sir John Keile, Knight 
         Doctor George Mountaine, Dean of Westminster 
         Lawrence Bohan, Docktor in Phisick 
         Anthony Hinton, Doctor in Phisick 
         John Pawlett 
         Arthure Ingram 
         Anthony Irby
         John Weld
         John Walter
         John Harris
         Anthony Dyott
         William Ravenscrofte
         Thomas Warre
         William Hackwill
         Lawrence Hide
         Nicholas Hide
         Thomas Stevens
         Franncis Tate
         Thomas Coventry
         John Hare
         Robert Askwith
         George Sanndys
         Franncis Jones
         Thomas Wentworth
         Henry Cromewell
         John Arundell
         John Culpeper
         John Hoskins
         Walter Fitz Williams
         Walter Kirkham
         William Roscarrock
         Richard Carmerdon
         Edward Carne
         Thomas Merry
         Nicholas Lichfeild
         John Middleton
         John Smithe, and
         Thomas Smith, the sonnes of Sir Thomas Smith
         Peter Franke
         George Gerrand
         Gregory Sprynte
         John Drake
         Roger Puleston
         Oliver Nicholas
         Richard Nunnington [Monyngton]
         John Vaughan 
         John Evelin 
         Lamorock Stradling 
         John Riddall 
         John Kettleby 
         Warren Townsend 
         Lionell Cranfeild 
         Edward Salter 
         William Litton 
         Humfrey May 
         George Thorpe 
         Henry Sandys, and 
         Edwin Sandys, the sonnes of Sir Edwin Sandys 
         Thomas Conway 
         Captaine Owen Gwinn 
         Captaine Giles Hawkridge 
         Edward Dyer 
         Richard Connock 
         Benjamin Brand 
         Richard Leigh, and 
         Thomas Pelham, Esquiers 
         Thomas Digges, and 
         John Digges, Esquiers, the sonnes of Sir Dudley Diggs,
         Franncis Bradley
         Richard Buckminster [Buck]
         Franncis Burley
         John Procter
         Thomas Frake, thelder, and
         Henry Freake, thelder, Minis-ters of God's word
         The mayor and citizens of Chi-chester
         The mayor and jurates of Dover
         The bailiffs, burgesses and com-onalty of Ipswich
         The mayor and comunalty of Lyme Regis 
         The mayor and comonalty of Sandwich 
         The wardens, assistants and companie of the Trinity House 
         Thomas Martin 
         Franncis Smaleman 
         Augustine Steward 
         Richard Tomlins 
         Humfrey Jobson 
         John Legate 
         Robert Backley [Barkley] 
         John Crowe 
         Edward Backley [Barkley] 
         William Flett [Fleet] 
         Henry Wolstenholme 
         Edmund Alleyn 
         George Tucker 
         Franncis Glanville 
         Thomas Gouge 
         John Evelin 
         William Hall 
         John Smithe 
         George Samms 
         John Robinson 
         William Tucker 
         John Wolstenholme, and Henry Wolstenholme, sonnes of 
         John Wolstenholme, Esquier 
         William Hodges 
         Jonathan Mattall [Nuttall] 
         Phinees Pett 
         Captaine John Kinge 
         Captaine William Beck
         Giles Alington
         Franncis Heiton, and
         Samuell Holliland, gentleman 
         Richard Chamberlaine 
         George Chamberlaine 
         Hewett Staper
         Humfrey Handford 
         Raph Freeman
         George Twinhoe [Swinhoe] 
         Richard Pigott 
         Elias Roberts 
         Roger Harris 
         Devereux Wogan 
         Edward Baber
         William Greenewell 
         Thomas Stilles
         Nicholas Hooker 
         Robert Garsett
         Thomas Cordell 
         William Bright 
         John Reynold 
         Peter Bartley 
         John Willett 
         Humfry Smithe 
         Roger Dye
         Nicholas Leate 
         Thomas Wale
         Lewes Tate
         Humfrey Merrett 
         Roberte Peake
         Powell Isaackson 
         Sebastian Viccars 
         Jarvis Mundes
         Richard Wamer 
         Gresham Hogan Warner 
         Daniell Deruley 
         Andrew Troughton
         William Barrett
         Thomas Hodges
         John Downes
         Richard Harper
         Thomas Foxall
         William Haselden
         James Harrison
         William Burrell
         John Hodsall
         Richard Fisborne
         John Miller
         Edward Cooke
         Richard Hall, marchaunt
         Richard Hall, ankersmith
         John Delbridge
         Richard Francklin
         Edmund Scott
         John Britten
         Robert Stratt
         Edmund Pond
         Edward James
         Robert Bell
         Richard Herne
         William Ferrers
         William Millett
         Anthony Abdy
         Roberte Gore 
         Benjamin Decrow 
         Henry Tunbedey [Timberly] 
         Humfrey Basse 
         Abraham Speckart 
         Richard Moorer 
         William Compton 
         Richard Poulsoune [Pontsonne] 
         William Wolaston 
         John Desmont, clothier [Beomont] 
         Alexannder Childe 
         William Fald, fishmonger 
         Franncis Baldwin 
         John Jones, marchant 
         Thomas Plomer 
         Edward Plomer, marchants 
         John Stoickden 
         Robert Tindall 
         Peter Erundell 
         Ruben Bourne 
         Thomas Hampton, and 
         Franncis Carter, citizens of Lon-don,

          whoe since our said last lettres patent are become adventurers and have joined themselves with the former adventurers and planters of the said Companie and societie, shall from hence-forth be reputed, deemed and taken to be and shalbe brethren and free members of the Companie and shall and maie, respect-ively, and according to the proportion and value of their severall adventures, have, hold and enjoie all suche interest, right, title, priviledges, preheminences, liberties, franchises, immunities, profitts and commodities whatsoever in as lardge, ample and beneficiall manner to all intents, construccions and purposes as anie other adventures nominated and expressed in anie our former lettres patent, or anie of them have or maie have by force and vertue of theis presents, or anie our former lettres patent whatsoever.

          And we are further pleased and we doe by theis presents grannt and confirm that

         
         Phillipp, Earle of Montgomery
         William, Lord Paget
         Sir John Harrington, Knight
         Sir William Cavendish, Knight
         Sir John Sammes, Knight
         Sir Samuell Sandys, Knight
         Sir Thomas Freke, Knight
         Sir William St. John, Knight
         Sir Richard Grobham, Knight
         Sir Thomas Dale, Knight
         Sir Cavalliero Maycott, Knight
         Richard Martin, Esquier
         John Bingley, Esquier
         Thomas Watson, Esquier, and
         Arthure Ingram, Esquier,

          whome the said Treasurer and Companie have, since the said [last] lettres patent, nominated and sett downe as worthy and discreete persons fitt to serve us as Counsellors, to be of our Counsell for the said plantacion, shalbe reputed, deemed and taken as persons of our said Councell for the said First Colonie in such manner and sort to all intents and purposes as those whoe have bin formerly ellected and nominated as our Coun-sellors for that Colonie and whose names have bin or are incerted and expressed in our said former lettres patent.

          And we doe hereby ordaine and grannt by theis presents that the said Treasurer and Companie of Adventurers and Planters, aforesaid, shall and maie, once everie weeke or oftener at their pleasure, hold and keepe a court and assembly for the better ordening [ordering] and government of the said plantacion and such thinges as shall concerne the same; and that anie five per- sons of the said Counsell for the said First Collonie in Virginia, for the time being, of which Companie the Treasurer or his deputie allwaies to be one, and the nomber of fifteene others at the least of the generality of the said Companie assembled together in such court or assembly in such manner as is and hath bin heretofore used and accustomed, shalbe said, taken, held and reputed to be and shalbe a full and sufficient court of the said Companie for the handling, ordring and dispatching of all such casuall and particuler occurrences and accidentall mat-ters of lesse consequence and waight, as shall from time to time happen, touching and concerning the said plantacion.

          And that, nevertheles, for the handling, ordring and disposing of matters and affaires of great waight and importance and such as shall or maie in anie sort concerne the weale publike and generall good of the said Companie and plantacion as namely, the manner of government from time to time to be used, the ordring and disposing of the said possessions and the setling and establish-ing of a trade there, or such like, there shalbe held and kept everie yeare uppon the last Wednesdaie save one of Hillary, Easter, Trinity and Michaelmas termes, for ever, one great, generall and solemne assembly, which fower severall assemblies shalbe stiled and called The Fower Great and Generall Courts of the Counsell and Companie of Adventurers for Virginia; in all and every of which said great and generall Courts soe assem-bled our will and pleasure is and we doe, for us, our heires and successors forever, give and grannt to the said Treasurer and Companie and their successors for ever by theis presents, that they, the said Treasurer and Companie or the greater nomber of them soe assembled, shall and maie have full power and authoritie from time to time and att all times hereafter to ellect and choose discreet persons to be of our [said] Counsell for the said First Colonie in Virginia and to nominate and appoint such officers as theie shall thinke fitt and requisit for the government, managing, ordring and dispatching of the affaires of the said Companie; and shall likewise have full power and authority to ordaine and make such lawes and ordinances for the good and wellfare of the said plantacion as to them from time to time shalbe thought requisite and meete: soe allwaies as the same be not contrary to the lawes and statutes of this our realme of England; and shall in like manner have power and authority to expulse, disfranchise and putt out of and from their said Companie and societie for ever all and everie such person and persons as having either promised or subscribed their names to become adventurers to the said plantacion of the said First Colonie in Virginia, or having bin nominated for adventurers in theis or anie our lettres patent or having bin otherwise admitted and nominated to be of the said Companie, have nevertheles either not putt in anie adventure [at] all for and towards the said plantacion or els have refused and neglected, or shall refuse and neglect, to bringe in his or their adventure by word or writing promised within sixe monthes after the same shalbe soe payable and due.

          And wheras the failing and nonpaiment of such monies as have bin promised in adventure for the advanncement of the said plantacion hath bin often by experience found to be dann-gerous and prejudiciall to the same and much to have hindred the progresse and proceeding of the said plantacion; and for that itt seemeth to us a thing reasonable that such persons as by their handwriting have engaged themselves for the payment of their adventures, and afterwards neglecting their faith and promise, shold be compellable to make good and kepe the same; therefore our will and pleasure is that in anie suite or suites comenced or to be comenced in anie of our courts att Westminster, or els- where, by the said Treasurer and Companie or otherwise against anie such persons, that our judges for the time being both in our Court of Channcerie and at the common lawe doe favour and further the said suits soe farre forth as law and equitie will in anie wise suffer and permitt.

          And we doe, for us, our heires and successors, further give and grannt to the said Tresorer and Companie, and their successors for ever, that theie, the said Tresorer and Companie or the greater part of them for the time being, so in a full and generall court assembled as aforesaid shall and maie, from time to time and att all times hereafter, for ever, ellect, choose and permitt into their Company and society anie person or persons, as well straungers and aliens borne in anie part beyond the seas where-soever, being in amity with us, as our naturall liedge subjects borne in anie our realmes and dominions; and that all such per-sons soe elected, chosen and admitted to be of the said Companie as aforesaid shall thereuppon be taken, reputed and held and shalbe free members of the said Companie and shall have, hold and enjoie all and singuler freedoms, liberties, franchises, privi-ledges, immunities, benefitts, profitts and commodities, whatso-ever, to the said Companie in anie sort belonging or apperteining as fully, freely [and] amplie as anie other adventurer or ad-venturers now being, or which hereafter att anie time shalbe, of the said Companie, hath, have, shall, maie, might or ought to have or enjoy the same to all intents and purposes whatsoever.

          And we doe further of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge and mere mocion, for us, our heires and successors, give and grantt to the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, for ever by theis present, that itt shalbe lawfull and free for them and their assignes att all and everie time and times here- after, out of anie our realmes and dominions whatsoever, to take, lead, carry and transport in and into the said voyage and for and towards the said plantacion of our said First Collonie in Virginia, all such and soe manie of our loving subjects or anie other straungers that will become our loving subjects and live under our allegiance as shall willingly accompanie them in the said voyage and plantacion; with shipping, armour, weapons, ordinannce, munition, powder, shott, victualls, and all manner of merchandizes and wares, and all manner of clothing, imple-ment, furniture, beasts, cattell, horses, mares, and all other thinges necessarie for the said plantacion and for their use and defence, and for trade with the people there and in passing and retourning to and froe, without paying or yealding anie subsedie, custome or imposicion, either inward or outward, or anie other dutie to us, our heires or successors, for the same, for the space of seven yeares from the date of theis present.

          And we doe further, for us, our heires and successors, give and grannt to the said Treasurer and Companie and their suc-cessors for ever, by theis present, that the said Treasurer of the said Companie, or his deputie for the time being or anie twoe others of our said Counsell for the said First Colonie in Virginia for the time being, shall and maie attall times hereafter and from time to time, have full power and authoritie to minister and give the oath and oathes of supremacie and allegiannce, or either of them, to all and every person and persons which shall, at anie time and times hereafter, goe or passe to the said Colonie in Virginia:

          And further, that itt shalbe likewise lawfull for the said Tresorer, or his deputy for the time, or anie twoe others of our said Counsell for the said First Colonie in Virginia, for the time being, from time to time and att all times hereafter, to minister such a formall oathe as by their discrescion shalbe reasonably devised, aswell unto anie person or persons imployed or to be imployed in, for, or touching the said plantacion for their honest, faithfull and just dischardge of their service in all such matters as shalbe committed unto them for the good and benefitt of the said Company, Colonie and plantacion; as alsoe unto such other person or persons as the said Treasurer or his deputie, with twoe others of the said Counsell, shall thinke meete for the examina-cion or clearing of the truith in anie cause whatsoever con-cerninge the said plantacion or anie business from thence proceeding or there unto proceeding or thereunto belonging.

          And, furthermore, whereas we have ben certefied that diverse lewde and ill disposed persons, both sailors, souldiers, artificers, husbandmen, laborers, and others, having received wages, ap-parrell or other entertainment from the said Company or having contracted and agreed with the said Companie to goe, to serve, or to be imployed in the said plantacion of the said First Colonie in Virginia, have afterwards either withdrawen, hid or concealed themselves, or have refused to goe thither after they have bin soe entertained and agreed withall; and that divers and sundry persons allso which have bin sent and imployed in the said plantacion of the said First Colonie in Virginia at and upon the chardge of the said Companie, and having there misbehaved themselves by mutinies, sedition, and other notorious misdemeanors, or having bin employed or sent abroad by the governor of Virginia or his deputie with some ship or pinnace for provi-sions for the said Colonie, or for some discoverie or other buisines and affaires concerning the same, have from thence most trecherouslie either come back againe and retorned into our realme of England by stelth or without licence of our Gov-ernor of our said Colonie in Virginia for the time being, or have bin sent hither as misdoers and offenders; and that manie allsoe of those persons after their retourne from thence, having bin questioned by our said Counsell here for such their misbehaviors and offences, by their insolent and contemptuous carriage in the presence of our said Counsaile, have shewed little respect and reverence, either to the place or authoritie in which we have placed and appointed them; and others, for the colouring of their lewdnes and misdemeanors committed in Virginia, have endeavored them by most vile and slanndrous reports made and divulged, aswell of the cuntrie of Virginia as alsoe of the government and estate of the said plantacion and Colonie, as much as in them laie, to bring the said voyage and plantacion into disgrace and contempt; by meanes where of not only the adventures and planters alreadie ingaged in the said plantacion have bin exceedingly abused and hindred, and a greate nomber of other our loving and welldisposed subjects otherwise well affected and inclyning to joine and adventure insoe noble, Christian and worthie an action have bin discouraged from the same, but allsoe the utter overthrow and ruine of the said enterprise hath bin greatlie indanngered which cannott miscarrie without some dishonor to us and our kingdome;

          Now, for asmuch as it appeareth unto us that theis insolences, misdemeanors and abuses, not to be tollerated in anie civill government, have for the most part growne and proceeded in-regard of our Counsaile have not anie direct power and authoritie by anie expresse wordes in our former lettres patent to correct and chastise such offenders, we therefore, for the more speedy reformacion of soe greate and enormous abuses and misdemeanors heretofore practised and committed, and for the preventing of the like hereafter, doe by theis present for us, our heires and successors, give and grannt to the said Treasurer and Companie, and their successors for ever, that itt shall and maie be lawfull for our said Councell for the said First Colonie in Virginia or anie twoe of them, whereof the said Tresorer or his deputie for the time being to be allwaies one by warrant under their handes to send for, or cause to be apprehended, all and every such person and persons who shalbe noted or accused or found, att anie time or times here after, to offend or misbehave themselves in anie the offences before mencioned and expressed; and uppon the examinacion of anie such offender or offendors and just proofe made by oath taken before the Counsaile of anie such notorious misdemeanors by them committed as aforesaid; and allsoe uppon anie insolent, contemptuous or unreverent carriage and misbehavior to or against our said Counsell shewed or used by anie such person or persons soe called, convented and apear-ing before them as aforesaid; that in all such cases theie, our said Counsell or anie twoe of them for the time being, shall and maie have full power and authoritie either here tO binde them over with good suerties for their good behaviour and further therein to proceed to all intents and purposes, as itt is used in other like cases within our realme of England; or ells att their discrescion to remannd and send back the said offenders or anie of them unto the said Colonie in Virginia, there to be proceeded against and punished as the Governor, deputie and Counsell there for the time being shall thinke meete; or other- wise, according to such lawes and ordinannces as are or shalbe in use there for the well ordring and good governement of the said Colonie.

          And, for the more effectuall advanncing of the said plantacion, we doe further, for us, our heires and successors, of our especiall grace and favour, by vertue of our prorogative royall and by the assent and consent of the Lordes and others of our Privie Coun-salle, give and grannte unto the said Tresorer and Companie full power and authoritie, free leave, libertie and licence to sett forth, errect and publishe one or more lotterie or lotteries to have continuance and to [endure] and be held for the space of one whole yeare next after the opening of the same, and after the end and expiracion of the said terme the said lotterie or lotteries to continue and be further kept, during our will and pleasure onely and not otherwise. And yet, nevertheles, we are contented and pleased, for the good and wellfare of the said plantacion, that the said Tresorer and Companie shall, for the dispatch and finishing of the said lotterie or lotteries, have six months warn-inge after the said yeare ended before our will and pleasure shall, for and on that behalfe, be construed, deemed and adjudged to be in anie wise altered and determined.

          And our further will and pleasure is that the said lottery or lottaries shall and maie be opened and held within our cittie of London or in anie other cittie or citties, or ellswheare within this our realme of England, with such prises, articles, condicions and limitacions as to them, the said Tresorer and Companie, in their discreascions shall seeme convenient.

          And that itt shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Tresorer and Companie to ellect and choose receivors, auditors, surveyors, comissioners, or anie other officers whatsoever, att their will and pleasure for the better marshalling and guiding and governing of the said lottarie or lottaryes; and that itt shalbe likewise lawfull to and for the said Tresorer and anie twoe of the said Counsell to minister unto all and everie such persons soe ellected and chosen for officers as aforesaid one or more oathes for their good behaviour, just and true dealing in and about the lottarie or lottaries to the intent and purpose that none of our loving subjects, putting in their monies or otherwise adventuring in the said generall lotterie or lottaries, maie be in anie wise defrauded and deceived of their said monies or evill and in-directlie dealt withall in their said adventures.

          And we further grannt in manner and forme aforesaid, that itt shall and maie be lawfull to and for the said Treasurer and Companie, under the seale of our Counsell for the plantacion, to publishe or to cause and procure to be published by proclama-cion or otherwise, the said proclamacion to be made in their name by vertue of theise present, the said lottarie or lotteries in all citties, townes, boroughts, throughfaires and other places within our said realme of England; and we will and commande all mayors, justices of peace, sheriffs, bayliffs, constables and other our officers and loving subjects whatsoever, that in noe wise theie hinder or delaie the progresse and proceeding of the said lottarie or lottaries but be therein and, touching the premisses, aiding and assisting by all honest, good and lawfull meanes and endevours.

          And further our will and pleasure is that in all questions and dobts that shall arise uppon anie difficultie of construccion or interpretacion of anie thing conteined in theis or anie other our former lettres patent the same shalbe taken and interpreted in most ample and beneficiall manner for the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors and everie member there of.

          And lastly we doe by theis present retifie and confirme unto the said Treasorer and Companie, and their successors for ever, all and all manner of priviledges, franchises, liberties, immuni- ties, preheminences, profitts and commodities whatsoever grannted unto them in anie our [former] lettres patent and not in theis present revoked, altered, channged or abridged. Although ex-presse mencion [of the true yearly value or certainty of the pre-mises, or any of them, or of any other gift or grant, by us or any of our progenitors or predecessors, to the aforesaid Tresurer and Company heretofore made, in these Presents is not made; or any statute, act, ordinance, provisions, proclamation, or restraint, to the contrary thereof heretofore made, ordained, or provided, or any other matter, cause, or thing, whatsoever, to the contrary, in any wise, notwithstanding.]

          In witnes whereof [we have caused these our letters to be made patents.] Wittnes our selfe att Westminster, the twelveth daie of March [1612] [in the ninth year of our reign of England, France, and Ireland, and of Scotland the five and fortieth.]

          Per breve de privato sigillo, etc.

The Versailles Treaty June 28, 1919

The Versailles Treaty  1919

 

The Versailles Treaty

June 28, 1919

THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.


THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, In order to promote international
co-operation and to achieve international peace and security by the
acceptance of obligations not to resort to war by the prescription
of open, just and honourable relations between nations by the firm
establishment of the understandings of international law as the
actual rule of conduct among Governments, and by the maintenance of
justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the
dealings of organised peoples with one another Agree to this
Covenant of the League of Nations.


ARTICLE I.

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of the
Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also
such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede
without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be
effected by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two
months of the coming into force of the Covenant Notice thereof
shall be sent to all other Members of the League. Any fully
self-governing State, Dominion, or Colony not named in the Annex
may become a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by
two-thirds of the Assembly provided that it shall give effective
guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its international
obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed
by the League in regard to its military, naval, and air forces and
armaments.Any Member of the League may, after two years’ notice of
its intention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all
its international obligations and all its obligations under this
Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal.


ARTICLE 2.

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected
through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with a
permanent Secretariat.


ARTICLE 3.

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of the
League. The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time
to time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at
such other place as may be decided upon.The Assembly may deal at
its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the
League or affecting the peace of the world. At meetings of the
Assembly each Member of the League shall have one vote, and may not
have more than three Representatives.


ARTICLE 4.

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four
other Members of the League. These four Members of the League shall
be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion.
Until the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members of
the League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of
Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Greece shall be members of the Council.
With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council may
name additional Members of the League whose Representatives shall
always be members of the Council; the Council with like approval
may increase the number of Members of the League to be selected by
the Assembly for representation on the Council. The Council shall
meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a
year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other place as may be
decided upon. The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter
within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of
the world. Any Member of the League not represented on the Council
shall be invited to send a Representative to sit as a member at any
meeting of the Council during the consideration of matters
specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League. At
meetings of the Council, each Member of the League represented on
the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than one
Representative.


ARTICLE 5.

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by
the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meeting of the
Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the
Members of the League represented at the meeting. All matters of
procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the Council, including
the appointment of Committees to investigate particular matters,
shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the Council and may be
decided by a majority of the Members of the League represented at
the meeting. The first meeting of the Assembly and the first
meeting of the Council shall be summoned by the President of the
United States of America.


ARTICLE 6.

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the
League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary General and such
secretaries and staff as may be required.The first Secretary
General shall be the person named in the Annex; thereafter the
Secretary General shall be appointed by the Council with the
approval of the majority of the Assembly.The secretaries and staff
of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary General with
the approval of the Council.The Secretary General shall act in that
capacity at all meetings qf the Assembly and of the Council.The
expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of the
League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of the
International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union.


ARTICLE 7.

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. The Council may at
any time decide that the Seat of the League shall be established
elsewhere. All positions under or in connection with the League,
including he Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women.
Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of he
League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy
diplomatic privileges and immunities.The buildings and other
property occupied by the League or its officials or by
Representatives attending its meetings sha11 be inviolable.


ARTICLE 8.

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of peace
requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest point
consistent with national safety and the enforcement by common
action of international obligations. The Council, taking account of
the geographical situation and circumstances of each State, shall
formulate plans for such reduction for the consideration and action
of the several Governments. Such plans shall be subject to
reconsideration and revision at least every ten years. After these
plans shall have been adopted by the several Governments, the
limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the
concurrence of the Council. The Members of the League agree that
the manufacture by private enterprise of munitions and implements
of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall advise how
the evil effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented,
due regard being had to the necessities of those Members of the
League which are not able to manufacture the munitions and
implements of war necessary for their safety. The Members of the
League undertake to interchange full and frank information as to
the scale of their armaments, their military, naval, and air
programmes and the condition of such of their industries as are
adaptable to war-like purposes.


ARTICLE 9.

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council
on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on
military, naval, and air questions generally.


ARTICLE 10.

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as
against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing
political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such
aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this
obligation shall be fulfilled.


ARTICLE 11.

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the
Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of
concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action
tnat may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of
nations. In case any such emergency should arise the Secretary
General shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith
summon a meeting of the Council. It is also declared to be the
friendly right of each Member of the League to bring to the
attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance
whatever affecting international relations which threatens to
disturb international peace or the good understanding between
nations upon which peace depends.


ARTICLE 12.

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between
them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will submit the
matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, and they
agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the
award by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. In any case
under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be made
within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall be
made within six months after the submission of the dispute.


ARTICLE 13.

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall
arise between them which they recognise to be suitable for
submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily
settled by diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to
arbitration. Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to
any question of international law, as to the existence of any fact
which if established would constitute a breach of any international
obligation, or as to the extent and nature of the reparation to be
made or any such breach, are declared to be among those which are
generally suitable for submission to arbitration. For the
consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitraion to which
the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on by the parties to
the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing between them.
The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full
good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not
resort to war against a Member of the League which complies
therewith. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award,
the Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect
thereto.


ARTICLE 14.

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League
for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent Court of
International Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear and
determine any dispute of an international character which the
parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an advisory
opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council
or by the Assembly.


ARTICLE 15.

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute
likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration
in accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that
they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the
dispute may effect such submission by giving notice of the
existence of the dispute to the Secretary General, who will make
all necessary arrangements for a full investigation and conside
ation thereof. For this purpose the parties to the dispute will
communicate to the Secretary General, as promptly as possible,
statements of their case with all the relevant facts and papers,
and the Council may forthwith direct the publication thereof. The
Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and
if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public
giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. If
the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously or
by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which
are deemed just and proper in regard thereto Any Member of the
League represented on the Council may make public a statement of
the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions regarding the same.
If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the
parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they
will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies
with the recommendations of the report. If the Council fails to
reach a report which is unanim~usly agreed to by the members
thereof, other than the Representatives of one or more of the
parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve to
themselves the right to take such action as they shall consider
necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. If the dispute
between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is found by the
Council, to arise out of a matter which by international law is
solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the Council
shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its
settlement. The Council may in any case under this Article refer
the dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at
the request of either party to the dispute, provided that such
request be made within fourteen days after the submission of the
dispute to the Council. In any case referred to the Assembly, all
the provisions of this Article and of Article 12 relating to the
action and powers of the Council shall apply to the action and
powers of the Assembly, provided that a report made by the
Assembly, if concurred in by the Representatives of those Members
of the League represented on the Council and of a majority of the
other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the
Rpresentatives of the parties to the dispute shall have the same
force as a report by the Council concurred in by all the members
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the
parties to the dispute.


ARTICLE 16.

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its
covenants under Articles 12, 13, or 15, it shall ipso facto be
deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members of
the League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the
severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of
all intercourse between their nations and the nationals of the
covenant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial,
commercial, or personal intercourse between the nationals of the
covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State,
whether a Member of the League or not. It shall be the duty of the
Council in such case to recommend to the several Governments
concerned what effective military, naval, or air force the Members
of the League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be
used to protect the covenants of the League. The Members of the
League agree, further, that they will mutually support one another
in the financial and economic measures which are taken under this
Article, in order to minimise the loss and inconvenience resulting
from the above measures, and that they will mutually support one
another in resisting any special measures aimed at one of their
number by the covenantbreaking State, and that they will take the
necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to the
forces of any of the Members of the League which are co-operating
to protect the covenants of the League. Any Member of the League
which has violated any covenant of the League may be declared to be
no longer a Member of the League by a vote of the Council concurred
in by the Representatives of all the other Members of the League
represented thereon.


ARTICLE 17.

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a
State which is not a Member of the League, or between States not
Members of the League, the State or States, not Members of the
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in
the League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions
as the Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the
provisions of Articles 12 to I6 inclusive shall be applied with
such modifications as may be deemed necessary by the Council. Upon
such invitation being given the Council shall immediately institute
an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such
action as may seem best and most effectual in the circumstances.If
a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and
shall resort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions
of Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such
action. If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to
accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purpose
of such dispute, the Council may take such measures and make such
recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the
settlement of the dispute.


ARTICLE 18.

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by
any Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the
Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No
such treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so
registered.


ARTICLE 19.

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by
Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable
and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance
might endanger the peace of the world.


ARTICLE 20.

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is
accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se
which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly
undertake that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements
inconsistent with the terms thereof. In case any Member of the
League shall, before becoming a Member of the League, have
undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the terms of this
Covenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to take immediate
steps to procure its release from such obligations.


ARTICLE 21.

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or
regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the
maintenance of peace.


ARTICLE 22.

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the
late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States
which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not
yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of
the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the
well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of
civilisation and that securities for the performance of this trust
should be embodied in this Covenant. The best method of giving
practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such
peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of
their resources, their experience or their geographical position
can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to
accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as
Mandatories on behalf of the League. The character of the mandate
must differ according to the stage of the development of the
people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic
conditions, and other similar circumstances. Certain communities
formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of
development where their existence as independent nations can be
provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of administrative
advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are
able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a
principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory. Other
peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage
that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of
the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of
conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public
order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave
trade, the arms traffic, and the liquor traffic, and the prevention
of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases
and of military training of the natives for other than police
purposes and the defence of territory, and will also secure equal
opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the
League. There are territories, such as South-West Africa and
certain of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the
sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their
remoteness from the centres of civilisation, or their geographical
contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other
circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the
Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the
safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous
population. In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to
the Council an annual report in reference to the territory
committed to its charge. The degree of authority, control, or
administration to be exercised by the Mandatory shall, if not
previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly
defined in each case by the Council. A permanent Commission shall
be constituted to receive and examine the annual reports of the
Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to
the observance of the mandates.


ARTICLE 23.

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of
the League: (a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and
humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in
their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial
and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will
establish and maintain the necessary international organisations;
(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of
territories under their control; (c) will entrust the League with
the general supervision over the execution of agreements with
regard to the traffic in women and children, and the traffic in
opium and other dangerous drugs; (d) will entrust the League with
the general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with
the countries in which the control of this traffic is necessary in
the common interest; (e) will make provision to secure and maintain
freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment
for the commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection,
the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of
1914-1918 shall be borne in mind; (f) will endeavour to take steps
in matters of international concern for the prevention and control
of disease.


ARTICLE 24.

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all
international bureaux already established by general treaties if
the parties to such treaties consent. All such international
bureaux and all commissions for the regulation of matters of
international interest hereafter constituted shall be placed under
the direction of the League. In all matters of international
interest which are regulated by general conventions but which are
not placed under the control of international bureaux or
commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the
consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, collect and
distribute all relevant information and shall render any other
assistance which may be necessary or desirable. The Council may
include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat the expenses of
any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the
League.


ARTICLE 25.

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the
establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary
national Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement
of health, the prevention of disease, and the mitigation of
suffering throughout the world.


ARTICLE 26.

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the
Members of the League whose representatives compose the Council and
by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representatives
compose the Assembly. No such amendment shall bind any Member of
the League which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case
it shall cease to be a Memb,er of the League.


ANNEX.


I. ORIGINAL MEMRERS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS SIGNATORIES OF THE
TREATY OF PEACE.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, BRITISH EUPIRE,
CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA, NEW ZEALAND, INDIA, CHINA, CUBA,
ECUADOR, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, ITALY,
JAPAN, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL,
ROUMANIA, SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, URUGUAY


STATES INVITED TO ACCEDE TO THE COVENANT.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, CHILE, COLOMBIA, DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY,
PARAGUAY, PERSIA, SALVADOR, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, VENEZUELA.


II. FIRST SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATION5.

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B.

PART II.

BOUNDARIES OF GERMANY.

ARTICLE 27.

The boundaries of Germany will be determined as follows:

1. With Belgium:

From the point common to the three frontiers of Belgium, Holland, and Germany and in a southerly direction: the north-eastern boundary of the former territory of ne~tral Moresnet’ then the eastern boundary of the Kreis of Eupen, then the frontier between Belgium and the Kreis of Montjoie, then the northeastern and eastern boundary of the Kreis of Malmedy to its junction with the frontier of Luxemburg.

2. With Luxemburg:

The frontier of August 3, 1914, to its junction with the frontier of France of the 18th July, 1870.

3. With France:

The frontier of July 18, 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland with the reservations made in Article 48 of Section IV (Saar Basin) of Part III.

4. With Switzerland:

The present frontier.

5. With Austria.

The frontier of August 3, 1914, from Switzerland to CzechoSlovakia as hereinafter defined.

6. With Czecho-Slovakia:

The frontier of August 3, 1914, between Germany and Austria from its junction with the old administrative boundary separating Bohemia and the province of Upper Austria to the point north of the salient of the old province of Austrian Silesia situated at about 8 kilometres east of Neustadt.

7. With Poland:

From the point defined above to a point to be fixed on the ground about 2 kilometres east of Lorzendorf: the fronticr as it will be fixed in accordance with Article 88 of the present Treaty; thence in a northerly direction to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania crosses the river Bartsch: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following placcs in Poland: Skorischau, Reichthal, Trembatschau, Kunzendorf, Schleise, Gross Koscl, Schreibersdorf, Rippin, Furstlich-Niefken, Pawelau, Tscheschen, Konradau, Johallnisdorf, Modzenowe, Bogdaj, and in Gerrmany: Lorzendorf, Kaulwitz, Glausche, Dalbersdorf, Reesewitz, Stradam, Gross Wartenberg, Kraschen, Neu Mittelwalde, Domaslawitz, Wedelsdorf, Tscheschen Hammer; thence the administrative boundary of Posnania northwestwards to the point where it cuts the Rawitsch-Herrnstadt railway; thence to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania cuts the Reisen-Tschirnau road: a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Triebusch and Gabel and east of Saborwitz; thence the administrative boundary of Posnania to its junction with the eastern administrative boundary of the Kreis of Fraustadt; thence in a north-westerly direction to a point to be chosen on the road between the villages of Unruhstadt and Kopnitz: a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Geyersdorf, Brenno, Fehlen, Altkloster, Klebel, and east of Ulbersdorf, Buchwald, Ilgen,Weine, Lupitze, Schwenten: thence in a northerly direction to the northernmost point of Lake Chlop: a line to be fixed on the ground following the median line of the lakes; the town and the station of Bentschen however (including the junction of the lines Schwiebus-Bentschen and Zullichau-Bentschen) remaining in Polish territory; thence in a north-easterly direction to the point of junction of the boundaries of the Kreise of Schwerin, Birnbaum, and Meseritz: a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Betsche; thence in a northerly direction the boundary separating the Kreise of Schwerin and Birnbaum, then in an easterly direction the northern boundary of Posnania to the point where it cuts the river Netze; thence upstream to its confluence with the Kaddow: the course of the Netze; thence upstream to a point to be chosen about 6 kilometres southeast of Schneidemuhl: the course of the Kuddow; thence north-eastwards to the most southern point of the reentant of the northern boundary of Posnania about 5 kilometres west of Stahren: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the SchneidemuhlKonitz railway in this area entirely in German territory; thence the boundary of Posnania north-eastwards to the point of the salient it makes about 15 kilometres east of Flatow; thence north-eastwards to the point where the river Kamionka meets the southern boundary of the Kreis of Konitz about 3 kilometres north-east of Grunau: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following places to Poland: Jasdrowo, Gr. Lutau, Kl. Lutau, Wittkau, and to Germany: Gr. Butzig, Cziskowo, Battrow, Bock, Grunau; thence in a northerly direction the boundary between the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau to the point where this boundary cuts the river Brahe; thence to a point on the boundary of Pomerania 15 kilometres east of Rummelsburg: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following places in Poland: Konarzin, Kelpin, Adl. Briesen, and in Germany: Sampohl, Neuguth, Steinfort, Gr. Peterkau; then the boundary of Pomerania in an easterly direction to its junction with the boundary between the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau; thence northwards the boundary between Pomerania and West Prussia to the point on the river Rheda about 3 kilometres northwest of Gohra where that river is joined by a tributary from the north-west; thence to a point to be selected in the bend of the Piasnitz river about 1 1/2 kilometres north-west of Warschkau: a line to be fixed on the ground; thence this river downstream, then the median line of Lake Zarnowitz, then the old boundary of West Prussia to the Baltic Sea. 8. With Denmark:

The frontier as it will be fixed in accordance with Articles 109 to III of Part III, Section XII (Schleswig).

ARTICLE 28.

The boundaries of East Prussia, with the reservations made in Section IX (East Prussia) of Part III, will be determined as follows: from a point on the coast of the Baltic Sea about 1 1/2 kilometres north of Probbernau church in a direction of about 159° East from true North: a line to be fixed on the ground for about 2 kilometres; thence in a straight line to the light at the bend of the Elbing Channel in approximately latitude 54° 19 1/2′ North, longitude 19° 26′ East of Greenwich; thence to the easternmost mouth of the Nogat River at a bearing of approximately 209° East from true North; thence up the course of the Nogat River to the point where the latter leaves the Vistula (Weichsel);thence up the principal channel of navigation of the Vistula, then the southern boundary of the Kreis of Marienwerder, then that of the Kreis of Rosenberg eastwards to the point where it meets the old boundary of East Prussia, thence the old boundary between East and West Prussia, then the boundary between the Kreise of Osterode and Neidenburg, then the course of the river Skottau downstream, then the course of the Neide upstream to a point situated about 5 kilometres west of Bialutten being the nearest point to the old frontier of Russia; thence in an easterly direction to a point immediately south of the intersection of the road Neidenburg-Mlava with the old frontier of Russia: a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Bialutten; thence the old frontier of Russia to a point east of Schmalleningken, then the principal channel of navigation of the Niemen (Memel) downstream, then the Skierwieth arm of the delta to the Kurisches Haff; thence a straight line to the point where the eastern shore of the Kurische Nehrung meets the administrative boundary about 4 kilometres south-west of Nidden; thence this administrative boundary to the western shore of the Kurische Nehrung.

ARTICLE 29.

The boundaries as described above are drawn in red on a one-in-a-million map which is annexed to the present Treaty (Map No. 1). [See Introduction.] In the case of any discrepancies between the text of the Treaty and this map or any other map which may be annexed, the text will be final.

ARTICLE 30.

In the case of boundaries which are defined by a waterway, the terms “course” and “channel” used in the present Treaty signify: in the case of non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or of its principal arm, and, in the case of navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation It will rest with the Boundary Commissions provided by the present Treaty to specify in each case whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may take place or whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time when the present Treaty comes into force.

PART III.

POLITICAL CLAUSES FOR EUROPE

SECTION I.

BELGIUM.

ARTICLE 31.

Germany, recognising that the Treaties of April 19, 1839, which established the
status of Belgium before the war, no longer conform to the requirements of the
situation, consents to the abrogation of the said Treaties and undertakes
immediately to recognise and to observe whatever conventions may be entered into
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, or by any of them, in concert with
the Governments of Belgium and of the Netherlands, to replace the said Treaties
of 1839. If her formal adhesions should be required to such conventions or to any
of their stipulations, Germany undertakes immediately to give it.

ARTICLE 32.

Germany recognises the full sovereignty of Belgium over the whole of the
contested territory of Moresnet (called Moresnet neutre).

ARTICLE 33.

Germany renounces in favour of Belgium all rights and title over the territory of
Prussian Moresnet situated on the west of the road from Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle;
the road will belong to Belgium where it bounds this territory.

ARTICLE 34.

Germany renounces in favour of Belgium all rights and title over the territory
comprising the whole of the Kreise of Eupen and of Malmedy. During the six
months after the coming into force of this Treaty, registers will be opened by
the Belgian authority at Eupen and Malmedy in which the inhabitants of the above
territory will be entitled to record in writing a desire to see the whole or part
of it remain under German sovereignty. The results of this public expression of
opinion will be communicated by the Belgian Government to the League of Nations,
and Belgium undertakes to accept the decision of the League.


ARTICLE 35.

A Commission of seven persons, five of whom will be appointed by the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers, one by Germany and one by Belgium, will be set up
fifteen days after the coming into force of the present Treaty to settle on the
spot the new frontier line between Belgium and Germany, taking into account the
economic factors and the means of communication. Decisions will be taken by a
majority and will be binding on the parties concerned.

ARTICLE 36.

When the transfer of the sovereignty over the territories referred to above has
become definite, German nationals habitually resident in the territories will
definitively acquire Belgian nationality ipso facto, and will lose their German
nationality. Nevertheless, German nationals who became resident in the
territories after August 1, 1914, shall not obtain Belgian nationality without a
permit from the Belgian Government.

ARTICLE 37.

Within the two years following the definitive transfer of the sovereignty over
the territories assigned to Belgium under the present Treaty, German nationals
over 18 years of age habitually resident in those territories will be entitled to
opt for German nationality. Option by a husband will cover his wife, and option
by parents will cover their children under 18 years of age. Persons who have
exercised the above right to opt must within the ensuing twelve months transfer
their place of residence to Germany. They will be entitled to retain their
immovable property in the territories acquired by Belgium. They may carry with
them their movable property of every description. No export or import duties may
be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such property.

ARTICLE 38.

The German Government will hand over without delay to the Belgian Government the
archives, registers, plans, title deeds and documents of every kind concerning
the civil, military, financial, judicial or other administrations in the
territory transferred to Belgian sovereignty. The German Government will
likewise restore to the Belgian Government the archives and documents of every
kind carried off during the war by the German authorities from the Belgian public
administrations, in particular from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Brussels.

ARTICLE 39.

The proportion and nature of the financial liabilities of Germany and of Prussia
with Belgium will have to bear on account of the territories ceded to her shall
be fixed in conformity with Articles 254 and 256 of Part IX (Financial Clauses)
of the present Treaty.

SECTION II.

LUXEMBURG.

ARTICLE 40.

With regard to the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Germany renounces the benefit of all
the provisions inserted in her favour in the Treaties of February 8, 1842, April
2, 1847, October 20-25, 1865, August 18, 1866, February 21 and May 11, 1867, May
10, 1871, June 11, 1872, and November 11, 1902, and in all Conventions consequent
upon such Treaties. Germany recognises that the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg ceased
to form part of the German Zollverein as from January 1, 1919, renounces all
rights to the exploitation of the railways, adheres to the termination of the
regime of neutrality of the Grand Duchy, and accepts in advance all international
arrangements which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers relating
to the Grand Duchy.

ARTICLE 41.

Germany undertakes to grant to the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, when a demand to
that effect is made to her by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, the
rights and advantages stipulated in favour of such Powers or their nationals in
the present Treaty with regard to economic questions, to questions relative to
transport and to aerial navigation.

SECTION III.

LEFT BANK OF THE RHINE.

ARTICLE 42.

Germany is forbidden to maintain or construct any fortifications either on the
left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank to the west of a line drawn 50
kilometres to the East of the Rhine.

ARTICLE 43.

In the area defined above the maintenance and the assembly of armed forces,
either permanently or temporarily, and military maneuvers of any kind, as well as
the upkeep of all permanent works for mobilization, are in the same way
forbidden.

ARTICLE 44.

In case Germany violates in any manner whatever the provisions of Articles 42 and
43, she shall be regarded as committing a hostile act against the Powers
signatory of the present Treaty and as calculated to disturb the peace of the
world.

SECTION IV.

SAAR BASIN.

ARTICLE 45.

As compensation for the destruction of the coal-mines in the north of France and
as part payment towards the total reparation due from Germany for the damage
resulting from the war, Germany cedes to France in full and absolute possession,
with exclusive rights of exploitation, unencumbered and free from all debts and
charges of any kind, the coal-mines situated in the Saar Basin as defined in
Article 48.

ARTICLE 46.

In order to assure the rights and welfare of the population and to guarantee to
France complete freedom in working the mines, Germany agrees to the provisions of
Chapters I and II of the Annex hereto.

ARTICLE 47.

In order to make in due time permanent provision for the government of the Saar
Basin in accordance with the wishes of the populations, France and Germany agree
to the provisions of Chapter III of the Annex hereto.

ARTICLE 48.

The boundaries of the territory of the Saar Basin, as dealt with in the present
stipulations, will be fixed as follows: On the south and south-west: by the
frontier of France as fixed by the present Treaty. On the north-west and north:
by a line following the northern administrative boundary of the Kreis of Merzig
from the point where it leaves the French frontier to the point where it meets
the administrative boundary separating the commune of Saarholzbach from the
commune of Britten; following this communal boundary southwards and reaching the
administrative boundary of the canton of Merzig so as to include in the territory
of the Saar Basin the canton of Mettlach, with the exception of the commune of
Britten; following successively the northern boundaries of the cantons of Merzig
and Haustedt, which are incorporated in the aforesaid Saar Basin, then
successively the administrative boundaries separating the Kreise of Sarrelouis,
Ottweiler, and Saint-Wendel from the Kreise of Merzig, Treves (Trier), and the
Principality of Birkenfeld as far as a point situated about 500 metres north of
the village of Furschweiler (viz., the highest point of the Metzelberg). On the
north-east and east: from the last point defined above to a point about 3 1/2
kilometres east-north-east of Saint-Wendel: a line to be fixed on the ground
passing east of Furschweiler, west of Roschberg, east of points 418, 329 (south
of Roschberg) west of Leitersweiler, north-east of point 464, and following the
line of the crest southwards to its junction with the administrative boundary of
the Kreis of Kusel

thence in a southerly direction the boundary of the Kreis of Kusel, then the
boundary of the Kreis of Homburg towards the south-south-east to a point situated
about 1000 metres west of Dunzweiler; thence to a point about 1 kilometre south
of Hornbach- a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 424 (about
1000 metres south-east of Dunzweiler), point 363 (Fuchs-Berg), point 322
(south-west of Waldmohr), then east of Jagersburg and Erbach, then encircling
Homburg, passing through the points 361 (about 2-1/2 kilometres north-east by
east of that town), 342 (about 2 kilometres south-east of that town), 347
(Schreiners-Berg), 356, 350 (about 1-1/2 kilometres south-east of Schwarzenbach),
then passing east of Einod, south-east of points 322 and 333, about 2 kilometres
east of Webenheim, about 2 kilometres east of Mimbach, passing east of the
plateau which is traversed by the road from Mimbach to Bockweiler (so as to
include this road in the territory of the Saar Basin), passing immediately north
of the junction of the roads from Bockweiler and Altheim situated about 2
kilometres north of Altheim, then passing south of Ringweilerhof and north of
point 322, rejoining the frontier of France at the angle which it makes about 1
kilometre south of Hornbach (see Map No. 2 scale 1/100,000 annexed to the present
treaty). [See Introduction ]

A Commission composed of five members, one appointed by France, one by Germany,
and three by the Council of the League of Nations, which will select nationals of
other Powers, will be constituted within fifteen days from the coming into force
of the present Treaty, to trace on the spot the frontier line described above.

In those parts of the preceding line which do not coincide with administrative
boundaries, the Commission will endeavour to keep to the line indicated, while
taking into consideration, so far as is possible, local economic interests and
existing communal boundaries.

The decisions of this Commission will be taken by a majority, and will be binding
on the parties concerned.

ARTICLE 49.

Germany renounces in favour of the League of Nations, in the capacity of trustee,
the government of the territory defined above.

At the end of fifteen years from the coming into force of the present Treaty the
inhabitants of the said territory shall be called upon to indicate the
sovereignty under which they desire to be placed.

ARTICLE 50.

The stipulations under which the cession of the mines in the Saar Basin shall be
carried out, together with the measures intended to guarantee the rights and the
well-being of the inhabitants and the government of the territory, as well as the
conditions in accordance with which the plebiscite herein before provided for is
to be made, are laid down in the Annex hereto. This Annex shall be considered as
an integral part of the present Treaty, and Germany declares her adherence to it.

ANNEX.

In accordance with the provisions of Articles 45 to 50 of the present Treaty, the
stipulations under which the cession by Germany to France of the mines of the
Saar Basin will be effected, as well as the measures intended to ensure respect
for the rights and well-being of the population and the government of the
territory, and the conditions in which the inhabitants will be called upon to
indicate the sovereignty under which they may wish to be placed, have been laid
down as follows:

CHAPTER I .

CESSION AND EXPLOITATION OF MINING PROPERTY.

From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty,

all the deposits of coal situated within the Saar Basin as defined

in Article 48 of the said Treaty, become the complete and absolute property of
the French State.

The French State will have the right of working or not working the said mines, or
of transferring to a third party the right of working them, without having to
obtain any previous authorisation or to fulfil any formalities.

The French State may always require that the German mining laws and regulations
referred to below shall be applied in order to ensure the determination of its
rights.

2.

The right of ownership of the French State will apply not only to the deposits
which are free and for which concessions have not yet been granted, but also to
the deposits for which concessions have already been granted, whoever may be the
present proprietors, irrespective of whether they belong to the Prussian State,
to the Bavarian State, to other States or bodies, to companies or to individuals,
whether they have been worked or not, or whether a right of exploitation distinct
from the right of the owners of the surface of the soil has or has not been
recognised.

3.

As far as concerns the mines which are being worked, the transfer of the
ownership to the French State will apply to all the accessories and subsidiaries
of the said mines, in particular to their plant and equipment both on and below
the surface to their extracting machinery, their plants for transforming coal
into electric power, coke and by-products, their workshops means of
communication, electric lines, plant for catching and distributing water, land,
buildings such as offices, managers, employees, and workmen’s dwellings, schools,
hospitals and dispensaries, their stocks and supplies of every description, their
archives and plans, and in general everything which those who own or exploit the
mines possess or enjoy for the purpose of exploiting the mines and their
accessories and subsidiaries.

The transfer will apply also to the debts owing for products delivered before the
entry into possession by the French State and after the signature of the present
Treaty, and to deposits of money made by customers, whose rights will be
guaranteed by the French State.

4.

The French State will acquire the property free and clear of all debts and
charges. Nevertheless, the rights acquired, or in course of being acquired, by
the employees of the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries at the date of
the coming into force of the present Treaty, in connection with pensions for old
age or disability, will not be affected. In return, Germany must pay over to the
French State a sum representing the actuarial amounts to which the said employees
are entitled.

5.

The value of the property thus ceded to the French State will be determined by
the Reparation Commission referred to in Article 233 of Part VIII (Reparation) of
the present Treaty.

This value shall be credited to Germany in part payment of the amount due for
reparation. It will be for Germany to indemnify the proprietors or parties
concerned, whoever they may be.

6.

No tariff shall be established on the German railways and canals which may
directly or indirectly discriminate to the prejudice of the transport of the
personnel or products of the mines and their accessories or subsidiaries, or of
the material necessary to their exploitation. Such transport shall enjoy all the
rights and privileges which any international railway conventions may . guarantee
to similar products of French origin.

7.

The equipment and personnel necessary to ensure the despatch and transport of
the products of the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries, as well as the
carriage of workmen and employees, will be provided by the local railway
administration of the Basin.

8.

No obstacle shall be placed in the way of such improvements of railways or
waterways as the French State may judge necessary to assure the despatch and the
transport of the products of the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries,
such as double trackage, enlargement of stations, and construction of yards and
appurtenances. The distribution of expenses will, in the event of disagreement,
be submitted to arbitration.

The French State may also establish any new means of communication, such as
roads, electric lines, and telephone connections which it may consider necessary
for the exploitation of the mines it may exploit freely and without any
restrictions the means of communication of which it may become the owner,
particularly those connecting the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries
with the means of communication situated in French territory.

9.

The French State shall always be entitled to demand the application of the German
mining laws and regulations in force on November 11, 1918, excepting provisions
adopted exclusively in view of the state of war, with a view to the acquisition
of such land as it may judge necessary for the exploitation of the mines and
their accessories and subsidiaries.

The payment for damage caused to immovable property by the working of the said
mines and their accessories and subsidiaries shall be made in accordance with the
German mining laws and regulations above referred to.

10.

Every person whom the French State may substitute for itself as regards the whole
or part of its rights to the exploitation of the mines and their accessories and
subsidiaries shall enjoy the benefit of the privileges provided in this Annex.

11.

The mines and other immovable property which become the property of the French
State may never be made the subject of measures of forfeiture, forced sale,
expropriation or requisition, nor of any other measure affecting the right of
property.

The personnel and the plant connected with the exploitation of these mines or
their accessories and subsidiaries, as well as the product extracted from the
mines or manufactured in their accessories and subsidiaries, may not at any time
be made the subject of any measures of requisition.

12.

The exploitation of the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries, which
become the property of the French State will continue, subject to the provisions
of paragraph 23 below, to be subject to the regime established by the German laws
and regulations in force on November 11, 1918, excepting provisions adopted
exclusively in view of the state of war.

The rights of the workmen shall similarly be maintained, subject to the
provisions of the said paragraph 23, as established on November 11, 1918, by the
German laws and regulations above referred to.

No impediment shall be placed in the way of the introduction or employment in the
mines and their accessories and subsidiaries of workmen from without the Basin.

The employees and workmen of French nationality shall have the right to belong to
French labour unions.

13.

The amount contributed by the mines and their accessories and subsidiaries,
either to the local budget of the territory of the Saar Basin or to the communal
funds, shall be fixed with due regard to the ratio of the value of the mines to
the total taxable wealth of the Basin.

14.

The French State shall always have the right of establishing and maintaining, as
incidental to the mines, primary or technical schools for its employees and their
children, and of causing instruction therein to be given in the French language,
in accordance with such curriculum and by such teachers as it may select.

It shall also have the right to establish and maintain hospitals, dispensaries,
workmen’s houses and gardens, and other charitable and social institutions.

15.

The French State shall enjoy complete liberty with respect to the distribution,
dispatch and sale prices of-the products of the mines and their accessories and
subsidiaries.

Nevertheless, whatever may be the total product of the mines, the French
Government undertakes that the requirements of local consumption for industrial
and domestic purposes shall always be satisfied in the proportion existing in
1913 between the amount consumed locally and the total output of the Saar Basin.

CHAPTER II.

GOVERNMENT OF THE TERRITORY OF THE SAAR BASIN.

16.

The Government of the territory of the Saar Basin shall be entrusted to a
Commission representing the League of Nations. This Commission shall sit in the
territory of the Saar Basin.

17.

The Governing Commission provided for by paragraph 16 shall consist of five
members chosen by the Council of the League of Nations, and will include one
citizen of France, one native inhabitant of the Saar Basin, not a citizen of
France, and three members belonging to three countries other than France or
Germany.

The members of the Governing Commission shall be appointed for one year and may
be re-appointed. They can be removed by the Council of the League of Nations,
which will provide for their replacement.

The members of the Governing Commission will be entitled to a salary which will
be fixed by the Council of the League of Nations, and charged on the local
revenues.

18.

The Chairman of the Governing Commission shall be appointed for one year from
among the members of the Commission by the Council of the League of Nations and
may be re-appointed. The Chairman will act as the executive of the Commission.

19.

Within the territory of the Saar Basin the Governing Commission shall have
all-the powers of government hitherto belonging to the German Empire, Prussia, or
Bavaria, including the appointment and dismissal of officials, and the creation
of such administrative and representative bodies as it may deem necessary.

It shall have full powers to administer and operate the railways, canals, and the
different public services. Its decisions shall be taken by a majority.

20.

Germany will place at the disposal of the Governing Commission all official
documents and archives under the control of Germany, of any German State, or of
any local authority, which relate to the territory of the Saar Basin or to the
rights of the inhabitants thereof.

21.

It will be the duty of the Governing Commission to ensure, by such means and
under such conditions as it may deem suitable, the protection abroad of the
interests of the inhabitants of the territory of the Saar Basin.

22.

The Governing Commission shall have the full right of user of all property, other
than mines, belonging, either in public or in private domain, to the Government
of the German Empire, or the Government of any German State, in the territory of
the Saar Basin.

As regards the railways an equitable apportionment of rolling stock shall be made
by a mixed Commission on which the Government of the territory of the Saar Basin
and the German railways will be represented.

Persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails coming from or going to the
Saar Basin shall enjoy all the rights and privileges relating to transit and
transport which are specified in the provisions of Part XII (Ports, Waterways and
Railways) of the present Treaty.

23.

The laws and regulations in force on November 11, 1918, in the territory of the
Saar Basin (except those enacted in consequence of the state of war) shall
continue to apply.

If, for general reasons or to bring these laws and regulations into accord with
the provisions of the present Treaty, it is necessary to introduce modifications,
these shall be decided on, and put into effect by the Governing Commission, after
consultation with the elected representatives of the inhabitants in such a manner
as the Commission may determine.

No modification may be made in the legal regime for the exploitation of the
mines, provided for in paragraph 12, without the French State being previously
consulted, unless such modification results from a general regulation respecting
labour adopted by the League of Nations.

In fixing the conditions and hours of labour for men, women and children, the
Governing Commission is to take into consideration the wishes expressed by the
local labour organisations, as well as the principles adopted by the League of
Nations.

24.

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4, no rights of the inhabitants of the
Saar Basin acquired or in process of acquisition at the date of coming into force
of this Treaty, in respect of any insurance system of Germany or in respect of
any pension of any kind, are affected by any of the provisions of the present
Treaty.

Germany and the Government of the territory of the Saar Basin will preserve and
continue all of the aforesaid rights.

25.

The civil and criminal courts existing in the territory of the Saar Basin shall
continue.

A civil and criminal court will be established by the Governing Commission to
hear appeals from the decisions of the said courts

and to decide matters for which these courts are not competent.

The Governing Commission will be responsible for settling the organisation and
jurisdiction of the said court.

Justice will be rendered in the name of the Governing Commission.

26.

The Governing Commission will alone have the power of levying taxes and dues in
the territory of Saar Basin.

These taxes and dues will be exclusively applied to the needs of the territory.

The fiscal system existing on November 11, 1918, will be maintained as far as
possible, and no new tax except customs duties may be imposed without previously
consulting the elected representatives of the inhabitants.

27.

The present stipulation will not affect the existing nationality of the
inhabitants of the territory of the Saar Basin.

No hindrance shall be placed in the way of those who wish to acquire a different
nationality, but in such case the acquisition of the new nationality will involve
the loss of any other.

28.

Under the control of the Governing Commission the inhabitants will retain their
local assemblies, their religious liberties, their schools and their language.

The right of voting will not be exercised for any assemblies other than the local
assemblies, and will belong to every inhabitant over the age of twenty years,
without distinction of sex.

29.

Any of the inhabitants of the Saar Basin who may desire to leave the territory
will have full liberty to retain in it their immovable property or to sell it at
fair prices, and to remove their movable property free of any charges.

30.

There will be no military service, whether compulsory or voluntary, in the
territory of the Saar Basin, and the construction of fortifications therein is
forbidden.

Only a local gendarmerie for the maintenance of order may be established.

It will be the duty of the Governing Commission to provide in all cases for the
protection of persons and property in the Saar Basin.

31.

The territory of the Saar Basin as defined by Article 48 of the present Treaty
shall be subjected to the French customs regime. The receipts from the customs
duties on goods intended for local consumption shall be included in the budget of
the said territory after deduction of all costs of collection.

No export tax shall be imposed upon metallurgical products or coal exported from
the said territory to Germany, nor upon the German exports for the use of the
industries of the territory of the Saar Basin.

Natural or manufactured products originating in the Basin in transit over German
territory and, similarly, German products in

transit over the territory of the Basin shall be free of all customs duties.

Products which both originate in and pass from the Basin into Germany shall be
free of import duties for a period of five years from the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty, and during the same period articles imported from
Germany into the territory of the Basin for local consumption, shall likewise be
free of import duties.

During these five years the French Government reserves to itself the right of
limiting to the annual average of the quantities imported into Alsace-Lorraine
and France in the years 1911 to 1913 the quantities which may be sent into France
of all articles coming from the Basin which include raw materials and
semimanufactured goods imported duty free from Germany. Such average shall be
determined after reference to all available official information and statistics.

32.

No prohibition or restriction shall be imposed upon the circulation of French
money in the territory of the Saar Basin.

The French State shall have the right to use French money in all purchases,
payments, and contracts connected with the exploitation of the mines or their
accessories and subsidiaries.

33.

The Governing Commission shall have power to decide all questions arising from
the interpretation of the preceding provisions.

France and Germany agree that any dispute involving a difference of opinion as to
the interpretation of the said provision shall in the same way be submitted to
the Governing Commission and the decision of a majority of the Commission shall
be binding on both countries.

CHAPTER III.

PLEBISCITE.

34.

At the termination of a period of fifteen years from the coming into force of the
present Treaty, the population of the territory

of the Saar Basin will be called upon to indicate their desires in the following
manner: A vote will take place by communes or districts, on the three following
alternatives: (a) maintenance of the regime established by the present Treaty
and by this Annex; (b) union with France; (c) union with Germany.

All persons without distinction of sex, more than twenty years old at the date of
the voting, resident in the territory at the date of the signature of the present
Treaty, will have the right to vote.

The other conditions, methods, and the date of the voting shall be fixed by the
Council of the League of Nations in such a way as to secure the freedom, secrecy
and trustworthiness of the voting

35.

The League of Nations shall decide on the sovereignty under which the territory
is to be placed, taking into account the wishes of the inhabitants as expressed
by the voting.

(a) If, for the whole or part of the territory, the League of Nations decides in
favour of the maintenance of the regime established by the present Treaty and
this Annex, Germany hereby agrees to make such renunciation of her sovereignty in
favour of the League of Nations as the latter shall deem necessary. It will be
the duty of the League of Nations to take appropriate steps to adapt the regime
definitively adopted to the permanent welfare of the territory and the general
interest;

(b) If, for the whole or part of the territory, the League of Nations decides in
favour of union with France, Germany hereby agrees to cede to France in
accordance with the decision of the League of Nations, all rights and title over
the territory specified by the League.

(c) If, for the whole or part of the territory, the League of Nations decides in
favour of union with Germany, it will be the duty of the League of Nations to
cause the German Government to be re-established in the government of the
territory specified by the League.

36.

If the League of Nations decides in favour of the union of the whole or part of
the territory of the Saar Basin with Germany, France’s rights of ownership in the
mines situated in such part of


the territory will be repurchased by Germany in their entirety at

a price payable in gold. The price to be paid will be fixed by three experts, one
nominated by Germany, one by France, and one,

who shall be neither a Frenchman nor a German, by the Council

of the League of Nations; the decision of the experts will be given by a
majority.

The obligation of Germany to make such payment shall be

taken into account by the Reparation Commission, and for the

purpose of this payment Germany may create a prior charge upon her assets or
revenues upon such detailed terms as shall be agreed to by the Reparation
Commission. If, nevertheless, Germany after a period of one year from the date
on which the payment becomes due shall not have effected the said payment, the
Reparation Commission shall do so in accordance with such instructions as may be
given by the League of Nations, and, if necessary, by liquidating that part of
the mines which is in question.

37.

If, in consequence of the repurchase provided for in paragraph

36, the ownership of the mines or any part of them is transferred to Germany, the
French State and French nationals shall have

the right to purchase such amount of coal of the Saar Basin as

their industrial and domestic needs are found at that time to

require. An equitable arrangement regarding amounts of coal,

duration of contract, and prices will be fixed in due time by the

Council of the League of Nations.

38.

It is understood that France and Germany may, by special

agreements concluded before the time fixed for the payment of

the price for the repurchase of the mines, modify the provisions

of paragraphs 36 and 37.

39.

The Council of the League of Nations shall make such provisions as may be
necessary for the establishment of the regime

which is to take effect after the decisions of the League of Nations mentioned in
paragraph 35 have become operative, including an equitable apportionment of any
obligations of the Government of the territory of the Saar Basin arising from
loans raised by the Commission or from other causes.

From the coming into force of the new regime, the powers of the Governing
Commission will terminate, except in the case provided for in paragraph 35 (a).


In all matters dealt with in the present Annex, the decisions of the Council of
the League of Nations will be taken by a majority.

SECTION V.

ALSACE-LORRAINE.

The HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, recognising the moral obligation to redress the
wrong done by Germany in 1871 both to the rights of France and to the wishes of
the population of Alsace and Lorraine, which were separated from their country in
spite of the solemn protest of their representatives at the Assembly of Bordeaux

Agree upon the following Articles:

ARTICLE 5l.

The territories which were ceded to Germany in accordance with the Preliminaries
of Peace signed at Versailles on February 26, 187l, and the Treaty of Frankfort
of May lo, 1871, are restored to French sovereignty as from the date of the
Armistice of November 11, 1918.

The provisions of the Treaties establishing the delimitation of the frontiers
before 1871 shall be restored.

ARTICLE 52.

The German Government shall hand over without delay to the French Government all
archives, registers, plans, titles and documents of every kind concerning the
civil, military, financial, judicial or other administrations of the territories
restored to French sovereignty. If any of these documents, archives, registers,
titles or plans nave been misplaced, they will be restored by the German
Government on the demand of the French Government. ARTICLE 53.

Separate agreements shall be made between France and Germany dealing with the
interests of the inhabitants of the territories referred to in Article 51,
particularly as regards their civil rights, their business and the exercise of
their professions, it being understood that Germany undertakes as from the
present date to recognise and accept the regulations laid down in the Annex
hereto regarding the nationality of the inhabitants or natives of the said
territories, not to claim at any time or in any place whatsoever as German
nationals those who shall have been declared on any ground to be French, to
receive all others in her territory, and to conform, as regards the property of
German nationals in the territories indicated in Article 51, with the provisions
of Article 297 and the Annex to Section IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the
present Treaty.

Those German nationals who without acquiring French nationality shall receive
permission from the French Government to reside in the said territories shall not
be subjected to the provisions of the said Article.

ARTICLE 54.

Those persons who have regained French nationality in virtue of paragraph 1 of
the Annex hereto will be held to be Alsace-Lorrainers for the purposes of the
present Section.

The persons referred to in paragraph 2 of the said Annex will from the day on
which they have claimed French nationality be held to be Alsace-Lorrainers with
retroactive effect as from November 11, 1918. For those whose application is
rejected, the privilege will terminate at the date of the refusal.

Such juridical persons will also have the status of AlsaceLorrainers as shall
have been recognised as possessing this quality whether by the French
administrative authorities or by a judicial decision.

ARTICLE 55.

The territories referred to in Article 5l shall return to France free and quit of
all public debts under the conditions laid down in Article 255 of Part IX
(Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 56.

In conformity with the provisions of Article 256 of Part IX (Financial Clauses)
of the present Treaty, France shall enter into

possession of all property and estate, within the territories referred to in
Article 5l, which belong to the German Empire or German States, without any
payment or credit on this account to any of the States ceding the territories.

This provision applies to all movable or immovable property of public or private
domain together with all rights whatsoever belonging to the German Empire or
German States or to their administrative areas.

Crown property and the property of the former Emperor or other German sovereigns
shall be assimilated to property of the public domain.

ARTICLE 57.

Germany shall not take any action, either by means of stamping or by any other
legal or administrative measures not applying equally to the rest of her
territory, which may be to the detriment of the legal value or redeemability of
Germany monetary instruments or monies which, at the date of the signature of the
present Treaty, are legally current, and at that date are in the possession of
the French Government.

ARTICLE 58.

A special Convention will determine the conditions for repayment in marks of the
exceptional war expenditure advanced during the course of the war by
Alsace-Lorraine or by the public bodies in Alsace-Lorraine on account of the
Empire in accordance with German law, such as payment to the families of persons
mobilised, requisitions, billeting of troops, and assistance to persons who have
been evacuated. In fixing the amount of these sums Germany shall be credited
with that portion which Alsace-Lorraine would have contributed to the Empire to
meet the expenses resulting from these payments, this contribution being
calculated according to the proportion of the Imperial revenues derived from
Alsace-Lorraine in l913.

ARTICLE 59.

The French Government will collect for its own account the Imperial taxes, duties
and dues of every kind leviable in the territories referred to in Article 5l and
not collected at the time of the Armistice of November 11, 19l8.

ARTICLE 60.

The German Government shall without delay restore to AlsaceLorrainers
(individuals, juridical persons and public institutions) all property, rights and
interests belonging to them on November 11, 1918, in so far as these are situated
in German territory.

ARTICLE 61.

The German Government undertakes to continue and complete without delay the
execution of the financial clauses regarding Alsace-Lorraine contained in the
Armistice Conventions.

ARTICLE 62.

The German Government undertakes to bear the expense of all civil and military
pensions which had been earned in Alsace. Lorraine on date of November 11, 1918,
and the maintenance of which was a charge on the budget of the German Empire.

The German Government shall furnish each year the funds necessary for the payment
in francs, at the average rate of exchange for that year, of the sums in marks to
which persons resident in Alsace-Lorraine would have been entitled if
Alsace-Lorraine had remained under German jurisdiction.

ARTICLE 63.

For the purposes of the obligation assumed by Germany in Part VIII (Reparation)
of the present Treaty to give compensation for damages caused to the civil
populations of the Allied and Associated countries in the form of fines, the
inhabitants of the territories referred to in Article 51 shall be assimilated to
the above-mentioned populations.

ARTICLE 64.

The regulations concerning the control of the Rhine and of the Moselle are laid
down in Part XII (Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 65.

Within a period of three weeks after the coming into force of the present Treaty,
the port of Strasburg and the port of Kehl shall be constituted, for a period of
seven years, a single unit from the point of view of exploitation.

The administration of this single unit will be carried on by a manager named by
the Central Rhine Commission, which shall also have power to remove him.

This manager shall be of French nationality.

He will reside in Strasburg and will be subject to the supervision of the Central
Rhine Commission.

There will be established in the two ports free zones in conformity with Part XII
(Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present Treaty.

A special Convention between France and Germany which shall be submitted to the
approval of the Central Rhine Commission, will fix the details of this
organisation, particularly as regards finance.

It is understood that for the purpose of the present Article the port of Kehl
includes the whole of the area necessary for the movement of the port and the
trains which serve it, including the harbour, quays and railroads, platforms,
cranes, sheds and warehouses, silos, elevators and hydro-electric plants, which
make up the equipment of the port.

The German Government undertakes to carry out all measures which shall be
required of it in order to assure that all the making-up and switching of trains
arriving at or departing from Kehl, whether for the right bank or the left bank
of the Rhine, shall be carried on in the best conditions possible.

All property rights shall be safeguarded. In particular the administration of the
ports shall not prejudice any property rights of the French or Baden railroads.

Equality of treatment as respects traffic shall be assured in both ports to the
nationals, vessels and goods of every country.

In case at the end of the sixth year France shall consider that the progress made
in the improvement of the port of Strasburg still requires a prolongation of this
temporary regime, she may ask for such prolongation from the Central Rhine
Commission, which may grant an extension for a period not exceeding three years.

Throughout the whole period of any such extension the free zones above provided
for shall be maintained.

Pending appointment of the first manager by the Central Rhine Commission a
provisional manager who shall be of French nationality may be appointed by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers subject to the foregoing provisions.

For all purposes of the present Article the Central Rhine Commission will decide
by a majority of votes.

ARTICLE 66.

The railway and other bridges across the Rhine now existing within the limits of
Alsace-Lorraine shall, as to all their parts and their whole length, be the
property of the French State, which shall ensure their upkeep.

The French Government is substituted in all the, rights of the German Empire over
all the railways which were administered by the Imperial railway administration
and which are actually working or under construction.

The same shall apply to the rights of the Empire with regard to railway and
tramway concessions within the territories referred to in Article 51.

This substitution shall not entail any payment on the part of the French State.

The frontier railway stations shall be established by a subsequent agreement, it
being stipulated in advance that on the Rhine frontier they shall be situated on
the right bank.

ARTICLE 67

The French Government is substituted in all the rights of the German Empire over all the railways which were administered by the Imperial railway administration and which are actually working or under construction.

The same shall apply to the rights of the Empire with regard to railway and tramway concessions within the territories referred to in Article 51.

This substitution shall not entail any payment on the part of the French State.

The frontier railway stations shall be established by a subsequent agreement, it being stipulated in advance that on the Rhine frontier they shall be situated on the right bank.

ARTICLE 68.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 268 of Chapter I of Section I of
Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, for a period of five years from
the coming into force of the present Treaty, natural or manufactured products
originating in and coming from the territories referred to in Article 51 shall,
on importation into German customs territory, be exempt from all customs duty.

The French Government may fix each year, by decree communicated to the German
Government, the nature and amount of the products which shall enjoy this
exemption.

The amount of each product which may be thus sent annually into Germany shall not
exceed the average of the amounts sent annually in the years 1911-1913.

Further, during the period of five years above mentioned, the German Government
shall allow the free export from Germany and the free reimportation into Germany,
exempt from all customs, duties and other charges (including internal charges),
of yarns, tissues, and other textile materials or textile products of any kind
and in any condition, sent from Germany into the territories referred to in
Article 51, to be subjected there to any finishing process, such as bleaching,
dyeing, printing, mercerization, gassing, twisting or dressing.

During a period of ten years from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
central electric supply works situated in German territory and formerly
furnishing electric power to the territories referred to in Article 51 or to any
establishment the working of which passes permanently or temporarily from Germany
to France, shall be required to continue such supply up to the amount of
consumption corresponding to the undertakings and contracts current on November
11, 1918.

Such supply shall be furnished according to the contracts in force and at a rate
which shall not be higher than that paid to the said works by German nationals.

ARTICLE 69.

During a period of ten years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, central electric supply works situated in German territory and formerly furnishing electric power to the territories referred to in Article 51 or to any establishment the working of which passes permanently or temporarily from Germany to France, shall be required to continue such supply up to the amount of consumption corresponding to the undertakings and contracts current on November 11, 1918.

Such supply shall be furnished according to the contracts in force and at a rate which shall not be higher than that paid to the said works by German nationals.

ARTICLE 70.

It is understood that the French Government preserves its right to prohibit in
the future in the territories referred to in Article 51 all new German
participation:

(1) In the management or exploitation of the public domain and of public
services, such as railways, navigable waterways, water works, gas works, electric
power, etc. ;

(2) In the ownership of mines and quarries of every kind and in enterprises
connected therewith;

(3) In metallurgical establishments, even though their working may not be
connected with that of any mine.

ARTICLE 71.

As regards the territories referred to in Article 51, Germany renounces on behalf
of herself and her nationals as from November 11, 1918, all rights under the law
of May 25, 1910, regarding the trade in potash salts, and generally under any
stipulations for the intervention of German organisations in the working of the
potash mines. Similarly, she renounces on behalf of herself and her- nationals
all rights under any agreements, stipulations or laws which may exist to her
benefit with regard to other products of the aforesaid territories.

ARTICLE 72.

The settlement of the questions relating to debts contracted before November 11,
1918, between the German Empire and the German States or their nationals residing
in Germany on the one part and Alsace-Lorrainers residing in Alsace-Lorraine on
the other part shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of Section III
of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, the expression “before the
war” therein being replaced by the expression “before November 11, 1918,. The
rate of exchange applicable in the case of such settlement shall be the average
rate quoted on the Geneva Exchange during the month preceding November 11, 1918.

There may be established in the territories referred to in Article 51, for the
settlement of the aforesaid debts under the conditions laid down in Section III
of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, a special clearing office, it
being understood that this office shall be regarded as a “central office” under
the provisions of paragraph 1 of the Annex to the said Section.

ARTICLE 73.

The private property, rights and interests of Alsace-Lorrainers in Germany will
be regulated by the stipulations of Section IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of
the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 74.

The French Government reserves the right to retain and liquidate all the
property, rights and interests which German nationals or societies controlled by
Germany possessed in the territories referred to in Article 51 on November 11,
1918, subject to the conditions laid down in the last paragraph of Article 53
above. Germany will directly compensate her nationals who may have been
dispossessed by the aforesaid liquidations. The product of these liquidations
shall be applied in accordance with the stipulations of Sections III and IV of
Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 75.

Notwithstanding the stipulations of Section V of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the
present Treaty, all contracts made before the date of the promulgation in
Alsace-Lorraine of the French decree of November 30, 1918, between
Alsace-Lorrainers (whether individuals or juridical persons) or others resident
in Alsace-Lorraine on the one part and the German Empire or German States and
their nationals resident in Germany on the other part, the execution of which has
been suspended by the Armistice or by subsequent French legislation, shall be
maintained.

Nevertheless, any contract of which the French Government shall notify the
cancellation to Germany in the general interest within a period of six months
from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, shall be annulled
except in respect of any debt or other pecuniary obligation arising out of any
act done or money paid thereunder before November 11, 1918. If this dissolution
would cause one of the parties substantial prejudice, equitable compensation,
calculated solely on the capital employed without taking account of loss of
profits, shall be accorded to the prejudiced party.

With regard to prescriptions, limitations and forfeitures in Alsace-Lorraine, the
provisions of Articles 300 and 301 of Section V of Part X (Economic Clauses)
shall be applied with the substitution for the expression “outbreak of war” of
the expression “November 11, 1918”, and for the expression “duration of the war”
of the expression “period from November 11, 1918, to the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty”.

ARTICLE 76.

Questions concerning rights in industrial, literary or artistic property of
Alsace-Lorrainers shall be regulated in accordance with the general stipulations
of Section VII of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, it being
understood that AlsaceLorrainers holding rights of this nature under German
legislation will preserve full and entire enjoyment of those rights on German
territory.

ARTICLE 77

The German Government undertakes to pay over to the French Government such
proportion of all reserves accumulated by the Empire or by public or private
bodies dependent upon it, for the purposes of disability and old age insurance,
as would fall to the disability and old age insurance fund at Strasburg.

The same shall apply in respect of the capital and reserves accumulated in
Germany falling legitimately to other social insurance funds, to miners,
superannuation funds, to the fund of the railways of Alsace-Lorraine, to other
superannuation organisations established for the benefit of the personnel of
public administrations and institutions operating in Alsace-Lorraine and also in
respect of the capital and reserves due by the insurance fund of private
employees at Berlin, by reason of engagements entered into for the benefit of
insured persons of that category resident in Alsace-Lorraine. A special
Convention shall determine the conditions and procedure of these transfers.

ARTICLE 78.

With regard to the execution of judgments, appeals and prosecutions, the
following rules shall be applied:

(1) All civil and commercial judgments which shall have been given since August
3, 1914, by the Courts of Alsace-Lorraine between Alsace-Lorrainers, or between
Alsace-Lorrainers and foreigners, or between foreigners, and which shall not have
been appealed from before November 11, 1918, shall be regarded as final and
susceptible of immediate execution without further formality.

When the judgment has been given between Alsace-Lorrainers and Germans or between
Alsace-Lorrainers and subjects of the allies of Germany, it shall only be capable
of execution after the issue of an exequatur by the corresponding new tribunal in
the restored territory referred to in Article 51.

(2) All judgments given by German Courts since August 3, 1914, against
Alsace-Lorrainers for political crimes or misdemeanors shall be regarded as null
and void.

(3) All sentences passed since November 11, 1918, by the Court of the Empire at
Leipzig on appeals against the decisions of the Courts of Alsace-Lorraine shall
be regarded as null and void and shall be so pronounced. The papers in regard to
the cases in which such sentences have been given shall be returned to the Courts
of Alsace-Lorraine concerned.

All appeals to the Court of the Empire against decisions of the Courts of
Alsace-Lorraine shall be suspended. The papers shall be returned under the
aforesaid conditions for transfer without delay to the French Cour de Cassation,
which shall be competent to decide them.

(4) All prosecutions in Alsace-Lorraine for offences committed during the period
between November 11, 1918, and the coming into force of the present Treaty will
be conducted under German law except in so far as this has been modified by
decrees duly published on the spot by the French authorities.

(5) All other questions as to competence, procedure or administration of justice
shall be determined by a special Convention between France and Germany.

ARTICLE 79.

The stipulations as to nationality contained in the Annex hereto shall be
considered as of equal force with the provisions of the present Section.

All other questions concerning Alsace-Lorraine which are not regulated by the
present Section and the Annex thereto or by the general provisions of the present
Treaty will form the subject of further conventions between France and Germany.

ANNEX.

1..

As from November 11, 1918, the following persons are ipso facto reinstated in
French nationality:

(1) Persons who lost French nationality by the application of the Franco-German
Treaty of May 10, 1871, and who have not since that date acquired any nationality
other than German;

(2) The legitimate or natural descendants of the persons referred to in the
immediately preceding paragraph, with the exception of those whose ascendants in
the paternal line include a German who migrated into Alsace-Lorraine after July
15, 1870;

(3) All persons born in Alsace-Lorraine of unknown parents, L or whose
nationality is unknown.

2.

Within the period of one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
persons included in any of the following categories may claim French nationality:

(1) All persons not restored to French nationality under paragraph 1 above, whose
ascendants include a Frenchman or Frenchwoman who lost French nationality under
the conditions referred to in the said paragraph;

(2) All foreigners, not nationals of a German State, who acquired the status of a
citizen of Alsace-Lorraine before August 3, 1914;

(3) All Germans domiciled in Alsace-Lorraine, if they have been so domiciled
since a date previous to July 15, 1870, or if one of their ascendants was at that
date domiciled in Alsace-Lorraine;

(4) All Germans born or domiciled in Alsace-Lorraine who have served in the
Allied or Associated armies during the present war, and their descendants;

(5) All persons born in Alsace-Lorraine before May 10, 1871, of foreign parents,
and the descendants of such persons;

(6) The husband or wife of any person whose French nationality may have been
restored under paragraph 1, or who may have claimed and obtained French
nationality in accordance with the

preceding provisions.

The legal representative of a minor may exercise, on behalf of that minor, the
right to claim French nationality; and if that right has not been exercised, the
minor may claim French nationality within the year following his majority.

Except in the cases provided for in No.(6) of the present paragraph, the French
authorities reserve to themselves the right, in individual cases, to reject the
claim to French nationality.

3.

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, Germans born or domiciled in
Alsace-Lorraine shall not acquire French nationality by reason of the restoration
of Alsace-Lorraine to France, even though they may have the status of citizens of
Alsace-Lorraine.

They may acquire French nationality only by naturalisation, on condition of
having been domiciled in Alsace-Lorraine from a date previous to August 3, 1914,
and of submitting proof of unbroken residence within the restored territory for a
period of three years from November 11, 1918.

France will be solely responsible for their diplomatic and consular protection
from the date of their application for French naturalisation.

The French Government shall determine the procedure by which reinstatement in
French nationality as of right shall be effected, and the conditions under which
decisions shall be given upon claims to such nationality and applications for
naturalisation, as provided by the present Annex.

SECTION VI.

AUSTRIA.

ARTICLE 80.

Germany acknowledges and will respect strictly the independence of Austria,
within the frontiers which may be fixed in a Treaty between that State and the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers; she agrees that this independence shall
be inalienable, except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.

SECTION VII.

CZECH0-SLOVAK STATE.

ARTICLE 81.

Germany, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated
Powers, recognises the complete independence of the Czecho-Slovak State which
will include the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians to the south of the
Carpathians. Germany hereby recognises the frontiers of this State as determined
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers and the other interested States.

ARTICLE 82.

The old frontier as it existed on August 3, 1914, between Austria-Hungary and the
German Empire will constitute the frontier between Germany and the Czecho-Slovak
State.

ARTICLE 83.

Germany renounces in favour of the Czecho-Slovak State all rights and title over
the portion of Silesian territory defined as follows: starting from a point about
2 kilometres south-east of Katscher, on the boundary between the Kreise of
Leobschutz and Ratibor: the boundary between the two Kreise; then, the former
boundary between Germany and Austria-Hungary up to a point on the Oder
immediately to the south of the Ratibor-Oderberg railway; thence, towards the
north-west and up to a point about 2 kilometres to the south-east of Katscher: a
line to be fixed on the spot passing to the west of Kranowitz. A Commission
composed of seven members, five nominated by the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers, one by Poland and one by the Czecho-Slovak State, will be appointed
fifteen days after the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the
spot the frontier line between Poland and the Czecho-Slovak State. The decisions
of this Commission will be taken by a majority and shall be binding on the
parties concerned. Germany hereby agrees to renounce in favour of the
Czecho-Slovak State all rights and title over the part of the Kreis of Leobschutz
comprised within the following boundaries in case after the determination of the
frontier between Germany and Poland the said part of that Kreis should become
isolated from Germany: from the south-eastern extremity of the salient of the
former Austrian frontier at about 5 kilometres to the west of Leobschutz
southwards and up to the point of junction with the boundary between the Kreise
of Leobschutz and Ratibor: the former frontier between Germany and
Austria-Hungary; then, northwards, the administrative boundary between the Kreise
of Leobschutz and Ratibor up to a point situated about 2 kilometres to the
south-east of Katscher; thence, north-westwards and up to the starting-point of
this definition: a line to be fixed on the spot passing to the east of Katscher,

ARTICLE 84.

German nationals habitually resident in any of the territories recognised as
forming part of the Czecho-Slovak State will obtain Czecho-Slovak nationality
ipso facto and lose their German nationality.

ARTICLE 85.

Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
German nationals over eighteen years of age habitually resident in any of the
territories recognized as forming part of the Czecho-Slovak State will be
entitled to opt for German. nationality. Czecho-Slovaks who are German nationals
and are habitually resident in Germany will have a similar right to opt for
Czecho-Slovak nationality.

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their
children under eighteen years of age.

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the succeeding
twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have
opted.

They will be entitled to retain their landed property in the territory of the
other State where they had their place of residence before exercising the right
to opt. They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No
export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal
of such property.

Within the same period Czecho-Slovaks, who are German nationals and are in a
foreign country will be entitled, in the absence of any provisions to the
contrary in the foreign law, and if they have not acquired the foreign
nationality, to obtain Czecho-Slovak nationality and lose their German
nationality by complying with the requirements laid down by the Czecho-Slovak
State.

ARTICLE 86.

The Czecho-Slovak State accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary
by the said Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who
differ from the majority of the population in race, language, or religion.

The Czecho-Slovak State further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the
said Powers such provisions as they may deem necessary to protect freedom of
transit and equitable treatment of the commerce of other nations.

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Germany and Prussia
which the Czecho-Slovak State will have to assume on account of the Silesian
territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in accordance with
Article 254 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions not decided by the present Treaty
which may arise in consequence of the cession of the said territory.

SECTION VIII.

POLAND.

ARTICLE 87.

Germany, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied and Associated
Powers, recognises the complete independence of Poland, and renounces in her
favour all rights and title over the territory bounded by the Baltic Sea, the
eastern frontier of Germany as laid down in Article 27 of Part II (Boundaries of
Germany) of the present Treaty up to a point situated about 2 kilometres to the
east of Lorzendorf, then a line to the acute angle which the northern boundary of
Upper Silesia makes about 3 kilometres north-west of Simmenau, then the boundary
of Upper Silesia to its meeting point with the old frontier between Germany and
Russia, then this frontier to the point where it crosses the course of the
Niemen, and then the northern frontier of East Prussia as laid down in Article 28
of Part II aforesaid.

The provisions of this Article do not, however, apply to the territories of East
Prussia and the Free City of Danzig, as defined in Article 28 of Part II
(Boundaries of Germany) and in Article 10o of Section XI (Danzig) of this Part.

The boundaries of Poland not laid down in the present Treaty will be subsequently
determined by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

A Commission consisting of seven members, five of whom shall be nominated by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Germany and one by Poland, shall
be constituted fifteen days after the coming into force of the present Treaty to
delimit on the spot the frontier line between Poland and Germany. The decisions
of the Commission will be taken by a majority of votes and shall be binding upon
the parties concerned.

ARTICLE 88.

In the portion of Upper Silesia included within the boundaries described below,
the inhabitants will be called upon to indicate by a vote whether they wish to be
attached to Germany or to Poland: starting from the northern point of the salient
of the old province of Austrian Silesia situated about 8 kilometres east of
Neustadt, the former frontier between Germany and Austria to its junction with
the boundary between the Kreise of Leobschutz and Ratibor; thence in a northerly
direction to a point about 2 kilometres south-east of Katscher: the boundary
between the Kreise of Leobschutz and Ratibor; thence in a south-easterly
direction to a point on the course of the Oder immediately south of the
Ratibor-Oderberg railway: a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of
Kranowitz; thence the old boundary between Germany and Austria, then the old
boundary between Germany and Russia to its junction with the administrative
boundary between Posnania and Upper Silesia; thence this administrative boundary
to its junction with the administrative boundary between Upper and Middle
Silesia, thence westwards to the point where the administrative boundary turns
in an acute angle to the south-east about 3 kilometres north-west of Simmenau:
the boundary between Upper and Middle Silesia; then in a westerly direction to a
point to be fixed on the ground about 2 kilometres east of Lorzendorf: a line to
be fixed on the ground passing north of Klein Hennersdorf: thence southwards to
the point where the boundary between Upper and Middle Silesia cuts the
Stadtel-Karlsruhe road: a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of
Hennersdorf, Polkowitz, Noldau, Steinersdorf, and Dammer, and east of Strehlitz,
Nassadel, Eckersdorf, Schwirz, and Stadtel; thence the boundary between Upper and
Middle Silesia to its junction with the eastern boundary of the Kreis of
Falkenberg; then the eastern boundary of the Kreis of Falkenberg to the point of
the salient which is 3 kilometres east of Puschine; thence to the northern point
of the salient of the old province of Austrian Silesia situated about 8
kilometres east of Neustadt: a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of
Zulz.

The regime under which this plebiscite will be taken and given effect to is laid
down in the Annex hereto.

The Polish and German Governments hereby respectively bind themselves to conduct
no prosecutions on any part of their territory and to take no exceptional
proceedings for any political action performed in Upper Silesia during the period
of the regime laid down in the Annex hereto and up to the settlement of the final
status of the country.

Germany hereby renounces in favour of Poland all rights and title over the
portion of Upper Silesia Iying beyond the frontier line fixed by the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers as the result of the plebiscite.

ANNEX.

1.

Within fifteen days from the coming into force of the present Treaty the German
troops and such officials as may be designated by the Commission set up under the
provisions of paragraph 2 shall evacuate the plebiscite area. Up to the moment of
the completion of the evacuation they shall refrain from any form of
requisitioning in money or in kind and from all acts likely to prejudice the
material interests of the country.

Within the same period the Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Councils which have been
constituted in this area shall be dissolved. Members of such Councils who are
natives of another region and are exercising their functions at the date of the
coming into force of the present Treaty, or who have gone out of office since
March 1, 1919, shall be evacuated.

All military and semi-military unions formed in the said area by inhabitants of
the district shall be immediately disbanded All members of such military
organisations who are not domiciled in the said area shall be required to leave
it.

2.

The plebiscite area shall be immediately placed under the authority of an
International Commission of four members to be designated by the following
Powers: the United States of America, France, the British Empire, and Italy. It
shall be occupied by troops belonging to the Allied and Associated Powers, and
the German Government undertakes to give facilities for the transference of these
troops to Upper Silesia.

3.

The Commission shall enjoy all the powers exercised by the German or the Prussian
Government, except those of legislation or taxation. It shall also be substituted
for the Government of the province and the Regierungsbezirk.

It shall be within the competence of the Commission to interpret the powers
hereby conferred upon it and to determine to what extent it shall exercise them,
and to what extent they shall be left in the hands of the existing authorities.

Changes in the existing laws and the existing taxation shall only be brought into
force with the consent of the Commission.

The Commission will maintain order with the help of the troops which will be at
its disposal, and, to the extent which it may deem necessary, by means of
gendarmerie recruited among the inhabitants of the country.

The Commission shall provide immediately for the replacement of the evacuated
German officials and, if occasion arises, shall itself order the evacuation of
such authorities and proceed to the replacement of such local authorities as may
be required.

It shall take all steps which it thinks proper to ensure the freedom, fairness,
and secrecy of the vote. In particular, it shall have the right to order the
expulsion of any person who may in any way have attempted to distort the result
of the plebiscite by methods of corruption or intimidation.

The Commission shall have full power to settle all questions arising from the
execution of the present clauses. It shall be assisted by technical advisers
chosen by it from among the local population.

The decisions of the Commission shall be taken by a majority vote.

4.

The vote shall take place at such date as may be determined by the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers, but not sooner than six months or later than
eighteen months after the establishment of the Commission in the area.

The right to vote shall be given to all persons without distinction of sex who:

(a) Have completed their twentieth year on the 1st January of the year in which
the plebiscite takes place-

(b) Were born in the plebiscite area or have been domiciled there since a date to
be determined by the Commission, which shall not be subsequent to January 1,
1919, or who have been expelled by the German authorities and have not retained
their domicile there.

Persons convicted of political offences shall be enabled to exercise their right
of voting.

Every person will vote in the commune where he is domiciled or in which he was
born, if he has not retained his domicile in the area.

The result of the vote will be determined by communes according to the majority
of votes in each commune.

5.

On the conclusion of the voting, the number of votes cast in each commune will be
communicated by the Commission to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
with a full report as to the taking of the vote and a recommendation as to the
line which ought to be adopted as the frontier of Germany in Upper Silesia. In
this recommendation regard will be paid to the wishes of the inhabitants as shown
by the vote, and to the geographical and economic conditions of the locality.

6.

As soon as the frontier has been fixed by the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers, the German authorities will be notified by the International Commission
that they are free to take over the administration of the territory which it is
recognised should be German, the said authorities must proceed to do so within
one month of such notification and in the manner prescribed by the Commission.

Within the same period and in the manner prescribed by the commission, the Polish
Government must proceed to take over the administration of the territory which it
is recognized should be Polish.

When the administration of the territory has been provided for by the German and
Polish authorities respectively, the powers of the Commission will terminate.

The cost of the army of occupation and expenditure by the Commission, whether in
discharge of its own functions or in the administration of the territory, will be
a charge on the area.

ARTICLE 89.

Poland undertakes to accord freedom of transit to persons, goods, vessels,
carriages, wagons, and mails in transit between East Prussia and the rest of
Germany over Polish territory, including territorial waters, and to treat them at
least as favourably as the persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails
respectively of Polish or of any other more favoured nationality, origin
importation, starting point, or ownerships as regards facilities, restrictions
and all other matters.

Goods in transit shall be exempt from all customs or other similar duties.

Freedom of transit will extend to telegraphic and telephonic services under the
conditions laid down by the conventions referred to in Article 98.

ARTICLE 90.

Poland undertakes to permit for a period of fifteen years the exportation to
Germany of the products of the mines in any part of Upper Silesia transferred to
Poland in accordance with the present Treaty.

Such products shall be free from all export duties or other charges or
restrictions on exportation.

Poland agrees to take such steps as may be necessary to secure that any such
products shall be available for sale to purchasers in Germany on terms as
favourable as are applicable to like products sold under similar conditions to
purchasers in Poland or in any other country.

ARTICLE 91.

German nationals habitually resident in territories recognised as forming part of
Poland will acquire Polish nationality ipso facto and will lose their German
nationality. German nationals, however, or their descendants who became resident
in these territories after January 1, 1908, will not acquire Polish nationality
without a special authorisation from the Polish State.

Within a period of two years after the coming into force of the present Treaty,
German nationals over 18 years of age habitually resident in any of the
territories recognised as forming part of Poland will be entitled to opt for
German nationality.

Poles who are German nationals over 18 years of age and habitually resident in
Germany will have a similar right to opt for Polish nationality.

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their
children under 18 years of age.

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt may within the succeeding
twelve months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they have
opted.

They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the territory of the
other State where they had their place of residence before exercising the right
to opt.

They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No export
or import duties or charges may be imposed upon them in connection with the
removal of such property.

Within the same period Poles who are German nationals and are in a foreign
country will be entitled, in the absence of any provisions to the contrary in the
foreign law, and if they have not acquired the foreign nationality, to obtain
Polish nationality and to lose their German nationality by complying with the
requirements laid down by the Polish State.

In the portion of Upper Silesia submitted to a plebiscite the provisions of this
Article shall only come into force as from the definitive attribution of the
territory.

ARTICLE 92.

The proportion and the nature of the financial liabilities of Germany and Prussia
which are to be borne by Poland will be determined in accordance with Article 254
of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

There shall be excluded from the share of such financial liabilities assumed by
Poland that portion of the debt which, according to the finding of the Reparation
Commission referred to in the above-mentioned Article, arises from measures
adopted by the German and Prussian Governments with a view to German colonisation
in Poland.

In fixing under Article 256 of the present Treaty the value of the property and
possessions belonging to the German Empire and to the German States which pass to
Poland with the territory transferred above, the Reparation Commission shall
exclude from the valuation buildings, forests, and other State property which
belonged to the former Kingdom of Poland; Poland shall acquire these properties
free of all costs and charges.

In all the German territory transferred in accordance with the present Treaty and
recognised as forming definitively part of Poland, the property, rights, and
interests of German nationals shall not be liquidated under Article 297 by the
Polish Government except in accordance with the following provisions:

(1) The proceeds of the liquidation shall be paid direct to the owner;

(2) If on his application the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Section VI
of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty, or an arbitrator appointed by
that Tribunal, is satisfied that the conditions of the sale or measures taken by
the Polish Government outside its general legislation were unfairly prejudicial
to the price obtained, they shall have discretion to award to the owner equitable
compensation to be paid by the Polish Government.

Further agreements will regulate all questions arising out of the cession of the
above territory which are not regulated by the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 93.

Poland accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by the said Powers
to protect the interests of inhabitants of Poland who differ from the majority of
the population in race, language, or religion.

Poland further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the said Powers such
provisions as they may deem necessary to protect freedom of transit and equitable
treatment of the commerce of other nations.

SECTION IX.

EAST PRUSSIA.

ARTICLE 94.

In the area between the southern frontier of East Prussia, as described in
Article 28 of Part II (Boundaries of Germany) of the present Treaty, and the line
described below, the inhabitants will be called upon to indicate by a vote the
State to which they wish to belong:

The western and northern boundary of Regierungsbezirk Allenstein to its junction
with the boundary between the Kreise of Oletsko and Angerburg; thence, the
northern boundary of the Kreis of Oletsko to its junction with the old frontier
of East Prussia.

ARTICLE 95.

The German troops and authorities will be withdrawn from the area defined above
within a period not exceeding fifteen days after the coming into force of the
present treaty. Until the evacuation is completed they will abstain from all
requisitions in money or in kind and from all measures injurious to the economic
interests of the country.

On the expiration of the above-mentioned period the said area will be placed
under the authority of an International Commission of five members appointed by
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. This Commission will have general
powers of administration and, in particular, will be charged with the duty of
arranging for the vote and of taking such measures as it may deem necessary to
ensure its freedom, fairness, and secrecy. The Commission will have all necessary
authority to decide any questions to which the execution of these provisions may
give rise. The Commission will make such arrangements as may be necessary for
assistance in the exercise of its functions by officials chosen by itself from
the local population. Its decisions will be taken by a majority.

Every person, irrespective of sex, will be entitled to vote who:

(a) Is 20 years of age at the date of the coming into force of the present
Treaty, and

(b) Was born within the area where the vote will take place or has been
habitually resident there from a date to be fixed by the Commission.

Every person will vote in the commune where he is habitually resident or, if not
habitually resident in the area, in the commune where he was born.

The result of the vote will be determined by communes (Gemeinde) according to the
majority of the votes in each commune.

On the conclusion of the voting the number of votes cast in each commune will be
communicated by the Commission to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
with a full report as the taking of the vote and a recommendation as to the line
which ought to be adopted as the boundary of East Prussia in this region . In
this recommendation regard will be paid to the wishes of the inhabitants as shown
by the vote and to the geographical and economic conditions of the locality. The
Principal Allied and Associated Powers will then fix the frontier between East
Prussia and Poland in this region.

If the line fixed by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers is such as to
exclude from East Prussia any part of the territory defined in Article 94, the
renunciation of its rights by Germany in favour of Poland, as provided in Article
87 above, will extend to the territories so excluded.

As soon as the line has been fixed by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
the authorities administering East Prussia will be notified by the International
Commission that they are free to take over the administration of the territory to
the north of the line so fixed, which they shall proceed to do within one month
of such notification and in the manner prescribed by the Commission. Within the
same period and as prescribed by the Commission, the Polish Government must
proceed to take over the administration of the territory to the south of the
line. The administration of the territory by the East Prussian and Polish
authorities respectively has been provided for, the powers of the Commission will
terminate.

Expenditure by the Commission, whether in the discharge of its own functions or
in the administration of the territory, will be borne by the local revenues East
Prussia will be required to bear such proportion of any deficit as may be fixed
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.


ARTICLE 96.

In the area comprising the Kreise of Stuhm and Rosenberg and the portion of the
Kreis of Marienburg which is situated east of the Nogat and that of Marienwerder
east of the Vistula, the inhabitants will be called upon to indicate by a vote,
to be taken in each commune (Gemeinde), whether they desire the various communes
situated in this territory to belong to Poland or to East Prussia.

ARTICLE 97.

The German troops and authorities will be withdrawn from the area defined in
Article 96 within a period not exceeding fifteen days after the coming into force
of the present Treaty. Until the evacuation is completed they will abstain from
all requisitions in money or in kind and from all measures injurious to the
economic interests of the country.

On the expiration of the above-mentioned period, the said area will be placed
under the authority of an International Commission of five members appointed by
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. This Commission, supported if
occasion arises by the necessary forces, will have general powers of
administration and in particular will be charged with the duty of arranging for
the vote and of taking such measures as it may deem necessary to ensure its
freedom, fairness, and secrecy. The Commission will conform as far as possible to
the provisions of the present Treaty relating to the plebiscite in the Allenstein
area; its decisions will be taken by a majority.

Expenditure by the Commission, whether in the discharge of its own functions or
in the administration of the territory, will be borne by the local revenues.

On the conclusion of the voting the number of votes cast in each commune will be
communicated by the Commission to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers with
a full report as to the taking of the vote and a recommendation as to the line
which ought to be adopted as the boundary of East Prussia in this region. In this
recommendation regard will be paid to the wishes of the inhabitants as shown by
the vote and to the geographical and economic conditions of the locality. The
Principal Allied and Associated Powers will then fix the frontier between East
Prussia and Poland in this region, leaving in any case to Poland for the whole of
the section bordering on the Vistula full and complete control of the river
including the east bank as far east of the river as may be necessary for its
regulation and improvement, Germany agrees that in any portion of the said
territory which remains German, no fortifications shall at any time be erected.
The Principal Allied and Associated Powers will at the same time draw up
regulations for assuring to the population of East Prussia to the fullest extent
and under equitable conditions access to the Vistula and the use of it for
themselves, their commerce, and their boats.

The determination of the frontier and the foregoing regulations shall be binding
upon all the parties concerned.

When the administration of the territory has been taken over by the East Prussian
and Polish authorities respectively, the powers of the Commission will terminate.

ARTICLE 98.

Germany and Poland undertake, within one year of the coming into force of this
Treaty, to enter into conventions of which the terms, in case of difference,
shall be settled by the Council of the League of Nations, with the object of
securing, on the one hand, to Germany full and adequate railroad, telegraphic and
telephonic facilities for communication between the rest of Germany and East
Prussia over the intervening Polish territory, and on the other hand to Poland
full and adequate railroad, telegraphic and telephonic facilities for
communication between Poland and the Free City of Danzig over any German
territory that may, on the right bank of the Vistula, intervene between Poland
and the Free City of Danzig.

SECTION X.

MEMEL.

ARTICLE 99.

Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all
rights and title over the territories included between the Baltic, the
north-eastern frontier of East Prussia as defined in Article 28 of Part II
(Boundaries of Germany) of the present Treaty and the former frontier between
Germany and Russia. Germany undertakes to accept the settlement made by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers in regard to these territories,
particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of the inhabitants.

SECTION XI.

FREE CITY OF DANZIG.

ARTICLE 100.

Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all
rights and title over the territory comprised within the following limits:

from the Baltic Sea southwards to the point where the principal channels of
navigation of the Nogat and the Vistula (Weichsel) meet:

the boundary of East Prussia as described in Article 28 of Part II (Boundaries of
Germany) of the present Treaty;

thence the principal channel of navigation of the Vistula downstream to a point
about 6-1/2 kilometres north of the bridge of Dirschau;

thence north-west to point 5-1/2 kilometres south-east of the church of Guttland:

a line to be fixed on the ground,

thence in a general westerly direction to the salient made by the boundary of the
Kreis of Berent 8-1/2 kilometres north-east of Schoneck:

a line to be fixed on the ground passing between Muhlbanz on the south and
Rambeltsch on the north;

thence the boundary of the Kreis of Berent westwards to the re-entrant which it
forms 6 kilometres north-north-west Schoneck; thence to a point on the median
line of Lonkener See:

a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Neu Fietz and Schatarpi and
south of Barenhutte and Lonken;

thence the median line of Lonkener See to its northernmost point;

thence to the southern end of Pollenziner See:

a line to be fixed on the ground;

thence the median line of Pollenziner See to its northernmost point;

thence in a north-easterly direction to a point about 1 kilometre south of
Koliebken church, where the Danzig-Neustadt railway crosses a stream:

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south-east of Kamehlen, Krissau, Fidlin,
Sulmin (Richthof), Mattern, Schaferei, and to the north-west of Neuendorf,
Marschau, Czapielken, Hoch- and Klein-Kelpin, Pulvermuhl, Renneberg, and the
towns of Oliva and Zoppot;

thence the course of the stream mentioned above to the Baltic Sea. The boundaries
described above are drawn on a German map, scale 1/100,000, attached to the
present Treaty (Map No. 3).

ARTICLE 101.

A Commission composed of three members appointed by the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers, including a High Commissioner as President, one member
appointed by Germany and one member appointed by Poland, shall be constituted
within fifteen days of the coming into force of the present Treaty for the
purpose of delimiting on the spot the frontier of the territory as described
above, taking into account as far as possible the existing communal boundaries.

ARTICLE 102.

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers undertake to establish the town of
Danzig, together with the rest of the territory described in Article 100, as a
Free City. It will be placed under the protection of the League of Nations.


ARTICLE 103.

A constitution for the Free City of Danzig shall be drawn up by the duly
appointed representatives of the Free City in agreement with a High Commissioner
to be appointed by the League of Nations. This constitution shall be placed under
the guarantee of the League of Nations.

The High Commissioner will also be entrusted with the duty of dealing in the
first instance with all differences arising between Poland and the Free City of
Danzig in regard to this Treaty or any arrangements or agreements made
thereunder.

The High Commissioner shall reside at Danzig.

ARTICLE 104.

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers undertake to negotiate a Treaty
between the Polish Government and the Free City of Danzig, which shall come into
force at the same time as the establishment of the said Free City, with the
following objects:

(1) To effect the inclusion of the Free City of Danzig within the Polish Customs
frontiers, and to establish a free area in the port;

(2) To ensure to Poland without any restriction the free use and service of all
waterways, docks, basins, wharves and other works within the territory of the
Free City necessary for Polish imports and exports;

(3) To ensure to Poland the control and administration of the Vistula and of the
whole railway system within the Free City, except such street and other railways
as serve primarily the needs of the Free City, and of postal, telegraphic and
telephonic communication between Poland and the port of Danzig;

(4) To ensure to Poland the right to develop and improve the waterways, docks,
basins, wharves, railways and other works and means of communication mentioned in
this Article, as well as to lease or purchase through appropriate processes such
land and other property as may be necessary for these purposes,

(5) To provide against any discrimination within the Free City of Danzig to the
detriment of citizens of Poland and other persons of Polish origin or speech;

(6) To provide that the Polish Government shall undertake the conduct of the
foreign relations of the Free City of Danzig as well as the diplomatic protection
of citizens of that city when abroad.

ARTICLE 105.

On the coming into force of the present Treaty German nationals ordinarily
resident in the territory described in Article 100 will ipso facto lose their
German nationality in order to become nationals of the Free City of Danzig.

ARTICLE 106.

Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
German nationals over 18 years of age ordinarily resident in the territory
described in Article 100 will have the right to opt for German nationality.

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their
children less than 18 years of age.

All persons who exercise the right of option referred to above must during the
ensuing twelve months transfer their place of residence to Germany.

These persons will be entitled to preserve the immovable property possessed by
them in the territory of the Free City of Danzig. They may carry with them their
movable property of every description. No export or import duties shall be
imposed upon upon them in this connection.

ARTICLE 107.

All property situated within the territory of the Free City of Danzig belonging
to the German Empire or to any German State shall pass to the Principal Allied
and Associated Powers for transfer to the Free City of Danzig or to the Polish
State as they may consider equitable.

ARTICLE 108.

The proportion and nature of the financial liabilities of Germany and of Prussia
to be borne by the Free City of Danzig shall be fixed in accordance with Article
254 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

All other questions which may arise from the cession of the territory referred to
in Article 100 shall be settled by further agreements.

SECTION XII.

SCHLESWIG.

ARTICLE 109.

The frontier between Germany and Denmark shall be fixed in conformity with the
wishes of the population.

For this purpose, the population inhabiting the territories of the former German
Empire situated to the north of a line, from East to West, (shown by a brown line
on the map No. 4, annexed to the present Treaty):

leaving the Baltic Sea about 13 kilometres east-north-east of Flensburg,

running south-west so as to pass south-east of: Sygum, Ringsberg, Munkbrarup,
Adelby, Tastrup, Jarplund, Oversee, and northwest of: Langballigholz, Langballig,
Bonstrup, Rullschau, Weseby, Kleinwolstrup, Gross-Solt,

thence westwards passing south of Frorup and north of Wanderup,

thence in a south-westerly direction passing south-east of Oxlund, Stieglund and
Ostenau and north-west of the villages on the Wanderup-Kollund road,

thence in a north-westerly direction passing south-west of Lowenstedt, Joldelund,
Goldelund, and north-east of Kolkerheide and Hogel to the bend of the Soholmer
Au, about 1 kilometre east of Soholm, where it meets the southern boundary of the
Kreis of Tondern, following this boundary to the North Sea,passing south of the
islands of Fohr and Amrum and north of the islands of Oland and Langeness, shall
be called upon to pronounce by a vote which will be taken under the following
conditions:

(1) Within a period not exceeding ten days from the coming into force of the
present Treaty, the German troops and authorities (including the Oberprasidenten,
Regierungs-prasidenten, Landrathe, Amtsvorsteher, Oberburgermeister) shall
evacuate the zone lying to the north of the line above fixed.

Within the same period the Workmen’s and Soldiers’, Councils which have been
constituted in this zone shall be dissolved; members of such councils who are
natives of another region and are exercising their functions at the date of the
coming into force of the present Treaty, or who have gone out of office since
March 1, 1919, shall also be evacuated.

The said zone shall immediately be placed under the authority of an International
Commission, composed of five members, of whom three will be designated by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers; the Norwegian and Swedish Governments
will each be requested to designate a member; in the event of their failing to do
so, these two members will be chosen by the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers.

The Commission, assisted in case of need by the necessary forces, shall have
general powers of administration. In particular, it shall at once provide for
filling the places of the evacuated German authorities, and if necessary shall
itself give orders for their evacuation, and proceed to fill the places of such
local authorities as may be required. It shall take all steps which it thinks
proper to ensure the freedom, fairness, and secrecy of the vote. It shall be
assisted by German and Danish technical advisers chosen by it from among the
local population. Its decisions will be taken by a majority.

One-half of the expenses of the Commission and of the expenditure occasioned by
the plebiscite shall be paid by Germany.

(2) The right to vote shall be given to all persons, without distinction of sex,
who:

(a) Have completed their twentieth year at the date of the coming into force of
the present Treaty; and

(b) Were born in the zone in which the plebiscite is taken, or have been
domiciled there since a date before January 1, 1900, or had been expelled by the
German authorities without having retained their domicile there.

Every person will vote in the commune (Gemeinde) where he is domiciled or of
which he is a native.

Military persons, officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the German
army, who are natives of the zone of Schleswig in which the plebiscite is taken,
shall be given the opportunity to return to their native place in order to take
part in the voting there.

(3) In the section of the evacuated zone lying to the north of a line, from East
to West (shown by a red line on map No. 4 which is annexed to the present
Treaty). [See Introduction]:

passing south of the island of Alsen and following the median line of Flensburg
Fjord,

leaving the fjord about 6 kilometres north of Flensburg and following the course
of the stream flowing past Kupfermuhle upstream to a point north of Niehuus,

passing north of Pattburg and Ellund and south of Froslee to meet the eastern
boundary of the Kreis of Tondern at its junction with the boundary between the
old jurisdiction of Slogs and Kjaer (Slogs, Herred, and Kaer Herred),

following the latter boundary to where it meets the Scheidebek, following the
course of the Scheidebek (AIte Au), Suder Au, and Wied Au downstream successively
to the point where the latter bends northwards about 1,500 metres west of
Ruttebull

thence, in a west-north-westerly direction to meet the North Sea north of
SieItoft,

thence, passing north of the island of Sylt,

the vote above provided for shall be taken within a period not exceeding three
weeks after the evacuation of the country by the German troops and authorities.

The result will be determined by the majority of votes cast in the whole of this
section. This result will be immediately communicated by the Commission to the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers and proclaimed.

If the vote results in favour of the reincorporation of this territory in the
Kingdom of Denmark, the Danish Government in agreement with the Commission will
be entitled to effect its occupation with their military and administrative
authorities immediately after the proclamation.

(4) In the section of the evacuated zone situated to the south of the preceding
section and to the north of the line which starts from the Baltic Sea 13
kilometres from Flensburg and ends north of the islands of Oland and Langeness,
the vote will be taken within a period not exceeding five weeks after the
plebiscite shall have been held in the first section.

The result will be determined by communes (Gemeinden), in accordance with the
majority of the votes cast in each commune (Gemeinde).

ARTICLE 110.

Pending a delimitation on the spot, a frontier line will be fixed by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers according to a line based on the result of
the voting, and proposed by the International Commission, and taking into account
the particular geographical and economic conditions of the localities in
question.

From that time the Danish Government may effect the occupation of these
territories with the Danish civil and military authorities, and the German
Government may reinstate up to the said frontier line the German civil and
military authorities whom it has evacuated.

Germany hereby renounces definitely in favour of the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers all rights of sovereignty over the territories situated to the
north of the frontier line fixed in accordance with the above provisions. The
Principal Allied and Associated Powers will hand over the said territories to
Denmark.

ARTICLE 111.

A Commission composed of seven members, five of whom shall be nominated by the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Denmark, and one by Germany, shall
be constituted within fifteen days from the date when the final result of the
vote is known, to trace the frontier line on the spot.

The decisions of the Commission will be taken by a majority of votes and shall be
binding on the parties concerned.

ARTICLE 112.

All the inhabitants of the territory which is returned to Denmark will acquire
Danish nationality ipso facto, and will lose their German nationality.

Persons, however, who had become habitually resident in this territory after
October 1, 1918, will not be able to acquire Danish nationality without
permission from the Danish Government.

ARTICLE 113.

Within two years from the date on which the sovereignty over the whole or part of
the territory of Schleswig subjected to the plebiscite is restored to Denmark:

Any person over 18 years of age, born in the territory restored to Denmark not
habitually resident in this region, and possessing German nationality, will be
entitled to opt for Denmark;


Any person over 18 years of age habitually resident in the territory restored to
Denmark will be entitled to opt for Germany.

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will cover their
children less than 18 years of age.

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the ensuing twelve
months transfer their place of residence to the State in favour of which they
have opted.

They will be entitled to retain the immovable property which they own in the
territory of the other State in which they were habitually resident before
opting. They may carry with them their movable property of every description. No
export or import duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal
of such property.

ARTICLE 114.

The proportion and nature of the financial or other obligations of Germany and
Prussia which are to be assumed by Denmark will be fixed in accordance with
Article 254 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Further stipulations will determine any other questions arising out of the
transfer to Denmark of the whole or part of the territory of which she was
deprived by the Treaty of October 30, 1864.

SECTION XIII.

HELIGOLAND.

ARTICLE 115.

The fortifications, military establishments, and harbours, of the Islands of
Heligoland and Dune shall be destroyed under the supervision of the Principal
Allied Governments by German labour and at the expense of Germany within a period
to be determined by the said Governments.

The term “harbours,, shall include the north-east mole, the west wall, the outer
and inner breakwaters, and reclaimed land within them, and all naval and military
works, fortifications, and buildings, constructed or under construction, between
lines connecting the following positions taken from the British Admiralty chart
No. 126 of April 19, 1918:

(a) lat. 54° 10′ 49″ N.; long. 7° 53′ 39″ E.; (b) ­54° 10′ 35″ N.; ­ 7° 54′ 18″
E.; (c) ­54° 10′ 14″ N.; ­ 7° 54′ 00″ E.; (d) ­54° 10′ 17″ N.; ­ 7° 53′ 37″ E.;
(e) ­54° 10′ 44″ N.; ­ 7° 53′ 26″ E.

These fortifications, military establishments, and harbours shall not be
reconstructed nor shall any similar works be constructed in future.

SECTION XIV.

RUSSIA AND RUSSIAN STATES.

ARTICLE 116.

Germany acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and inalienable the
independence of all the territories which were part of the former Russian Empire
on August 1, 1914.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 259 of Part IX (Financial Clauses)
and Article 292 of Part X (Economic Clauses) Germany accepts definitely the
abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaties and of all other treaties, conventions,
and agreements entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in Russia.

The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve the rights of Russia to obtain
from Germany restitution and reparation based on the principles of the present
Treaty.

ARTICLE 117.

Germany undertakes to recognise the full force of all treaties or agreements
which may be entered into by the Allied and Associated Powers with States now
existing or coming into existence in future in the whole or part of the former
Empire of Russia as it existed on August 1, 1914, and to recognise the frontiers
of any such States as determined therein.


MANDATES IN AFRICA

[see MAP]

PART IV.

GERMAN RIGHTS AND INTERESTS OUTSIDE GERMANY.

ARTICLE 118.

In territory outside her European frontiers as fixed by the present Treaty,
Germany renounces all rights, titles and privileges whatever in or over territory
which belonged to her or to her allies, and all rights, titles and privileges
whatever their origin which she held as against the Allied and Associated Powers.

Germany hereby undertakes to recognise and to conform to the measures which may
be taken now or in the future by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, in
agreement where necessary with third Powers, in order to carry the above
stipulation into effect.

In particular Germany declares her acceptance of the following Articles relating
to certain special subjects.

SECTION I.

GERMAN COLONIES.

ARTICLE 119.

Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all her
rights and titles over her oversea possessions.

ARTICLE 120.

All movable and immovable property in such territories belonging to the German
Empire or to any German State shall pass to the Government exercising authority
over such territories, on the terms laid down in Article 257 of Part IX
(Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty. The decision of the local courts in
any dispute as to the nature of such property shall be final.

ARTICLE 121.

The provisions of Sections I and IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present
Treaty shall apply in the case of these territories whatever be the form of
Government adopted for them.

ARTICLE 122.

The Government exercising authority over such territories may make such
provisions as it thinks fit with reference to the repatriation from them of
German nationals and to the conditions upon which German subjects of European
origin shall, or shall not, be allowed to reside, hold property, trade or
exercise a profession in them.

ARTICLE 123.

The provisions of Article 260 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present
Treaty shall apply in the case of all agreements concluded with German nationals
for the construction or exploitation of public works in the German oversea
possessions, as well as any sub-concessions or contracts resulting therefrom
which may have been made to or with such nationals.

ARTICLE 124.

Germany hereby undertakes to pay, in accordance with the estimate to be presented
by the French Government and approved by the Reparation Commission, reparation
for damage suffered by French nationals in the Cameroons or the frontier zone by
reason of the acts of the German civil and military authorities and of German
private individuals during the period from January 1, 1900, to August 1, 1914.

ARTICLE 125.

Germany renounces all rights under the Conventions and Agreements with France of
November 4, 1911, and September 28, 1912, relating to Equatorial Africa. She
undertakes to pay to the French Government, in accordance with the estimate to be
presented by that Government and approved by the Reparation Commission, all the
deposits, credits, advances, etc., effected by virtue of these instruments in
favour of Germany.

ARTICLE 126.

Germany undertakes to accept and observe the agreements made or to be made by the
Allied and Associated Powers or some of them with any other Power with regard to
the trade in arms and spirits, and to the matters dealt with in the General Act
of Berlin of February 26, 1885, the General Act of Brussels of July 2, 1890, and
the conventions completing or modifying the same.

ARTICLE 127.

The native inhabitants of the former German oversea possessions shall be entitled
to the diplomatic protection of the Governments exercising authority over those
territories.

SECTION II.

CHINA.

ARTICLE 128.

Germany renounces in favour of China all benefits and privileges resulting from
the provisions of the final Protocol signed at Peking on September 7, 1901, and
from all annexes, notes and documents supplementary thereto. She likewise
renounces in favour of China any claim to indemnities accruing thereunder
subsequent to March 14, 1917.

ARTICLE 129.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties
shall apply, in so far as concerns them respectively:

(1) The Arrangement of August 29, 1902, regarding the new Chinese customs tariff;

(2) The Arrangement of September 27, 1905, regarding Whang-Poo, and the
provisional supplementary Arrangement of April 4, 1912.

China, however, will no longer be bound to grant to Germany the advantages or
privileges which she allowed Germany under these Arrangements.

[SEE MAP p. 87]


ARTICLE 130.

Subject to the provisions of Section VIII of this Part, Germany cedes to China
all the buildings, wharves and pontoons, barracks, forts, arms and munitions of
war, vessels of all kinds, wireless telegraphy installations and other public
property belonging to the German Government, which are situated or may be in the
German Concessions at Tientsin and Hankow or elsewhere in Chinese territory.

It is understood, however, that premises used as diplomatic or consular
residences or offices are not included in the above cession, and, furthermore,
that no steps shall be taken by the Chinese Government to dispose of the German
public and private property situated within the so-called Legation Quarter at
Peking without the consent of the Diplomatic Representatives of the Powers which,
on the coming into force of the present Treaty, remain Parties to the Final
Protocol of September 7, 1901.

ARTICLE 131.

Germany undertakes to restore to China within twelve months from the coming into
force of the present Treaty all the astronomical instruments which her troops in
1900-1901 carried away from China, and to defray all expenses which may be
incurred in effecting such restoration, including the expenses of dismounting,
packing, transporting, insurance and installation in Peking.

ARTICLE 132.

Germany agrees to the abrogation of the leases from the Chinese Government under
which the German Concessions at Hankow and Tientsin are now held.

China, restored to the full exercise of her sovereign rights in the above areas,
declares her intention of opening them to international residence and trade. She
further declares that the abrogation of the leases under which these concessions
are now held shall not affect the property rights of nationals of Allied and
Associated Powers who are holders of lots in these concessions.

ARTICLE 133

Germany waives all claims against the Chinese Government or against any Allied or
Associated Government arising out of the internment of German nationals in China
and their repatriation. She equally renounces all claims arising out of the
capture and condemnation of German ships in China, or the liquidation,
sequestration or control of German properties, rights and interests in that
country since August 14, 1917. This provision, however, shall not affect the
rights of the parties interested in the proceeds of any such liquidation, which
shall be governed by the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present
Treaty.

ARTICLE 134

Germany renounces in favour of the Government of His Britannic Majesty the German
State property in the British Concession at Shameen at Canton. She renounces in
favour of the French and Chinese Governments conjointly the property of the
German school situated in the French Concession at Shanghai.

SECTION III.

SIAM.

ARTICLE 135.

Germany recognises that all treaties, conventions and agreements between her and
Siam, and all rights, title and privileges derived therefrom, including all
rights of extraterritorial jurisdiction, terminated as from July 22, 1917.

ARTICLE 136.

All goods and property in Siam belonging to the German Empire or to any German
State, with the exception of premises used as diplomatic or consular residences
or offices, pass ipso facto and without compensation to the Siamese Government.

The goods, property and private rights of German nationals in Siam shall be dealt
with in accordance with the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the
present Treaty.

ARTICLE 137

Germany waives all claims against the Siamese Government on behalf of herself or
her nationals arising out of the seizure or condemnation of German ships, the
liquidation of German property, or the internment of German nationals in Siam.
This provision shall not affect the rights of the parties interested in the
proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be governed by the provisions of
Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

SECTION IV.

LIBERIA.

ARTICLE 138.

Germany renounces all rights and privileges arising from the arrangements of 1911
and 1912 regarding Liberia, and particularly the right to nominate a German
Receiver of Customs in Liberia.

She further renounces all claim to participate in any measures whatsoever which
may be adopted for the rehabilitation of Liberia.

ARTICLE 139.

Germany recognises that all treaties and arrangements between her and Liberia
terminated as from August 4, 1917.

ARTICLE 140

The property, rights and interests of Germans in Liberia shall be dealt with in
accordance with Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

SECTION V.

MOROCCO.

ARTICLE 141.

Germany renounces all rights, titles and privileges conferred on her by the
General Act of Algeciras of April 7, 1906, and by the Franco-German Agreements of
February 9, 1909, and November 4, 1911. All treaties, agreements, arrangements
and contracts concluded by her with the Sherifian Empire are regarded as
abrogated as from August 3, 1914

In no case can Germany take advantage of these instruments and she undertakes not
to intervene in any way in negotiations relating to Morocco which may take place
between France and the other Powers.

ARTICLE 142.

Germany having recognised the French Protectorate in Morocco, hereby accepts all
the consequences of its establishment, and she renounces the regime of the
capitulations therein.

This renunciation shall take effect as from August 3, 1914.

ARTICLE 143.

The Sherifian Government shall have complete liberty of action in regulating the
status of German nationals in Morocco and the conditions in which they may
establish themselves there.

German protected persons, semsars and “associes agricoles”, shall be considered
as having ceased, as from August 3, 1914, to enjoy the privileges attached to
their status and shall be subject to the ordinary law.

ARTICLE 144.

All property and possessions in the Sherifian Empire of the German Empire and the
German States pass to the Maghzen without payment.

For this purpose, the property and possessions of the German Empire and States
shall be deemed to include all the property of the Crown, the Empire or the
States, and the private property of the former German Emperor and other Royal
personages.

All movable and immovable property in the Sherifian Empire belonging to German
nationals shall be dealt with in accordance with Sections III and IV of Part X
(Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty.

Mining rights which may be recognised as belonging to German nationals by the
Court of Arbitration set up under the Moroccan Mining Regulations shall form the
subject of a valuation, which the arbitrators shall be requested to make, and
these rights shall then be treated in the same way as property in Morocco
belonging to German nationals.

ARTICLE 145.

The German Government shall ensure the transfer to a person nominated by the
French Government of the shares representing Germany’s portion of the capital of
the State Bank of Morocco. The value of these shares, as assessed by the
Reparation Commission, shall be paid to the Reparation Commission for the credit
of Germany on account of the sums due for reparation. The German Government shall
be responsible for indemnifying its nationals so dispossessed.

This transfer will take place without prejudice to the repayment of debts which
German nationals may have contracted towards the State Bank of Morocco.

ARTICLE 146.

Moroccan goods entering Germany shall enjoy the treatment accorded to French
goods

SECTION VI.

EGYPT.

ARTICLE 147.

Germany declares that she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed over Egypt by
Great Britain on December 18, 1914, and that she renounces the regime of the
Capitulations in Egypt.

This renunciation shall take effect as from August 4, 1914.

ARTICLE 148

All treaties, agreements, arrangements and contracts concluded by Germany with
Egypt are regarded as abrogated as from August 4, 1914.

In no case can Germany avail herself of these instruments and she undertakes not
to intervene in any way in negotiations relating to Egypt which may take place
between Great Britain and the other Powers.

ARTICLE 149.

Until an Egyptian law of judicial organization establishing courts with universal
jurisdiction comes into force, provision shall be made, by means of decrees
issued by His Highness the Sultan, for the exercise of jurisdiction over German
nationals and property by the British Consular Tribunals.

ARTICLE 150

The Egyptian Government shall have complete liberty of action in regulating the
status of German nationals and the conditions under which they may establish
themselves in Egypt.

ARTICLE 151.

Germany consents to the abrogation of the decree issued by His Highness the
Khedive on November 28, 1914, relating to the Commission of the Egyptian Public
Debt, or to such changes as the Egyptian Government may think it desirable to
make therein.

ARTICLE 152.

Germany consents, in so far as she is concerned, to the transfer to His Britannic
Majesty’s Government of the powers conferred on His Imperial Majesty the Sultan
by the Convention signed at Constantinople on October 29, 1888, relating to the
free navigation of the Suez Canal.

She renounces all participation in the Sanitary, Maritime, and Quarantine Board
of Egypt and consents, in so far as she is concerned, to the transfer to the
Egyptian Authorities of the powers of that Board.

ARTICLE 153.

All property and possessions in Egypt of the German Empire and the German States
pass to the Egyptian Government without payment.

For this purpose, the property and possessions of the German Empire and States
shall be deemed to include all the property of the Crown, the Empire or the
States, and the private property of the former German Emperor and other Royal
personages.

All movable and immovable property in Egypt belonging to German nationals shall
be dealt with in accordance with Sections III and IV of Part X (Economic Clauses)
of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 154.

Egyptian goods entering Germany shall enjoy the treatment accorded to British
goods.

SECTION VII

TURKEY AND BULGARIA.

ARTICLE 155.

Germany undertakes to recognise and accept all arrangements which the Allied and
Associated Powers may make with Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to any rights,
interests and privileges whatever which might be claimed by Germany or her
nationals in Turkey and Bulgaria and which are not dealt with in the provisions
of the present Treaty.

SECTION VIII

SHANTUNG.

ARTICLE 156.

Germany renounces, in favour of Japan, all her rights, title and
privileges¯particularly those concerning the territory of Kiaochow, railways,
mines and submarine cables­which she acquired in virtue of the Treaty concluded
by her with China on March 6 1898, and of all other arrangements relative to the
Province of Shantung.

All German rights in the Tsingtao-Tsinanfu Railway, including its branch lines
together with its subsidiary property of all kinds, stations, shops, fixed and
rolling stock, mines, plant and material for the exploitation of the mines, are
and remain acquired by Japan, together with all rights and privileges attaching
thereto.

The German State submarine cables from Tsingtao to Shanghai and from Tsingtao to
Chefoo, with all the rights, privileges and properties attaching thereto, are
similarly acquired by Japan, free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.

ARTICLE 157.

The movable and immovable property owned by the German State in the territory of
Kiaochow, as well as all the rights which Germany might claim in consequence of
the works or improvements made or of the expenses incurred by her, directly or
indirectly, in connection with this territory, are and remain acquired by Japan,
free and clear of all charges and encumbrances.

ARTICLE 158.

Germany shall hand over to Japan within three months from the coming into force
of the present Treaty the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and documents
of every kind, wherever they may be, relating to the administration, whether
civil, military, financial, judicial or other, of the territory of Kiaochow.

Within the same period Germany shall give particulars to Japan of all treaties,
arrangements or agreements relating to the rights, title or privileges referred
to in the two preceding Articles.

PART V.

MILITARY, NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES.

In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of the
armaments of all nations, Germany undertakes strictly to observe the military,
naval and air clauses which follow.

SECTION I.

MILITARY CLAUSES.

CHAPTER I.

EFFECTIVES AND CADRES OF THE GERMAN ARMY.

ARTICLE 159.

The German military forces shall be demobilised and reduced as prescribed
hereinafter.

ARTICLE 160.

(1) By a date which must not be later than March 31, 1920, the German Army must
not comprise more than seven divisions of infantry and three divisions of
cavalry.

After that date the total number of effectives in the Army of the States
constituting Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men, including officers
and establishments of depots. The Army shall be devoted exclusively to the
maintenance of order within the territory and to the control of the frontiers.

The total effective strength of officers, including the personnel of staffs,
whatever their composition, must not exceed four thousand.

(2) Divisions and Army Corps headquarters staffs shall be organised in accordance
with Table No. 1 annexed to this Section.

The number and strengths of the units of infantry, artillery, engineers,
technical services and troops laid down in the aforesaid Table constitute maxima
which must not be exceeded.

The following units may each have their own depot:

An Infantry regiment; A Cavalry regiment; A regiment of Field Artillery; A
battalion of Pioneers.

(3) The divisions must not be grouped under more than two army corps headquarters
staffs.

The maintenance or formation of forces differently grouped or of other
organisations for the command of troops or for preparation for war is forbidden.

The Great German General Staff and all similar organisations shall be dissolved
and may not be reconstituted in any form.

The officers, or persons in the position of officers, in the Ministries of War in
the different States in Germany and in the Administrations attached to them, must
not exceed three hundred in number and are included in the maximum strength of
four thousand laid down in the third sub-paragraph of paragraph (1) of this
Article.

ARTICLE 161.

Army administrative services consisting of civilian personnel not included in the
number of effectives prescribed by the present Treaty will have such personnel
reduced in each class to one-tenth of that laid down in the Budget of 1913.

ARTICLE 162.

The number of employees or officials of the German States such as customs
officers, forest guards and coastguards, shall not exceed that of the employees
or officials functioning in these capacities in 1913.

The number of gendarmes and employees or officials of the local or municipal
police may only be increased to an extent corresponding to the increase of
population since 1913 in the districts or municipalities in which they are
employed.

These employees and officials may not be assembled for military training.

ARTICLE: 163.

The reduction of the strength of the German military forces as provided for in
Article 160 may be effected gradually in the following manner:

Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the total
number of effectives must be reduced to 200,000 and the number of units must not
exceed twice the number of those laid down in Article 160.

At the expiration of this period, and at the end of each subsequent period of
three months, a Conference of military experts of the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers will fix the reductions to be made in the ensuing three months,
so that by March 31, 1920, at the latest the total number of German effectives
does not exceed the maximum number of l00,000 men laid down in Article 160. In
these successive reductions the same ratio between the number of officers and of
men, and between the various kinds of units, shall be maintained as is laid down
in that Article.

CHAPTER II.

ARMAMENT, MUNITIONS AND MATERIAL.

ARTICLE 164.

Up till the time at which Germany is admitted as a member of the League of
Nations the German Army must not possess an armament greater than the amounts
fixed in Table No. II annexed to this Section, with the exception of an optional
increase not exceeding one-twentyfifth part for small arms and one-fiftieth part
for guns, which shall be exclusively used to provide for such eventual
replacements as may be necessary.

Germany agrees that after she has become a member of the League of Nations the
armaments fixed in the said Table shall remain in force until they are modified
by the Council of the League. Furthermore she hereby agrees strictly to observe
the decisions of the Council of the League on this subject.

ARTICLE 165.

The maximum number of guns, machine guns, trench-mortars, rifles and the amount
of ammunition and equipment which Germany is allowed to maintain during the
period between the coming into force of the present Treaty and the date of March
31, 1920, referred to in Article 160, shall bear the same proportion to the
amount authorized in Table No. III annexed to this Section as the strength of the
German Army as reduced from time to time in accordance with Article 163 bears to
the strength permitted under Article 160.

ARTICLE 166

At the date of March 31, 1920, the stock of munitions which the German Army may
have at its disposal shall not exceed the amounts fixed in Table No. III annexed
to this Section.

Within the same period the German Government will store these stocks at points to
be notified to the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. The
German Government is forbidden to establish any other stocks, depots or reserves
of munitions.

ARTICLE 167.

The number and calibre of the guns constituting at the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty the armament of the fortified works, fortresses, and
any land or coast forts which Germany is allowed to retain must be notified
immediately by the German Government to the Governments of the Principal Allied
and Associated Powers, and will constitute maximum amounts which may not be
exceeded.

Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the maximum
stock of ammunition for these guns will be reduced to, and maintained at, the
following uniform rates:­ fifteen hundred rounds per piece for those the calibre
of which is 10.5 cm. and under: five hundred rounds per piece for those of higher
calibre.

ARTICLE 168.

The manufacture of arms, munitions, or any war material, shall only be carried
out in factories or works the location of which shall be communicated to and
approved by the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, and
the number of which they retain the right to restrict.

Within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, all other
establishments for the manufacture, preparation, storage or design of arms,
munitions, or any war material whatever shall be closed down. The same applies to
all arsenals except those used as depots for the authorised stocks of munitions.
Within the same period the personnel of these arsenals will be dismissed.


ARTICLE 169.

Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty German arms,
munitions and war material, including anti-aircraft material, existing in Germany
in excess of the quantities allowed, must be surrendered to the Governments of
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to be destroyed or rendered useless.
This will also apply to any special plant intended for the manufacture of
military material, except such as may be recognised as necessary for equipping
the authorised strength of the German army.

The surrender in question will be effected at such points in German territory as
may be selected by the said Governments.

Within the same period arms, munitions and war material, including anti-aircraft
material, of origin other than German, in whatever state they may be, will be
delivered to the said Governments, who will decide as to their disposal.

Arms and munitions which on account of the successive reductions in the strength
of the German army become in excess of the amounts authorised by Tables II and
III annexed to this Section must be handed over in the manner laid down above
within such periods as may be decided by the Conferences referred to in Article
163.

ARTICLE 170.

Importation into Germany of arms, munitions and war material of every kind shall
be strictly prohibited.

The same applies to the manufacture for, and export to, foreign countries of
arms, munitions and war material of every kind.

ARTICLE 171

The use of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases and all analogous liquids,
materials or devices being prohibited, their manufacture and importation are
strictly forbidden in Germany.

The same applies to materials specially intended for the manufacture, storage and
use of the said products or devices.

The manufacture and the importation into Germany of armoured cars, tanks and all
similar constructions suitable for use in war are also prohibited.

ARTICLE 172.

Within a period of three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
the German Government will disclose to the Governments of the Principal Allied
and Associated Powers the nature and mode of manufacture of all explosives, toxic
substances or other like chemical preparations used by them in the war or
prepared by them for the purpose of being so used.

CHAPTER III

RECRUITING AND MILITARY TRAINING

ARTICLE 173.

Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished in Germany.

The German Army may only be constituted and recruited by means of voluntary
enlistment.

ARTICLE 174

The period of enlistment for non-commissioned officers and privates must be
twelve consecutive years.

The number of men discharged for any reason before the expiration of their term
of enlistment must not exceed in any year five per cent. of the total effectives
fixed by the second subparagraph of paragraph (I) of Article 160 of the present
Treaty.

ARTICLE 175.

The officers who are retained in the Army must undertake the obligation to serve
in it up to the age of forty-five years at least.

Officers newly appointed must undertake to serve on the active list for
twenty-five consecutive years at least.

Officers who have previously belonged to any formations whatever of the Army, and
who are not retained in the units allowed to be maintained, must not take part in
any military exercise whether theoretical or practical, and will not be under any
military obligations whatever.

The number of officers discharged for any reason before the expiration of their
term of service must not exceed in any year five per cent. of the total
effectives of officers provided for in the third sub-paragraph (I) of Article 160
of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 176.

On the expiration of two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty
there must only exist in Germany the number of military schools which is
absolutely indispensable for the recruitment of the officers of the units
allowed. These schools will be exclusively intended for the recruitment of
officers of each arm, in the proportion of one school per arm.

The number of students admitted to attend the courses of the said schools will be
strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the cadres of officers.
The students and the cadres will be reckoned in the effectives fixed by the
second and third subparagraphs of paragraph (I) of Article 160 of the present
Treaty.

Consequently, and during the period fixed above, all military academies or
similar institutions in Germany, as well as the different military schools for
officers, student officers (Aspiranten), cadets, non-commissioned officers or
student non-commissioned officers (Aspiranten), other than the schools above
provided for, will be abolished.

ARTICLE 171.

Educational establishments, the universities, societies of discharged soldiers,
shooting or touring clubs and, generally speaking associations of every
description, whatever be the age of their members, must not occupy themselves
with any military matters.

In particular they will be forbidden to instruct or exercise their members or to
allow them to be instructed or exercised, in the profession or use of arms.

These societies, associations, educational establishments and universities must
have no connection with the Ministries of War or any other military authority.

ARTICLE l78.

All measures of mobilisation or appertaining to mobilisation are forbidden.

In no case must formations, administrative services or General Staffs include
supplementary cadres.

ARTICLE 179.

Germany agrees, from the coming into force of the present Treaty, not to accredit
nor to send to any foreign country any military, naval or air mission, nor to
allow any such mission to leave her territory, and Germany further agrees to take
appropriate measures to prevent German nationals from leaving her territory to
become enrolled in the Army, Navy or Air service of any foreign Power, or to be
attached to such Army, Navy or Air service for the purpose of assisting in the
military, naval or air training thereof, or otherwise for the purpose of giving
military, naval or air instruction in any foreign country.

The Allied and Associated Powers agree, so far as they are concerned, from the
coming into force of the present Treaty, not to enroll in nor to attach to their
armies or naval or air forces any German national for the purpose of assisting in
the military training of such armies or naval or air forces, or otherwise to
employ any such German national as military, naval or aeronautic instructor.

The present provision does not, however, affect the right of France to recruit
for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French military laws and regulations.


CHAPTER IV.

FORTIFICATIONS

ARTICLE l80.

All fortified works, fortresses and field works situated in German territory to
the west of a line drawn fifty kilometres to the east of the Rhine shall be
disarmed and dismantled.

Within a period of two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty
such of the above fortified works, fortresses and field works as are situated in
territory not occupied by Allied and Associated troops shall be disarmed, and
within a further period of four months they shall be dismantled. Those which are
situated in territory occupied by Allied and Associated troops shall be disarmed
and dismantled within such periods as may be fixed by the Allied High Command.

The construction of any new fortification, whatever its nature and importance, is
forbidden in the zone referred to in the first paragraph above.

The system of fortified works of the southern and eastern frontiers of Germany
shall be maintained in its existing state.

[SEE TABLES]

SECTION II .

NAVAL CLAUSES.

ARTICLE 181.

After the expiration of a period of two months from the coming into force of the
present Treaty the German naval forces in commission must not exceed:

6 battleships of the Deutschland or Lothringen type, 6 light cruisers, 12
destroyers, 12 torpedo boats,

or an equal number of ships constructed to replace them as provided in Article
l90.

No submarines are to be included.

All other warships, except where there is provision to the contrary in the
present Treaty, must be placed in reserve or devoted to commercial purposes.

ARTICLE 182.

Until the completion of the minesweeping prescribed by Article 193 Germany will
keep in commission such number of minesweeping vessels as may be fixed by the
Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

ARTICLE 183.

After the expiration of a period of two months from the coming into force of the
present Treaty, the total personnel of the German Navy, including the manning of
the Deet, coast defences, signal stations, administration and other land
services, must not exceed fifteen thousand, including officers and men of all
grades and corps,

The total strength of officers and warrant officers must not exceed fifteen
hundred.

Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the personnel
in excess of the above strength shall be demobilised.

No naval or military corps or reserve force in connection with the Navy may be
organised in Germany without being included in the above strength.

From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all the German
surface warships which are not in German ports cease to belong to Germany, who
renounces all rights over them.

Vessels which, in compliance with the Armistice of November 11, 1918, are now
interned in the ports of the Allied and Associated Powers are declared to be
finally surrendered.

Vessels which are now interned in neutral ports will be there surrendered to the
Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. The German Government
must address a notification to that effect to the neutral Powers on the coming
into force of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 184.

From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, all the German surface warships which are not in German port cease to belong to Germany, who renounces all rights over them.

Vessels which, in compliance with the Armistice of November 11, 1918, are now interned in the ports of the Allied and Associated Powers are declared to be finally surrendered.

Vessels which are now interned in neutral ports will be there surrendered to the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. The German Government must address all notification to that effect to the neutral Powers on the coming into force of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 185.

Within a period of two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty
the German surface warships enumerated below will be surrendered to the
Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in such Allied ports as
the said Powers may direct.

These warships will have been disarmed as provided in Article XXIII of the
Armistice of November 11, 1918. Nevertheless they must have all their guns on
board.

BATTLESHIPS.

Oldenburg. Thuringen. Ostfriesland. Helgoland. Posen. Westfalen. Rheinland.
Nassau.

LIGHT CRUISERS.

Stettin. Danzig. Munchen. Lubeck. Stralsund. Augsburg. Kolberg. Stuttgart.

and, in addition, forty-two modern destroyers and fifty modern torpedo boats, as
chosen by the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

ARTICLE 186.

On the coming into force of the present Treaty the German Government must
undertake, under the supervision of the Governments of the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers, the breaking up of all the German surface warships now under
construction.

ARTICLE 187 .

The German auxiliary cruisers and fleet auxiliaries enumerated below will be
disarmed and treated as merchant ships.

INTERNED IN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES:

Berlin. Santa Fe. Seydlitz. Yorck.

IN GERMANY:

Ammon. Answald. Bosnia. Cordoba. Cassel. Dania. Rio Negro. Rio Pardo. Santa Cruz.
Schwaben. Solingen. Steigerwald. Franken. Gundomar. Furst Bulow. Gertrud. Kigoma.
Rugia. Santa Elena. Schleswig. Mowe. Sierra Ventana. Chemnitz. Emil Georg von
Strauss. Habsburg. Meteor. Waltraute. Scharnhorst.

ARTICLE 188.

On the expiration of one month from the coming into force of the present Treaty
all German submarines, submarine salvage vessels and docks for submarines,
including the tubular dock, must have been handed over to the Governments of the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

Such of these submarines, vessels and docks as are considered by the said
Governments to be fit to proceed under their own power or to be towed shall be
taken by the German Government. into such Allied ports as have been indicated

The remainder, and also those in course of construction, shall be broken up
entirely by the German Government under the supervision of the said Governments.
The breaking-up must be completed within three months at the most after the
coming into force of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE l89.

Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking-up of German warships
of all kinds, whether surface vessels or submarines, may not be used except for
purely industrial or commercial purposes.

They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries.

ARTICLE 190.

Germany is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships other than those
intended to replace the units in commission provided for in Article l81 of the
present Treaty

The warships intended for replacement purposes as above shall not exceed the
following displacement:

Armoured ships 10,000 tons

Light cruisers 6,000 tons

Destroyers 800 tons

Torpedo boats 200 tons


Except where a ship has been lost, units of the different classes shall only be
replaced at the end of a period of twenty years in the case of battleships and
cruisers, and fifteen years in the case of destroyers and torpedo boats, counting
from the launching of the ship.

ARTICLE 191 .

The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for commercial purposes,
shall be forbidden in Germany.

ARTICLE 192.

The warships in commission of the German fleet must have on board or in reserve
only the allowance of arms, munitions and war material fixed by the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers. Within a month from the fixing of the quantities as
above, arms, munitions and war material of all kinds, including mines and
torpedoes, now in the hands of the German Government and in excess of the said
quantities, shall be surrendered to the Governments of the said Powers at places
to be indicated by them. Such arms, munitions and war material will be destroyed
or rendered useless.

All other stocks, depots or reserves of arms, munitions or naval war material of
all kinds are forbidden.

The manufacture of these articles in German territory for, and their export to,
foreign countries shall be forbidden.

ARTICLE 193.

On the coming into force of the present Treaty Germany will forthwith sweep up
the mines in the following areas in the North Sea to the eastward of longitude 4°
00′, E. of Greenwich:

(1) Between parallels of latitude 53° 00′, N. and 59° 00′, N.; (2) To the
northward of latitude 60° 30′ N.

Germany must keep these areas free from mines.

Germany must also sweep and keep free from mines such areas in the Baltic as may
ultimately be notified by the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers.

ARTICLE 194.

The personnel of the German Navy shall be recruited entirely by voluntary
engagements entered into for a minimum period of twenty-five consecutive years
for officers and warrant officers; twelve consecutive years for petty officers
and men.

The number engaged to replace those discharged for any reason before the
expiration of their term of service must not exceed five per cent. per annum of
the totals laid down in this Section (Article 183).

The personnel discharged from the Navy must not receive any kind of naval or
military training or undertake any further service in the Navy or Army.

Officers belonging to the Germany Navy and not demobilised must engage to serve
till the age of forty-five, unless discharged for sufficient reasons.

No officer or man of the German mercantile marine shall receive any training in
the Navy.


ARTICLE 195.

In order to ensure free passage into the Baltic to all nations, Germany shall not
erect any fortifications in the area comprised between latitudes 55° 27′ N. and
54° 00′ N. and longitudes 9°Ê00′ E. and 16°Ê00′ E. of the meridian of Greenwich,
nor install any guns commanding the maritime routes between the North Sea and the
Baltic. The fortifications now existing in this area shall be demolished and the
guns removed under the supervisions of the Allied Governments and in periods to
be fixed by them.

The German Government shall place at the disposal of the Governments of the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers all information now in its possession
concerning the channels and adjoining waters between the Baltic and the North
Sea.

ARTICLE 196.

All fortified works and fortifications, other than those mentioned in Section
XIII (Heligoland) of Part III (Political Clauses for Europe) and in Article 195,
now established within fifty kilometres of the German coast or on German islands
off that coast shall be considered as of a defensive nature and may remain in
their existing condition.

No new fortifications shall be constructed within these limits. The armament of
these defences shall not exceed, as regards the number and calibre of guns, those
in position at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty. The
German Government shall communicate forthwith particulars thereof to all the
European Governments.

On the expiration of a period of two months from the coming into force of the
present Treaty the stocks of ammunition for these guns shall be reduced to and
maintained at a maximum figure of fifteen hundred rounds per piece for calibres
of 4.1-inch and under, and five hundred rounds per piece for higher calibres.

ARTICLE 197.

During the three months following the coming into force of the present Treaty the
German high-power wireless telegraphy stations at Nauen, Hanover and Berlin shall
not be used for the transmission of messages concerning naval, military or
political questions of interest to Germany or any State which has been allied to
Germany in the war, without the assent of the Governments of the Principal Allied
and Associated Powers. These stations may be used for commercial purposes, but
only under the supervision of the said Governments, who will decide the
wavelength to be used.

During the same period Germany shall not build any more high-power wireless
telegraphy stations in her own territory or that of Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria or
Turkey.

SECTION III.

AIR CLAUSES.

ARTICLE 198.

The armed forces of Germany must not include any military or naval air forces.

Germany may, during a period not extending beyond October 1, 1919, maintain a
maximum number of one hundred seaplanes or flying boats, which shall be
exclusively employed in searching for submarine mines, shall be furnished with
the necessary equipment for this purpose, and shall in no case carry arms,
munitions or bombs of any nature whatever.

In addition to the engines installed in the seaplanes or flying boats above
mentioned, one spare engine may be provided for each engine of each of these
craft.

No dirigible shall be kept.

ARTICLE 199.

Within two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the personnel
of air forces on the rolls of the German land and sea forces shall be
demobilised. Up to October 1, 1919, however, Germany may keep and maintain a
total number of one thousand men, including officers, for the whole of the cadres
and personnel, flying and non-flying, of all formations and establishments.

ARTICLE 200.

Until the complete evacuation of German territory by the Allied and Associated
troops, the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Germany
freedom of passage through the air, freedom of transit and of landing.

ARTICLE 201.

During the six months following the coming into force of the present Treaty, the
manufacture and importation of aircraft, parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft,
and parts of engines for aircraft, shall be forbidden in all German territory.

ARTICLE 202.

On the coming into force of the present Treaty, all military and naval
aeronautical material, except the machines mentioned in the second and third
paragraphs of Article 198, must be delivered to the Governments of the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers.

Delivery must be effected at such places as the said Governments may select, and
must be completed within three months.

In particular, this material will include all items under the following heads
which are or have been in use or were designed for warlike purposes:

Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manufactured, repaired
or assembled.

Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or assembled.

Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen.

Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft.

Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Germany, be maintained
inflated with hydrogen; the plant for the manufacture of hydrogen, as well as the
sheds for dirigibles may at the discretion of the said Powers, be left to Germany
until the time when the dirigibles are handed over.

Engines for aircraft.

Nacelles and fuselages.

Armament (guns, machine guns, light machine guns, bombdropping apparatus,
torpedo-dropping apparatus, synchronisation apparatus, aiming apparatus).

Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks of explosives or
of material for their manufacture).

Instruments for use on aircraft.

Wireless apparatus and photographic or cinematograph apparatus for use on
aircraft.

Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads.

The material referred to above shall not be removed without special permission
from the said Governments.

SECTION IV.

INTER-ALLIED COMMISSIONS OF CONTROL.

ARTICLE 203.

All the military, naval and air clauses contained in the present Treaty, for the
execution of which a time-limit is prescribed, shall be executed by Germany under
the control of Inter-Allied Commissions specially appointed for this purpose by
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.

ARTICLE 204.

The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control will be specially charged with the duty
of seeing to the complete execution of the delivery, destruction, demolition and
rendering things useless to be carried out at the expense of the German
Government in accordance with the present Treaty.

They will communicate to the German authorities the decisions which the Principal
Allied and Associated Powers have reserved the right to take, or which the
execution of the military, naval and air clauses may necessitate.

ARTICLE 205.

The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control may establish their organisations at the
seat of the central German Government.

They shall be entitled as often as they think desirable to proceed to any point
whatever in German territory, or to send subcommissions, or to authorise one or
more of their members to go, to any such point.

ARTICLE 206.

The German Government must give all necessary facilities for the accomplishment
of their missions to the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control and to their
members.

It shall attach a qualified representative to each Inter-Allied Commission of
Control for the purpose of receiving the communications which the Commission may
have to address to the German Government and of supplying or procuring for the
Commission all information or documents which may be required.

The German Government must in all cases furnish at its own cost all labour and
material required to effect the deliveries and the works of destruction,
dismantling, demolition, and of rendering things useless, provided for in the
present Treaty.

ARTICLE 207.

The upkeep and cost of the Commissions of Control and the expenses involved by
their work shall be borne by Germany.

ARTICLE 208.

The Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control will represent the Governments of
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the German Government
in all matters concerning the execution of the military clauses.

In particular it will be its duty to receive from the German Government the
notifications relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, the
armament of the fortified works, fortresses and forts which Germany is allowed to
retain, and the location of the works or factories for the production of arms,
munitions and war material and their operations.

It will take delivery of the arms, munitions and war material, will select the
points where such delivery is to be effected, and will supervise the works of
destruction, demolition, and of rendering things useless, which are to be carried
out in accordance with the present Treaty.

The German Government must furnish to the Military Inter-Allied Commission of
Control all such information and documents as the latter may deem necessary to
ensure the complete execution of the military clauses, and in particular all
legislative and administrative documents and regulations.

ARTICLE 209.

The Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control will represent the Governments of
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the German Government
in all matters concerning the execution of the naval clauses.

In particular it will be its duty to proceed to the building yards and to
supervise the breaking-up of the ships which are under construction there, to
take delivery of all surface ships or submarines, salvage ships, docks and the
tubular docks, and to supervise the destruction and breaking-up provided for.

The German Government must furnish to the Naval Inter-Allied Commission of
Control all such information and documents as the Commission may deem necessary
to ensure the complete execution of the naval clauses, in particular the designs
of the warships, the composition of their armaments, the details and models of
the guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines, explosives, wireless telegraphic apparatus
and, in general, everything relating to naval war material, as well as all
legislative or administrative documents or regulations.

ARTICLE 210.

The Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of Control will represent the
Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the
German Government in all matters concerning the execution of the air clauses.

In particular it will be its duty to make an inventory of the aeronautical
material existing in German territory, to inspect aeroplane, balloon and motor
manufactories, and factories producing arms, munitions and explosives capable of
being used by aircraft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks
and depots, to authorise, where necessary, a removal of material and to take
delivery of such material.

The German Government must furnish to the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commission of
Control all such information and legislative, administrative or other documents
which the Commission may consider necessary to ensure the complete execution of
the air clauses, and in particular a list of the personnel belonging to all the
German Air Services, and of the existing material, as well as of that in process
of manufacture or on order, and a list of all establishments working for
aviation, of their positions, and of all sheds and landing grounds.

SECTION V.

GENERAL ARTICLES.

ARTICLE 211.

After the expiration of a period of three months from the coming into force of
the present Treaty, the German laws must have been modified and shall be
maintained by the German Government in conformity with this Part of the present
Treaty.

Within the same period all the administrative or other measures relating to the
execution of this Part of the Treaty must have been taken.

ARTICLE 212.

The following portions of the Armistice of November 11, 1918 Article VI, the
first two and the sixth and seventh paragraphs of Article VII; Article IX;
Clauses I, II and V of Annex n° 2, and the Protocol, dated April 4, 1919,
supplementing the Armistice of November 11, 1918, remain in force so far as they
are not inconsistent with the above stipulations.

ARTICLE 213.

So long as the present Treaty remains in force, Germany undertakes to give every
facility for any investigation which the Council of the League of Nations, acting
if need be by a majority vote, may consider necessary.

PART VI.

PRISONERS OF WAR AND GRAVES.

SECTION I.

PRISONERS OF WAR.

ARTICLE 214.

The repatriation of prisoners of war and interned civilians shall take place as
soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty and shall be
carried out with the greatest rapidity.

ARTICLE 215.

The repatriation of German prisoners of war and interned civilians shall, in
accordance with Article 214, be carried out by a Commission composed of
representatives of the Allied and Associated Powers on the one part and of the
German Government on the other part.

For each of the Allied and Associated Powers a Sub-Commission, composed
exclusively of Representatives of the interested Power and of Delegates of the
German Government, shall regulate the details of carrying into effect the
repatriation of the prisoners of war.

ARTICLE 216.

From the time of their delivery into the hands of the German authorities the
prisoners of war and interned civilians are to be returned without delay to their
homes by the said authorities.

Those amongst them who before the war were habitually resident in territory
occupied by the troops of the Allied and Associated Powers are likewise to be
sent to their homes, subject to the consent and control of the military
authorities of the Allied and Associated armies of occupation.

ARTICLE 217.

The whole cost of repatriation from the moment of starting shall be borne by the
German Government who shall also provide the land and sea transport and staff
considered necessary by the Commission referred to in Article 215.

ARTICLE 218.

Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or undergoing sentence
for offences against discipline shall be repatriated irrespective of the
completion of their sentence or of the proceedings pending against them.

This stipulation shall not apply to prisoners of war and interned civilians
punished for offences committed subsequent to May 1, 1919.

During the period pending their repatriation all prisoners of war and interned
civilians shall remain subject to the existing regulations, more especially as
regards work and discipline.

ARTICLE 219.

Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting disposal or undergoing
sentence for offences other than those against discipline may be detained.

ARTICLE 220.

The German Government undertakes to admit to its territory without distinction
all persons liable to repatriation.

Prisoners of war or other German nationals who do not desire to be repatriated
may be excluded from repatriation; but the Allied and Associated Governments
reserve to themselves the right either to repatriate them or to take them to a
neutral country or to allow them to reside in their own territories.

The German Government undertakes not to institute any exceptional proceedings
against these persons or their families nor to take any repressive or vexatious
measures of any kind whatsoever against them on this account.

ARTICLE 221.

The Allied and Associated Governments reserve the right to make the repatriation
of German prisoners of war or German nationals in their hands conditional upon
the immediate notification and release by the German Government of any prisoners
of war who are nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and may still be in
Germany.

ARTICLE 222.

Germany undertakes:

(1) To give every facility to Commissions to enquire into the cases of those who
cannot be traced; to furnish such Commissions with all necessary means of
transport; to allow them access to camps, prisons, hospitals and all other
places; and to place at their disposal all documents, whether public or private,
which would facilitate their enquiries;

(2) To impose penalties upon any German officials or private persons who have
concealed the presence of any nationals of any of the Allied and Associated
Powers or have neglected to reveal the presence of any such after it had come to
their knowledge.

ARTICLE 223.

Germany undertakes to restore without delay from the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty all articles, money, securities and documents which
have belonged to nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and which have
been retained by the German authorities.

ARTICLE 224.

The High Contracting Parties waive reciprocally all repayment of sums due for the
maintenance of prisoners of war in their respective territories.

SECTION II.

GRAVES.

ARTICLE 225.

The Allied and Associated Governments and the German Government will cause to be
respected and maintained the graves of the soldiers and sailors buried in their
respective territories.

They agree to recognise any Commission appointed by an Allied or Associated
Government for the purpose of identifying, registering, caring for or erecting
suitable memorials over the said graves and to facilitate the discharge of its
duties.

Furthermore they agree to afford, so far as the provisions of their laws and the
requirements of public health allow, every facility for giving effect to requests
that the bodies of their soldiers and sailors may be transferred to their own
country.

ARTICLE 226.

The graves of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are nationals of the
different belligerent States and have died in captivity shall be properly
maintained in accordance with Article 225 of the present Treaty.

The Allied and Associated Governments on the one part and the German Government
on the other part reciprocally undertake also to furnish to each other:

(1) A complete list of those who have died, together with all information useful
for identification;

(2) All information as to the number and position of the graves of all those who
have been buried without identification.

PART VII.

PENALTIES.

ARTICLE 227.

The Allied and Associated Powers publicly arraign William II of Hohenzollern,
formerly German Emperor, for a supreme offence against international morality and
the sanctity of treaties.

A special tribunal will be constituted to try the accused, thereby assuring him
the guarantees essential to the right of defence. It will be composed of five
judges, one appointed by each of the following Powers: namely, the United States
of America, Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan.

In its decision the tribunal will be guided by the highest motives of
international policy, with a view to vindicating the solemn obligations of
international undertakings and the validity of international morality. It will be
its duty to fix the punishment which it considers should be imposed.

The Allied and Associated Powers will address a request to the Government of the
Netherlands for the surrender to them of the ex-Emperor in order that he may be
put on trial.

ARTICLE 228.

The German Government recognises the right of the Allied and Associated Powers to
bring before military tribunals persons accused of having committed acts in
violation of the laws and customs of war. Such persons shall, if found guilty, be
sentenced to punishments laid down by law. This provision will apply
notwithstanding any proceedings or prosecution before a tribunal in Germany or in
the territory of her allies.

The German Government shall hand over to the Allied and Associated Powers, or to
such one of them as shall so request, all persons accused of having committed an
act in violation of the laws and customs of war, who are specified either by name
or by the rank, office or employment which they held under the German
authorities.

ARTICLE 229.

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of the Allied and
Associated Powers will be brought before the military tribunals of that Power.

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than one of the
Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before military tribunals composed
of members of the military tribunals of the Powers concerned.

In every case the accused will be entitled to name his own counsel.

ARTICLE 230.

The German Government undertakes to furnish all documents and information of
every kind, the production of which may be considered necessary to ensure the
full knowledge of the incriminating acts, the discovery of offenders and the just
appreciation of responsibility.

PART VIII.

REPARATION.

SECTION l.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 231.

The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the
responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to
which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been
subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of
Germany and her allies.

ARTICLE: 232.

The Allied and Associated Governments recognise that the resources of Germany are
not adequate, after taking into account permanent diminutions of such resources
which will result from other provisions of the present Treaty, to make complete
reparation for all such loss and damage.

The Allied and Associated Governments, however, require, and Germany undertakes,
that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of
the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property during the period of the
belligerency of each as an Allied or Associated Power against Germany by such
aggression by land, by sea and from the air, and in general all damage as defined
in Annex l hereto.

In accordance with Germany’s pledges, already given, as to complete restoration
for Belgium, Germany undertakes, in addition to the compensation for damage
elsewhere in this Part provided for, as a consequence of the violation of the
Treaty of 1839, to make reimbursement of all sums which Belgium has borrowed from
the Allied and Associated Governments up to November 11, 1918, together with
interest at the rate of five per cent (5%) per annum on such sums. This amount
shall be determined by the Reparation Commission, and the German Government
undertakes thereupon forthwith to make a special issue of bearer bonds to an
equivalent amount payable in marks gold, on May 1, 1926, or, at the option of the
German Government, on the 1st of May in any year up to 1926. Subject to the
foregoing, the form of such bonds shall be determined by the Reparation
Commission. Such bonds shall be handed over to the Reparation Commission, which
has authority to take and acknowledge receipt thereof on behalf of Belgium.

ARTICLE 233.

The amount of the above damage for which compensation is to be made by Germany
shall be determined by an Inter-Allied Commission, to be called the Reparation
Commission and constituted in the form and with the powers set forth hereunder
and in Annexes II to VII inclusive hereto.

This Commission shall consider the claims and give to the German Government a
just opportunity to be heard.

The findings of the Commission as to the amount of damage defined as above shall
be concluded and notified to the German Government on or before May 1, 1921, as
representing the extent of that Government’s obligations. ,

The Commission shall concurrently draw up a schedule of payments prescribing the
time and manner for securing and discharging the entire obligation within a
period of thirty years from May 1, 1921. If, however, within the period
mentioned, Germany fails to discharge her obligations, any balance remaining
unpaid may, within the discretion of the Commission, be postponed for settlement
in subsequent years, or may be handled otherwise in such manner as the Allied and
Associated Governments, acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in this
Part of the present Treaty, shall determine.

ARTICLE 234.

The Reparation Commission shall after May 1 , 1921, from time to time, consider
the resources and capacity of Germany, and, after giving her representatives a
just opportunity to be heard, shall have discretion to extend the date, and to
modify the form of payments, such as are to be provided for in accordance with
Article 233; but not to cancel any part, except with the specific authority of
the several Governments represented upon the Commission.

ARTICLE 235.

In order to enable the Allied and Associated Powers to proceed at once to the
restoration of their industrial and economic life, pending the full determination
of their claims, Germany shall pay in such installments and in such manner
(whether in gold, commodities, ships, securities or otherwise) as the Reparation
Commission may fix, during 1919, 1920 and the first four months Of 1921 , the
equivalent of 20,000,000,000 gold marks. Out of this sum the expenses of the
armies of occupation subsequent to the Armistice of November 11, 1918, shall
first be met, and such supplies of food and raw materials as may be judged by the
Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to be essential to
enable Germany to meet her obligations for reparation may also, with the approval
of the said Governments, be paid for out of the above sum. The balance shall be
reckoned towards liquidation of the amounts due for reparation. Germany shall
further deposit bonds as prescribed in paragraph 12 (c) Of Annex II hereto.

ARTICLE 236.

Germany further agrees to the direct application of her economic resources to
reparation as specified in Annexes, III, IV, V, and VI, relating respectively to
merchant shipping, to physical restoration, to coal and derivatives of coal, and
to dyestuffs and other chemical products; provided always that the value of the
property transferred and any services rendered by her under these Annexes,
assessed in the manner therein prescribed shall be credited to her towards
liquidation of her obligations under the above Articles.

ARTICLE 237.

The successive installments, including the above sum, paid over by Germany in
satisfaction of the above claims will be divided by the Allied and Associated
Governments in proportions which have been determined upon by them in advance on
a basis of general equity and of the rights of each.

For the purposes of this division the value of property transferred and services
rendered under Article 243, and under Annexes III, IV, V, VI, and VII, shall be
reckoned in the same manner as cash payments effected in that year.

ARTICLE 238.

In addition to the payments mentioned above Germany shall effect, in accordance
with the procedure laid down by the Reparation Commission, restitution in cash of
cash taken away, seized or sequestrated, and also restitution of animals, objects
of every nature and securities taken away, seized or sequestrated, in the cases
in which it proves possible to identify them in territory belonging to Germany or
her allies.

Until this procedure is laid down, restitution will continue in accordance with
the provisions of the Armistice of November 11, 1918, and its renewals and the
Protocols thereto.

ARTICLE 239.

The German Government undertakes to make forthwith the restitution contemplated
by Article 238 and to make the payments and deliveries contemplated by Articles
233, 234, 235 and 236.

ARTICLE 240.

The German Government recognises the Commission provided for by Article 233 as
the same may be constituted by the Allied and Associated Governments in
accordance with Annex II, and agrees irrevocably to the possession and exercise
by such Commission of the power and authority given to it under the present
Treaty.

The German Government will supply to the Commission all the information which the
Commission may require relative to the financial situation and operations and to
the property, productive capacity, and stocks and current production of raw
materials and manufactured articles of Germany and her nationals, and further any
information relative to military operations which in the judgment of the
Commission may be necessary for the assessment of Germany’s liability for
reparation as defined in Annex I.

The German Government will accord to the members of the Commission and its
authorised agents the same rights and immunities as are enjoyed in Germany by
duly accredited diplomatic agents of friendly Powers.

Germany further agrees to provide for the salaries and expenses of the Commission
and of such staff as it may employ.

ARTICLE 241.

Germany undertakes to pass, issue and maintain in force any legislation, orders
and decrees that may be necessary to give complete effect to these provisions.

ARTICLE 242.

The provisions of this Part of the present Treaty do not apply to the property,
rights and interests referred to in Sections III and IV of Part X (Economic
Clauses) of the present Treaty, nor to the product of their liquidation, except
so far as concerns any final balance in favour of Germany under Article 243 (a).

ARTICLE 243

The following shall be reckoned as credits to Germany in respect of her
reparation obligations:

(a) Any final balance in favour of Germany under Section V (Alsace-Lorraine) of
Part III (Political Clauses for Europe) and Sections III and IV of Part X
(Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty;

(b) Amounts due to Germany in respect of transfers under Section IV (Saar Basin)
of Part III (Political Clauses for Europe), Part IX Financial Clauses), and Part
XII (Ports, Waterways and Railways);

(c) Amounts which in the judgment of the Reparation Commission should be credited
to Germany on account of any other transfers under the present Treaty of
property, rights, concessions or other interests.

In no case, however, shall credit be given for property restored in accordance
with Article 238 of the present Part.

ARTICLE 244

The transfer of the German submarine cables which do not form the subject of
particular provisions of the present Treaty is regulated by Annex VII hereto.

ANNEX I.

Compensation may be claimed from Germany under Article 232 above in respect of
the total damage under the following categories:

(l) Damage to injured persons and to surviving dependents by personal injury to
or death of civilians caused by acts of war, including bombardments or other
attacks on land, on sea, or from the air, and all the direct consequences
thereof, and of all operations of war by the two groups of belligerents wherever
arising.

(2) Damage caused by Germany or her allies to civilian victims of acts of
cruelty, violence or maltreatment (including injuries to life or health as a
consequence of imprisonment, deportation, internment or evacuation, of exposure
at sea or of being forced to labour), wherever arising, and to the surviving
dependents of such victims.

(3) Damage caused by Germany or her allies in their own territory or in occupied
or invaded territory to civilian victims of all acts injurious to health or
capacity to work, or to honour, as well as to the surviving dependents of such
victims.

(4) Damage caused by any kind of maltreatment of prisoners of war.

(5) As damage caused to the peoples of the Allied and Associated Powers, all
pensions and compensation in the nature of pensions to naval and military victims
of war (including members of the air force), whether mutilated, wounded, sick or
invalided, and to the dependents of such victims, the amount due to the Allied
and Associated Governments being calculated for each of them as being the
capitalised cost of such pensions and compensation at the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty on the basis of the scales in force in France at such
date.

(6) The cost of assistance by the Government of the Allied and Associated Powers
to prisoners of war and to their families and dependents.

(7) Allowances by the Governments of the Allied and Associated Powers to the
families and dependents of mobilised persons or persons serving with the forces,
the amount due to them for each calendar year in which hostilities occurred being
calculated for each Government on the basis of the average scale for such
payments in force in France during that year.

(8) Damage caused to civilians by being forced by Germany or her allies to labour
without just remuneration.

(9) Damage in respect of all property wherever situated belonging to any of the
Allied or Associated States or their nationals, with the exception of naval and
military works or materials, which has been carried off, seized, injured or
destroyed by the acts of Germany or her allies on land, on sea or from the air,
or damage directly in consequence of hostilities or of any operations of war.

(10) Damage in the form of levies, fines and other similar exactions imposed by
Germany or her allies upon the civilian population.

ANNEX II.

1.

The Commission referred to in Article 233 shall be called “The Reparation
Commission” and is hereinafter referred to as “the Commission”.

2.

Delegates to this Commission shall be nominated by the United States of America,
Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State.
Each of these Powers will appoint one Delegate and also one Assistant Delegate,
who will take his place in case of illness or necessary absence, but at other
times will only have the right to be present at proceedings without taking any
part therein.

On no occasion shall the Delegates of more than five of the above Powers have the
right to take part in the proceedings of the Commission and to record their
votes. The Delegates of the United States, Great Britain, France and Italy shall
have this right on all occasions. The Delegate of Belgium shall have this right
on all occasions other than those referred to below. The Delegate of Japan shall
have this right on occasions when questions relating to damage at sea, and
questions arising under Article 200 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) in which
Japanese interests are concerned, are under consideration. The Delegate of the
Serb-Croat-Slovene State shall have this right when questions relating to
Austria, Hungary or Bulgaria are under consideration.

Each Government represented on the Commission shall have the right to withdraw
therefrom upon twelve months, notice filed with the Commission and confirmed in
the course of the sixth month after the date of the original notice.

3.

Such of the other Allied and Associated Powers as may be interested shall have
the right to appoint a Delegate to be present and act as Assessor only while
their respective claims and interests are under examination or discussion, but
without the right to vote.

4.

In case of the death, resignation or recall of any Delegate, Assistant Delegate
or Assessor, a successor to him shall be nominated as soon as possible.

5.

The Commission will have its principal permanent Bureau in Paris and will hold
its first meeting in Paris as soon as practicable after the coming into force of
the present Treaty, and thereafter will meet in such place or places and at such
time as it may deem convenient and as may be necessary for the most expeditious
discharge of its duties.

6.

At its first meeting the Commission shall elect, from among the Delegates
referred to above, a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman, who shall hold office for one
year and shall be eligible for re-election. If a vacancy in the Chairmanship or
Vice-Chairmanship should occur during the annual period, the Commission shall
proceed to a new election for the remainder of the said period.

7.

The Commission is authorised to appoint all necessary officers, agents and
employees who may be required for the execution of its functions, and to fix
their remuneration; to constitute committees, whose members need not necessarily
be members of the Commission, and to take all executive steps necessary for the
purpose of discharging its duties; and to delegate authority and discretion to
officers, agents and committees.

8.

All proceedings of the Commission shall be private, unless, on particular
occasions, the Con mission shall otherwise determine for special reasons.

9

The Commission shall be required, if the German Government so desire, to hear,
within a period which it will fix from time to time, evidence and arguments on
the part of Germany on any question connected with her capacity to pay.

10.

The Commission shall consider the claims and give to the German Government a just
opportunity to be heard, but not to take any part whatever in the decisions of
the Commission The Commission shall afford a similar opportunity to the allies of
Germany, when it shall consider that their interests are in question

11.

The Commission shall not be bound by any particular code or rules of law or by
any particular rule of evidence or of procedure, but shall be guided by justice,
equity and good faith. Its decisions must follow the same principles and rules in
all cases where they are applicable. It will establish rules relating to methods
of proof of claims. It may act on any trustworthy modes of computation.

12.

The Commission shall have all the powers conferred upon it, and shall exercise
all the functions assigned to it, by the present Treaty.

The Commission shall in general have wide latitude as to its control and handling
of the whole reparation problem as dealt with in this Part of the present Treaty
and shall have authority to interpret its provisions. Subject to the provisions
of the present Treaty, the Commission is constituted by the several Allied and
Associated Governments referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3 above as the exclusive
agency of the said Governments respectively for receiving, selling, holding, and
distributing the reparation payments to be made by Germany under this Part of the
present Treaty. The Commission must comply with the following conditions and
provisions:

(a) Whatever part of the full amount of the proved claims is not paid in gold, or
in ships, securities and commodities or otherwise, Germany shall be required,
under such conditions as the Commission may determine, to cover by way of
guarantee by an equivalent issue of bonds, obligations or otherwise, in order to
constitute an acknowledgment of the said part of the debt.

(b) In periodically estimating Germany’s capacity to pay, the Commission shall
examine the German system of taxation, first, to the end that the sums for
reparation which Germany is required to pay shall become a charge upon all her
revenues prior to that for the service or discharge of any domestic loan, and
secondly, so as to satisfy itself that, in general, the German scheme of taxation
is fully as heavy proportionately as that of any of the Powers represented on the
Commission.

(c) In order to facilitate and continue the immediate restoration of the economic
life of the Allied and Associated countries, the Commission will as provided in
Article 235 take from Germany by way of security for and acknowledgment of her
debt a first installment of gold bearer bonds free of all taxes and charges of
every description established or to be established by the Government of the
German Empire or of the German States, or by any authority subject to them; these
bonds will be delivered on account and in three portions, the marks gold being
payable in conformity with Article 262 of Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the
present Treaty as follows:

(1) To be issued forthwith, 20,000,000,000 Marks gold bearer bonds, payable not
later than May l, 1921, without interest. There shall be specially applied
towards the amortisation of these bonds the payments which Germany is pledged to
make in conformity with Article 235, after deduction of the sums used for the
reimbursement of expenses of the armies of occupation and for payment of
foodstuffs and raw materials. Such bonds as have not been redeemed by May l,
1921, shall then be exchanged for new bonds of the same type as those provided
for below (paragraph l2, C, (2).

(2) To be issued forthwith, further 40,000,000,000 Marks gold bearer bonds,
bearing interest at 2-1/2 per cent. per annum between 1921 and l926, and
thereafter at 5 per cent. per annum with an additional l per cent. for
amortisation beginning in 1926 on the whole amount of the issue.

(3) To be delivered forthwith a covering undertaking in writing to issue when,
but not until, the Commission is satisfied that Germany can meet such interest
and sinking fund obligations, a further installment of 40,000,000,000 Marks gold
5 per cent. bearer bonds, the time and mode of payment of principal and interest
to be determined by the Commission.

The dates for payment of interest, the manner of applying the amortisation fund,
and all other questions relating to the issue, management and regulation of the
bond issue shall be determined by the Commission from time to time.

Further issues by way of acknowledgment and security may be required as the
Commission subsequently determines from time to time.

(d) In the event of bonds, obligations or other evidence of indebtedness issued
by Germany by way of security for or acknowledgment of her reparation debt being
disposed of outright, not by way of pledge, to persons other than the several
Governments in whose favour Germany’s original reparation indebtedness was
created, an amount of such reparation indebtedness shall be deemed to be
extinguished corresponding to the nominal value of the bonds, etc., so disposed
of outright, and the obligation of Germany in respect of such bonds shall be
confined to her liabilities to the holders of the bonds, as expressed upon their
face.

(e) The damage for repairing, reconstructing and rebuilding property in the
invaded and devastated districts, including reinstallation of furniture,
machinery and other equipment, will be calculated according to the cost at the
dates when the work is done.

(f) Decisions of the Commission relating to the total or partial cancellation of
the capital or interest of any verified debt of Germany must be accompanied by a
statement of its reasons.

13.

As to voting, the Commission will observe the following rules:

When a decision of the Commission is taken, the votes of all the Delegates
entitled to vote, or in the absence of any of them, of their Assistant Delegates,
shall be recorded. Abstention from voting is to be treated as a vote against the
proposal under discussion. Assessors have no vote.

On the following questions unanimity is necessary:

(a) Questions involving the sovereignty of any of the Allied and Associated
Powers, or the cancellation of the whole or any part of the debt or obligations
of Germany;

(b) Questions of determining the amount and conditions of bonds or other
obligations to be issued by the German Government and of fixing the time and
manner for selling, negotiating or distributing such bonds;

(c) Any postponement, total or partial, beyond the end of 1930, of the payment of
installments falling due between May 1, 1921, and the end of 1926 inclusive;

(d) Any postponement, total or partial, of any installment falling due after 1926
for a period exceeding three years;

(e) Questions of applying in any particular case a method of measuring damages
different from that which has been previously applied in a similar case;

(f) Questions of the interpretation of the provisions of this Part of the present
Treaty.

All other questions shall be decided by the vote of a majority.

In case of any difference of opinion among the Delegates, which cannot be solved
by reference to their Governments, upon the question whether a given case is one
which requires a unanimous vote for its decision or not, such difference shall be
referred to the immediate arbitration of some impartial person to be agreed upon
by their Governments, whose award the Allied and Associated Governments agree to
accept.

14.

Decisions of the Commission, in accordance with the powers conferred upon it,
shall forthwith become binding and may be put into immediate execution without
further Proceedings.

15.

The Commission will issue to each of the interested Powers, in such form as the
Commission shall fix:

(l) A certificate stating that it holds for the account of the said Power bonds
of the issues mentioned above, the said certificate, on the demand of the Power
concerned, being divisible in a number of parts not exceeding five;

(2) From time to time certificates stating the goods delivered by Germany on
account of her reparation debt which it holds for the account of the said Power.

The said certificates shall be registered, and upon notice to the Commission, may
be transferred by endorsement.

When bonds are issued for sale or negotiation, and when goods are delivered by
the Commission, certificates to an equivalent value must be withdrawn.

16.

Interest shall be debited to Germany as from May 1, 1921, in respect of her debt
as determined by the Commission, after allowing for sums already covered by cash
payments or their equivalent, or by bonds issued to the Commission, or under
Article 243. The rate of interest shall be 5 per cent. unless the Commission
shall determine at some future time that circumstances justify a variation of the
rate.

The Commission, in fixing on May 1, 1921, the total amount of the debt of
Germany, may take account of interest due on sums arising out of the reparation
of material damage as from November 11, 1918, up to May 1, 1921.

17.

In case of default by Germany in the performance of any obligation under this
Part of the present Treaty, the Commission will forthwith give notice of such
default to each of the interested Powers and may make such recommendations as to
the action to be taken in consequence of such default as it may think necessary.

18.

The measures which the Allied and Associated Powers shall have the right to take,
in case of voluntary default by Germany, and which Germany agrees not to regard
as acts of war may include economic and financial prohibitions and reprisals and
in general such other measures as the respective Governments may determine to be
necessary in the circumstances.

19.

Payments required to be made in gold or its equivalent on account of the proved
claims of the Allied and Associated Powers may at any time be accepted by the
Commission in the form of chattels, properties, commodities, businesses, rights,
concessions within or without German territory, ships, bonds, shares or
securities of any kind, or currencies of Germany or other States, the value of
such substitutes for good being fixed at a fair and just amount by the Commission
itself.

20.

The Commission, in fixing or accepting payment in specified properties or rights,
shall have due regard for any legal or equitable interests of the Allied and
Associated Powers or of neutral Powers or of their nationals therein.

21.

No member of the Commission shall be responsible, except to the Government
appointing him, for any action or omission as such member. No one of the Allied
or Associated Governments assumes any responsibility in respect of any other
Government.

22.

Subject to the provisions of the present Treaty this Annex may be amended by the
unanimous decision of the Governments represented from time to time upon the
Commission.

23

When all the amounts due from Germany and her allies under the present Treaty or
the decisions of the Commission have been discharged and all sums received, or
their equivalents, shall have been distributed to the Powers interested, the
Commission shall be dissolved.

ANNEX III.

1.

Germany recognises the right of the Allied and Associated Powers to the
replacement, ton for ton (gross tonnage) and class for class, of all merchant
ships and fishing boats lost or damaged owing to the war.

Nevertheless, and in spite of the fact that the tonnage of German shipping at
present in existence is much less than that lost by the Allied and Associated
Powers in consequence of the German aggression, the right thus recognised will be
enforced on German ships and boats under the following conditions:

The German Government, on behalf of themselves and so as to bind all other
persons interested, cede to the Allied and Associated Governments the property in
all the German merchant ships which are of 1,600 tons gross and upwards; in
one-half, reckoned in tonnage, of the ships which are between 1,000 tons and
1,600 tons gross; in one-quarter, reckoned in tonnage, of the steam trawlers; and
in one-quarter, reckoned in tonnage, of the other fishing boats.

2.

The German Government will, within two months of the coming into force of the
present Treaty, deliver to the Reparation Commission all the ships and boats
mentioned in paragraph 1.

3.

The ships and boats mentioned in paragraph 1 include all ships and boats which
(a) fly, or may be entitled to fly, the German merchant flag; or (b) are owned by
any German national, company or corporation or by any company or corporation
belonging to a country other than an Allied or Associated country and under the
control or direction of German nationals; or (c) are now under construction (1)
in Germany, (2) in other than Allied or Associated countries for the account of
any German national, company or corporation.

4.

For the purpose of providing documents of title for the ships and boats to be
handed over as above mentioned, the German Government will:

(a) Deliver to the Reparation Commission in respect of each vessel a bill of sale
or other document of title evidencing the transfer to the Commission of the
entire property in the vessel free from all encumbrances, charges and liens of
all kinds, as the Commission may require;

(b) Take all measures that may be indicated by the Reparation Commission for
ensuring that the ships themselves shall be placed at its disposal.

5.

As an additional part of reparation, Germany agrees to cause merchant ships to be
built in German yards for the account of the Allied and Associated Governments as
follows:

(a) Within three months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the
Reparation Commission will notify to the German Government the amount of tonnage
to be laid down in German ship-yards in each of the two years next succeeding the
three months mentioned above.

(b) Within two years of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the
Reparation Commission will notify to the German Government the amount of tonnage
to be laid down in each of the three years following the two years mentioned
above.

(c) The amount of tonnage to be laid down in each year shall not exceed 200,000
tons, gross tonnage.

(d) The specifications of the ships to be built, the conditions under which they
are to be built and delivered, the price per ton at which they are to be
accounted for by the Reparation Commission, and all other questions relating to
the accounting ordering, building and delivery of the ships, shall be determined
by the Commission.

6.

Germany undertakes to restore in kind and in normal condition of upkeep to the
Allied and Associated Powers, within two months of the coming into force of the
present Treaty, in accordance with procedure to be laid down by the Reparation
Commission, any boats and other movable appliances belonging to inland navigation
which since August 1, 1914, have by any means whatever come into her possession
or into the possession of her nationals, and which can be identified

With a view to make good the loss in inland navigation tonnage from whatever
cause arising, which has been incurred during the war by the Allied and
Associated Powers, and which cannot be made good by means of the restitution
prescribed above, Germany agrees to cede to the Reparation Commission a portion
of the German river fleet up to the amount of the loss mentioned above, provided
that such cession shall not exceed 20 per cent. of the river fleet as it existed
on November 11, 1918.

The conditions of this cession shall be settled by the arbitrators referred to in
Article 339 of Part XII (Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present Treaty,
who are charged with the settlement of difficulties relating to the apportionment
of river tonnage resulting from the new international regime applicable to
certain river systems or from the territorial changes affecting those systems.

7.

Germany agrees to take any measures that may be indicated to her by the
Reparation Commission for obtaining the full title to the property in all ships
which have during the war been transferred, or are in process of transfer, to
neutral flags, without the consent of the Allied and Associated Governments.

8.

Germany waives all claims of any description against the Allied and Associated
Governments and their nationals in respect of the detention, employment, loss or
damage of any German ships or boats, exception being made of payments due in
respect of the employment of ships in conformity with the Armistice Agreement of
January 13, 1919, and subsequent Agreements.

The handing over of the ships of the German mercantile marine must be continued
without interruption in accordance with the said Agreement.

9.

Germany waives all claims to vessels or cargoes sunk by or in consequence of
naval action and subsequently salved, in which any of the Allied or Associated
Governments or their nationals may have any interest either as owners,
charterers, insurers or otherwise, notwithstanding any decree of condemnation
which may have been made by a Prize Court of Germany or of her allies.


ANNEX IV.

1.

The Allied and Associated Powers require, and Germany undertakes, that in part
satisfaction of her obligations expressed in the present Part she will, as
hereinafter provided, devote her economic resources directly to the physical
restoration of the invaded areas of the Allied and Associated Powers, to the
extent that these Powers may determine.

2.

The Allied and Associated Governments may file with the Reparation Commission
lists showing:

(a) Animals, machinery, equipment, tools and like articles of a commercial
character, which have been seized, consumed or destroyed by Germany or destroyed
in direct consequence of military operations, and which such Governments, for the
purpose of meeting immediate and urgent needs, desire to have replaced by animals
and articles of the same nature which are in being in German territory at the
date of the coming into force of the present Treaty;

(b) Reconstruction materials (stones, bricks, refractory bricks, tiles, wood,
window-glass, steel, lime, cement, etc.), machinery, heating apparatus, furniture
and like articles of a commercial character which the said Governments desire to
have produced and manufactured in Germany and delivered to them to permit of the
restoration of the invaded areas.

3.

The lists relating to the articles mentioned in 2 (a) above shall be filed within
sixty days after the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.

The lists relating to the articles in 2 (b) above shall be filed on or before
December 31, 1919.

The lists shall contain all such details as are customary in commercial contracts
dealing with the subject matter, including specifications, dates of delivery (but
not extending over more than four years), and places of delivery, but not price
or value, which shall be fixed as hereinafter provided by the Commission.

4.

Immediately upon the filing of such lists with the Commission, the Commission
shall consider the amount and number of the materials and animals mentioned in
the lists provided for above which are to be required of Germany. In reaching a
decision on this matter the Commission shall take into account such domestic
requirements of Germany as it deems essential for the maintenance of Germany’s
social and economic life, the prices and dates at which similar articles can be
obtained in the Allied and Associated countries as compared with those to be
fixed for German articles, and the general interest of the Allied and Associated
Governments that the industrial life of Germany be not so disorganised as to
affect adversely the ability of Germany to perform the other acts of reparation
stipulated for.

Machinery, equipment, tools and like articles of a commercial character in actual
industrial use are not, however, to be demanded of Germany unless there is no
free stock of such articles respectively which is not in use and is available,
and then not m excess of thirty per cent. of the quantity of such articles in use
in any one establishment or undertaking.

The Commission shall give representatives of the German Government an opportunity
and a time to be heard as to their capacity to furnish the said materials,
articles and animals.

The decision of the Commission shall thereupon and at the earliest possible
moment be communicated to the German Government and to the several interested
Allied and Associated Governments.

The German Government undertakes to deliver the materials, articles and animals
as specified in the said communication, and the interested Allied and Associated
Governments severally agree to accept the same, provided they conform to the
specification given, or are not, in the judgment of the Commission, unfit to be
utilised in the work of reparation.

5.

The Commission shall determine the value to be attributed to the materials,
articles and animals to be delivered in accordance with the foregoing, and the
Allied or Associated Power receiving the same agrees to be charged with such
value, and the amount thereof shall be treated as a payment by Germany to be
divided in accordance with Article 237 of this Part of the present Treaty.

In cases where the right to require physical restoration as above provided is
exercised, the Commission shall ensure that the amount to be credited against the
reparation obligation of Germany shall be the fair value of work done or
materials supplied by Germany, and that the claim made by the interested Power in
respect of the damage so repaired by physical restoration shall be discharged to
the extent of the proportion which the damage thus repaired bears to the whole of
the damage thus claimed for.

6.

As an immediate advance on account of the animals referred to in paragraph 2 (a)
above, Germany undertakes to deliver in equal monthly installments in the three
months following the coming into force of the present Treaty the following
quantities of live stock:

(1) To the French Government.

500 stallions (3 to 7 years);

30,000 fillies and mares (18 months to 7 years), type: Ardennais, Boulonnais or
Belgian;

2,000 bulls (18 months to 3 years);

90,000 milch cows (2 to 6 years);

1,000 rams;

100,000 sheep;

10,000 goats.

(2) To the Belgian Government.

200 stallions (3 to 7 years), large Belgian type;

5,000 mares (3 to 7 years), large Belgian type;

5,000 fillies (18 months to 3 years), large Belgian type;

2,000 bulls (18 months to 3 years);

50,000 milch cows (2 to 6 years);

40,000 heifers;

200 rams;

20,000 Sheep;

15,000 sows.

The animals delivered shall be of average health and condition.

To the extent that animals so delivered cannot be identified as animals taken
away or seized, the value of such animals shall be credited against the
reparation obligations of Germany in accordance with paragraph 5 of this Annex.

7.

Without waiting for the decisions of the Commission referred to in paragraph 4 of
this Annex to be taken, Germany must continue the delivery to France of the
agricultural material referred to in Article III of the renewal dated January 16,
1919, of the Armistice.


ANNEX V.

1.

Germany accords the following options for the delivery of coal and derivatives of
coal to the undermentioned signatories of the present Treaty.

2.

Germany undertakes to deliver to France seven million tons of coal per year for
ten years. In addition, Germany undertakes to deliver to France annually for a
period not exceeding ten years an amount of coal equal to the difference between
the annual production before the war of the coal mines of the Nord and Pas de
Calais, destroyed as a result of the war, and the production of the mines of the
same area during the years in question: such delivery not to exceed twenty
million tons in any one year of the first five years, and eight million tons in
any one year of the succeeding five years.

It is understood that due diligence will be exercised in the restoration of the
destroyed mines in the Nord and the Pas de Calais.

3.

Germany undertakes to deliver to Belgium eight million tons of coal annually for
ten years.

4.

Germany undertakes to deliver to Italy up to the following . quantities of coal:

July 1919 to June 1920 4-1/2 million tons, ­1920 ­1921 6 ­
1921 ­1922 7-1/2 ­ ­1922 ­1923 8 ­ ­1923 ­1924
and each of the following five years 8-1/2 ­

At least two-thirds of the actual deliveries to be land-borne.

5.

Germany further undertakes to deliver annually to Luxemburg, if directed by the
Reparation Commission, a quantity of coal equal to the pre-war annual consumption
of German coal in Luxemburg.

6.

The prices to be paid for coal delivered under these options shall be as follows:

(a) For overland delivery, including delivery by barge, the German pithead price
to German nationals, plus the freight to French, Belgian, Italian or Luxemburg
frontiers, provided that the pithead price does not exceed the pithead price of
British coal for export. In the case of Belgian bunker coal, the price shall not
exceed the Dutch bunker price.

Railroad and barge tariffs shall not be higher than the lowest similar rates paid
in Germany.

(b) For sea delivery, the German export price f. o. b. German ports, or the
British export price f. o. b. British ports, whichever may be lower.

7.

The Allied and Associated Governments interested may demand the delivery, in
place of coal, of metallurgical coke in the proportion of 3 tons of coke to 4
tons of coal.

8.

Germany undertakes to deliver to France, and to transport to the French frontier
by rail or by water, the following products, during each of the three years
following the coming into force of this Treaty:

Benzol 35,000 tons.

Coal tar 50,000 tons

Sulphate of ammonia 30,000 tons.

All or part of the coal tar may, at the option of the French Government, be
replaced by corresponding quantities of products of distillation, such as light
oils, heavy oils, anthracene, napthalene or pitch

9.

The price paid for coke and for the articles referred to in the preceding
paragraph shall be the same as the price paid by German nationals under the same
conditions of shipment to the French frontier or to the German ports, and shall
be subject to any advantages which may be accorded similar products furnished to
German nationals.

10.

The foregoing options shall be exercised through the intervention of the
Reparation Commission, which, subject to the specific provisions hereof, shall
have power to determine all questions relative to procedure and the qualities and
quantities of products, the quantity of coke which may be substituted for coal,
and the times and modes of delivery and payment. In giving notice to the German
Government of the foregoing options the Commission shall give at least 120 days,
notice of deliveries to be made after January 1, 1920, and at least 30 days,
notice of deliveries to be made between the coming into force of this Treaty and
January 1, 1920. Until Germany has received the demands referred to in this
paragraph, the provisions of the Protocol of DecemberÊ25, 1918, (Execution of
Article VI of the Armistice of November 11, 1918) remain in force. The notice to
be given to the German Government of the exercise of the right of substitution
accorded by paragraphs 7 and 8 shall be such as the Reparation Commission may
consider sufficient. If the Commission shall determine that the full exercise of
the foregoing options would interfere unduly with the industrial requirements of
Germany, the Commission is authorised to postpone or to cancel deliveries, and in
so doing to settle all questions of priority; but the coal to replace coal from
destroyed mines shall receive priority over other deliveries.

ANNEX VI.

1.

Germany accords to the Reparation Commission an option to require as part of
reparation the delivery by Germany of such quantities and kinds of dyestuffs and
chemical drugs as the Commission may designate, not exceeding 50 per cent. of the
total stock of each and every kind of dyestuff and chemical drug in Germany or
under German control at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.

This option shall be exercised within sixty days of the receipt by the Commission
of such particulars as to stocks as may be considered necessary by the
Commission.

2.

Germany further accords to the Reparation Commission an option to require
delivery during the period from the date of the coming into force of the present
Treaty until January 1, 1920, and during each period of six months thereafter
until January 1 , 1925, of any specified kind of dyestuff and chemical drug up to
an amount not exceeding 25 per cent. of the German production of such dyestuffs
and chemical drugs during the previous six months period. If in any case the
production during such previous six months was, in the opinion of the Commission,
less than normal, the amount required may be 25 per cent. of the normal
production.

Such option shall be exercised within four weeks after the receipt of such
particulars as to production and in such form as may be considered necessary by
the Commission; these particulars shall be furnished by the German Government
immediately after the expiration of each six months period.

3.

For dyestuffs and chemical drugs delivered under paragraph 1 , the price shall be
fixed by the Commission having regard to prewar net export prices and to
subsequent increases of cost.

For dyestuffs and chemical drugs delivered under paragraph 2, the price shall be
fixed by the Commission having regard to pre-war net export prices and subsequent
variations of cost, or the lowest net selling price of similar dyestuffs and
chemical drugs to any other purchaser.


[See Map The Former German Cables]

4.

All details, including mode and times of exercising the options, and making
delivery, and all other questions arising under this arrangement shall be
determined by the Reparation Commission; the German Government will furnish to
the Commission all necessary information and other assistance which it may
require.

5.

The above expression ,,dyestuffs and chemical drugs,, includes all synthetic dyes
and drugs and intermediate or other products used in connection with dyeing, so
far as they are manufactured for sale. The present arrangement shall also apply
to cinchona bark and salts of quinine.

ANNEX VII.

Germany renounces on her own behalf and on behalf of her nationals in favour of
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all rights, titles or privileges of
whatever nature in the submarine cables set out below, or in any portions
thereof:

Emden-vigo: from the Straits of Dover to off vigo; Emden-Brest: from off
Cherbourg to Brest; Emden-Teneriffe: from off Dunkirk to off Teneriffe;
Emden-Azores (1): from the Straits of Dover to Fayal; Emden-Azores (2): from the
Straits of Dover to Fayal; Azores-New York (1): from Fayal to New York;
Azores-New York (2): from Fayal to the longitude of Halifax, Teneriffe-Monrovia:
from off Teneriffe to off Monrovia; Monrovia-Lome:

from about lat. :2° 30′ N.; long.:7° 40′ W. of Greenwich: to
about lat. :2° 20′ N.; long.:5° 30, W. of Greenwich; and from
about lat. :3° 48′ N.; long.:0° 00′, to Lome;

Lome-Duala: from Lome to Duala; Monrovia-Pernambuco: from off Monrovia to off
Pernambuco; Constantinople-Constanza: from Constantinople to Constanza;
Yap-Shanghai, Yap-Guam, and Yap-Menado (Celebes): from Yap Island to Shanghai,
from Yap Island to Guam Island, and from Yap Island to Menado.

The value of the above mentioned cables or portions thereof in so far as they are
privately owned, calculated on the basis of the original cost less a suitable
allowance for depreciation, shall be credited to Germany in the reparation
account.

SECTION II.

SPECIAL PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 245.

Within six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty the German
Government must restore to the French Government the trophies, archives,
historical souvenirs or works of art carried away from France by the German
authorities in the course of the war of 1870-1871 and during this last war, in
accordance with a list which will be communicated to it by the French Government;
particularly the French flags taken in the course of the war of 1870-1871 and all
the political papers taken by the German authorities on October 1o, 1870, at the
chateau of Cercay, near Brunoy (Seine-et-Oise) belonging at the time to Mr.
Rouher, formerly Minister of State.

ARTICLE 246.

Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, Germany will
restore to His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz the original Koran of the Caliph
Othman, which was removed from Medina by the Turkish authorities and is stated to
have been presented to the ex-Emperor William II.

Within the same period Germany will hand over to His Britannic Majesty’s
Government the skull of the Sultan Mkwawa which was removed from the Protectorate
of German East Africa and taken to Germany.

The delivery of the articles above referred to will be effected in such place and
in such conditions as may be laid down by the Governments to which they are to be
restored.

ARTICLE 247.

Germany undertakes to furnish to the University of Louvain, within three months
after a request made by it and transmitted through the intervention of the
Reparation Commission, manuscripts, incunabula, printed books, maps and objects
of collection corresponding in number and value to those destroyed in the burning
by Germany of the Library of Louvain. All details regarding such replacement will
be determined by the Reparation Commission.

Germany undertakes to deliver to Belgium, through the Reparation Commission,
within six months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, in order to
enable Belgium to reconstitute two great artistic works:

(1) The leaves of the triptych of the Mystic Lamb painted by the Van Eyck
brothers, formerly in the Church of St. Bavon at Ghent, now in the Berlin Museum;

(2) The leaves of the triptych of the Last Supper, painted by Dierick Bouts,
formerly in the Church of St. Peter at Louvain, two of which are now in the
Berlin Museum and two in the Old Pinakothek at Munich.

PART IX.

FINANCIAL CLAUSES.

ARTICLE 248.

Subject to such exceptions as the Reparation Commission may approve, a first
charge upon all the assets and revenues of the German Empire and its constituent
States shall be the cost of reparation and all other costs arising under the
present Treaty or any treaties or agreements supplementary thereto or under
arrangements concluded between Germany and the Allied and Associated Powers
during the Armistice or its extensions.

Up to May 1, 1921, the German Government shall not export or dispose of, and
shall forbid the export or disposal of, gold without the previous approval of the
Allied and Associated Powers acting through the Reparation Commission.

ARTICLE 249.

There shall be paid by the German Government the total cost of all armies of the
Allied and Associated Governments in occupied German territory from the date of
the signature of the Armistice of November 11, 1918, including the keep of men
and beasts, lodging and billeting, pay and allowances, salaries and wages,
bedding, heating, lighting, clothing, equipment, harness and saddlery, armament
and rolling-stock, air services, treatment of sick and wounded, veterinary and
remount services, transport service of all sorts (such as by rail, sea or river,
motor lorries), communications and correspondence, and in general the cost of all
administrative or technical services the working of which is necessary for the
training of troops and for keeping their numbers up to strength and preserving
their military efficiency.

The cost of such liabilities under the above heads so far as they relate to
purchases or requisitions by the Allied and Associated Governments in the
occupied territories shall be paid by the German Government to the Allied and
Associated Governments in marks at the current or agreed rate of exchange. All
other of the above costs shall be paid in gold marks.

ARTICLE 250.

Germany confirms the surrender of all material handed over to the Allied and
Associated Powers in accordance with the Armistice of November 11, 1918, and
subsequent Armistice Agreements, and recognises the title of the Allied and
Associated Powers to such material.

There shall be credited to the German Government, against the sums due from it to
the Allied and Associated Powers for reparation, the value, as assessed by the
Reparation Commission, referred to in Article 233 of Part VIII (Reparation) of
the present Treaty, of the material handed over in accordance with Article VII of
the Armistice of November 11, 1918, or Article III of the Armistice Agreement of
January l6, 1919, as well as of any other material handed over in accordance with
the Armistice of November 11, 1918, and of subsequent Armistice Agreements, for
which, as having non-military value, credit should in the judgment of the
Reparation Commission be allowed to the German Government.

Property belonging to the Allied and Associated Governments or their nationals
restored or surrendered under the Armistice Agreements in specie shall not be
credited to the German Government.

ARTICLE 251.

The priority of the charges established by Article 248 shall, subject to the
qualifications made below, be as follows:

(a) The cost of the armies of occupation as defined under Article 249 during the
Armistice and its extensions;

(b) The cost of any armies of occupation as defined under Article 249 after the
coming into force of the present Treaty;

(c) The cost of reparation arising out of the present Treaty or any treaties or
conventions supplementary thereto;

(d) The cost of all other obligations incumbent on Germany under the Armistice
Conventions or under this Treaty or any treaties or conventions supplementary
thereto.

The payment for such supplies of food and raw material for Germany and such other
payments as may be judged by the Allied and Associated Powers to be essential to
enable Germany to meet her obligations in respect of reparation will have
priority to the extent and upon the conditions which have been or may be
determined by the Governments of the said Powers.

ARTICLE 252.

The right of each of the Allied and Associated Powers to dispose of enemy assets
and property within its jurisdiction at the date of the coming into force of the
present Treaty is not affected by the foregoing provisions.

ARTICLE 253.

Nothing in the foregoing provisions shall prejudice in any manner charges or
mortgages lawfully effected in favour of the Allied or Associated Powers or their
nationals respectively, before the date at which a state of war existed between
Germany and the Allied or Associated Power concerned, by the German Empire or its
constituent States, or by German nationals, on assets in their ownership at that
date.

ARTICLE 254/

The Powers to which German territory is ceded shall, subject to the
qualifications made in Article 255, undertake to pay:

(1) A portion of the debt of the German Empire as it stood on August 1, 1914,
calculated on the basis of the ratio between the average for the three financial
years 1911, 1912, 1913, of such revenues of the ceded territory, and the average
for the same years of such revenues of the whole German Empire as in the judgment
of the Reparation Commission are best calculated to represent the relative
ability of the respective territories to make payment;

A portion of the debt as it stood on August 1, 1914, of the German State to which
the ceded territory belonged, to be determined in accordance with the principle
stated above.

Such portions shall be determined by the Reparation Commission.

The method of discharging the obligation, both in respect of capital and of
interest, so assumed shall be fixed by the Reparation Commission. Such method may
take the form, inter alia, of the assumption by the Power to which the territory
is ceded of Germany’s liability for the German debt held by her nationals. But in
the event of the method adopted involving any payments to the German Government,
such payments shall be transferred to the Reparation Commission on account of the
sums due for reparation so long as any balance in respect of such sums remains
unpaid.

ARTICLE 255.

(1) As an exception to the above provision and inasmuch as in 1871 Germany
refused to undertake any portion of the burden of the French debt, France shall
be, in respect of Alsace-Lorraine, exempt from any payment under Article 254.

(2) In the case of Poland that portion of the debt which, in the opinion of the
Reparation Commission, is attributable to the measures taken by the German and
Prussian Governments for the German colonisation of Poland shall be excluded from
the apportionment to be made under Article 254.

(3) In the case of all ceded territories other than Alsace-Lorraine, that portion
of the debt of the German Empire or German States which, in the opinion of the
Reparation Commission, represents expenditure by the Governments of the German
Empire or States upon the Government properties referred to in Article 256 shall
be excluded from the apportionment to be made under Article 254.

ARTICLE 256.

Powers to which German territory is ceded shall acquire all property and
possessions situated therein belonging to the German Empire or to the German
States, and the value of such acquisitions shall be fixed by the Reparation
Commission, and paid by the State acquiring the territory to the Reparation
Commission for the credit of the German Government on account of the sums due for
reparation.

For the purposes of this Article the property and possessions of the German
Empire and States shall be deemed to include all the property of the Crown, the
Empire or the States, and the private property of the former German Emperor and
other Royal personages.

In view of the terms on which Alsace-Lorraine was ceded to Germany in 1871,
France shall be exempt in respect thereof from making any payment or credit under
this Article for any property or possessions of the German Empire or States
situated therein.

Belgium also shall be exempt from making any payment or any credit under this
Article for any property or possessions of the German Empire or States situated
in German territory ceded to Belgium under the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 257.

In the case of the former German territories, including colonies, protectorates
or dependencies, administered by a Mandatory under Article 22 of Part I (League
of Nations) of the present Treaty, neither the territory nor the Mandatory Power
shall be charged with any portion of the debt of the German Empire or States.

All property and possessions belonging to the German Empire or to the German
States situated in such territories shall be transferred with the territories to
the Mandatory Power in its capacity as such and no payment shall be made nor any
credit given to those Governments in consideration of this transfer.

For the purposes of this Article the property and possessions of the German
Empire and of the German States shall be deemed to include all the property of
the Crown, the Empire or the States and the private property of the former German
Emperor and other Royal personages.

ARTICLE 258.

Germany renounces all rights accorded to her or her nationals by treaties,
conventions or agreements, of whatsoever kind, to representation upon or
participation in the control or administration of commissions, state banks,
agencies or other financial or economic organisations of an international
character, exercising powers of control or administration, and operating in any
of the Allied or Associated States, or in Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria or Turkey,
or in the dependencies of these States, or in the former Russian Empire.

ARTICLE 259.

(1) Germany agrees to deliver within one month from the date of the coming into
force of the present Treaty, to such authority as the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers may designate, the sum in gold which was to be deposited in the
Reichsbank in the name of the Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public
Debt as security for the first issue of Turkish Government currency notes.

(2) Germany recognises her obligation to make annually for the period of twelve
years the payments in gold for which provision is made in the German Treasury
Bonds deposited by her from time to time in the name of the Council of the
Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt as security for the second and
subsequent issues of Turkish Government currency notes.

(3) Germany undertakes to deliver, within one month from the coming into force of
the present Treaty, to such authority as the Principal Allied and Associated
Powers may designate, the gold deposit constituted in the Reichsbank or
elsewhere, representing the residue of the advance in gold agreed to on May 5,
1915, by the Council of the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt to the
Imperial Ottoman Government.

(4) Germany agrees to transfer to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers any
title that she may have to the sum in gold and silver transmitted by her to the
Turkish Ministry of Finance in November, 1918, in anticipation of the payment to
be made in May, 1919, for the service of the Turkish Internal Loan.

(5) Germany undertakes to transfer to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
within a period of one month from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
any sums in gold transferred as pledge or as collateral security to the German
Government or its nationals in connection with loans made by them to the
Austro-Hungarian Government.

(6) Without prejudice to Article 292 of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present
Treaty, Germany confirms the renunciation provided for in Article XV of the
Armistice of November 11, 1918, of any benefit disclosed by the Treaties of
Bucharest and of Brest-Litovsk and by the treaties supplementary thereto.

Germany undertakes to transfer, either to Roumania or to the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers as the case may be, all monetary instruments, specie,
securities and negotiable instruments, or goods, which she has received under the
aforesaid Treaties.

(7) The sums of money and all securities, instruments and goods of whatsoever
nature, to be delivered, paid and transferred under the provisions of this
Article, shall be disposed of by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in a
manner hereafter to be determined by those Powers.

ARTICLE 260.

Without prejudice to the renunciation of any rights by Germany on behalf of
herself or of her nationals in the other provisions of the present Treaty, the
Reparation Commission may within one year from the coming into force of the
present Treaty demand that the German Government become possessed of any rights
and interests of German nationals in any public utility undertaking or in any
concession operating in Russia, China, Turkey, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria, or
in the possessions or dependencies of these States or in any territory formerly
belonging to Germany or her allies, to be ceded by Germany or her allies to any
Power or to be administered by a Mandatory under the present Treaty, and may
require that the German Government transfer, within six months of the date of
demand, all such rights and interests and any similar rights and interests the
German Government may itself possess to the Reparation Commission.

Germany shall be responsible for indemnifying her nationals so dispossessed, and
the Reparation Commission shall credit Germany, on account of sums due for
reparation, with such sums in respect of the value of the transferred rights and
interests as may be assessed by the Reparation Commission, and the German
Government shall, within six months from the coming into force of the present
Treaty, communicate to the Reparation Commission all such rights and interests,
whether already granted, contingent or not yet exercised, and shall renounce on
behalf of itself and its nationals in favour of the Allied and Associated Powers
all such rights and interests which have not been so communicated.

ARTICLE 261.

Germany undertakes to transfer to the Allied and Associated Powers any claims she
may have to payment or repayment by the Governments of Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria
or Turkey, and, in particular, any claims which may arise, now or hereafter, from
the fulfilment of undertakings made by Germany during the war to those
Governments.

ARTICLE 262.

Any monetary obligation due by Germany arising out of the present Treaty and
expressed in terms of gold marks shall be payable at the option of the creditors
in pounds sterling payable in London; gold dollars of the United States of
America payable in New York; gold francs payable in Paris; or gold lire payable
in Rome.

For the purpose of this Article the gold coins mentioned above shall be defined
as being of the weight and fineness of gold as enacted by law on January 1, 1914.

ARTICLE 263.

Germany gives a guarantee to the Brazilian Government that all sums representing
the sale of coffee belonging to the State of Sao Paolo in the ports of Hamburg,
Bremen, Antwerp and Trieste, which were deposited with the Bank of Bleichroder at
Berlin, shall be reimbursed together with interest at the rate or rates agreed
upon. Germany having prevented the transfer of the sums in question to the State
of Sao Paolo at the proper time, guarantees also that the reimbursement shall be
effected at the rate of exchange of the day of the deposit.

PART X.

ECONOMIC CLAUSES.

SECTION l.

COMMERCIAL RELATIONS.

CHAPTER I.

CUSTOMS REGULATIONS, DUTIES AND RESTRICTIONS.

ARTICLE 264.

Germany undertakes that goods the produce or manufacture of any one of the Allied
or Associated States imported into Germany territory, from whatsoever place
arriving, shall not be subjected to other or higher duties or charges (including
internal charges) than those to which the like goods the produce or manufacture
of any other such State or of any other foreign country are subject.

Germany will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restriction on the
importation into German territory of any goods the produce or manufacture of the
territories of any one of the Allied or Associated States, from whatsoever place
arriving, which shall not equally extend to the importation of the like goods the
produce or manufacture of any other such State or of any other foreign country.

ARTICLE 265.

Germany further undertakes that, in the matter of the regime applicable on
importation, no discrimination against the commerce of any of the Allied and
Associated States as compared with any other of the said States or any other
foreign country shall be made, even by indirect means, such as customs
regulations or procedure, methods of verification or analysis conditions of
payment of duties, tariff classification or interpretation, or the operation of
monopolies.

ARTICLE 266.

In all that concerns exportation Germany undertakes that goods, natural products
or manufactured articles, exported from German territory to the territories of
any one of the Allied or Associated States shall not be subjected to other or
higher duties or charges (including internal charges) than those paid on the like
goods exported to any other such State or to any other foreign country.

Germany will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restriction on the
exportation of any goods sent from her territory to any one of the Allied or
Associated States which shall not equally extend to the exportation of the like
goods, natural products or manufactured articles, sent to any other such State or
to any other foreign country.

ARTICLE: 267.

Every favour, immunity or privilege in regard to the importation, exportation or
transit of goods granted by Germany to any Allied or Associated State or to any
other foreign country whatever shall simultaneously and unconditionally, without
request and without compensation, be extended to all the Allied and Associated
States.

ARTICLE 268.

The provisions of Articles 264 to 267 inclusive of this Chapter and of Article
323 of Part XII (Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present Treaty are subject
to the following exceptions:

(a) For a period of five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
natural or manufactured products which both originate in and come from the
territories of Alsace and Lorraine reunited to France shall, on importation into
German customs territory, be exempt from all customs duty.

The French Government shall fix each year, by decree communicated to the German
Government, the nature and amount of the products which shall enjoy this
exemption.

The amount of each product which may be thus sent annually into Germany shall not
exceed the average of the amounts sent annually in the years 1911-1913.

Further, during the period above mentioned the German Government shall allow the
free export from Germany, and the free re-importation into Germany, exempt from
all customs duties and other charges (including internal charges), of yarns,
tissues, and other textile materials or textile products of any kind and in any
condition, sent from Germany into the territories of Alsace or Lorraine, to be
subjected there to any finishing process, such as bleaching, dyeing, printing,
mercerisation, gassing, twisting or dressing.

(b) During a period of three years from the coming into force of the present
Treaty natural or manufactured products which both originate in and come from
Polish territories which before the war were part of Germany shall, on
importation into German customs territory, be exempt from all customs duty.

The Polish Government shall fix each year, by decree communicated to the German
Government, the nature and amount of the products which shall enjoy this
exemption.

The amount of each product which may be thus sent annually into Germany shall not
exceed the average of the amounts sent annually in the years 1911-1913.

(c) The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to require Germany to
accord freedom from customs duty, on importation into German customs territory,
to natural products and manufactured articles which both originate in and come
from the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, for a period of five years from the coming
into force of the present Treaty.

The nature and amount of the products which shall enjoy the benefits of this
regime shall be communicated each year to the German Government.

The amount of each product which may be thus sent annually into Germany shall not
exceed the average of the amounts sent annually in the years 1911-1913.

ARTICLE 269.

During the first six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty,
the duties imposed by Germany on imports from Allied and Associated States shall
not be higher than the most favourable duties which were applied to imports into
Germany on July 31, 1914.

During a further period of thirty months after the expiration of the first six
months, this provision shall continue to be applied exclusively with regard to
products which, being comprised in Section A of the First Category of the German
Customs Tariff of December 25, 1902, enjoyed at the above-mentioned date (July
31, 1914) rates conventionalised by treaties with the Allied and Associated
Powers, with the addition of all kinds of wine and vegetable oils, of artificial
silk and of washed or scoured wool whether or not they were the subject of
special conventions before July 31, 1914.

ARTICLE 270.

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to apply to German territory
occupied by their troops a special customs regime as regards imports and exports,
in the event of such a measure being necessary in their opinion in order to
safeguard the economic interests of the population of these territories.

CHAPTER II.

SHIPPING.

ARTICLE 271.

As regards sea fishing, maritime coasting trade, and maritime towage, vessels of
the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy, in German territorial waters, the
treatment accorded to vessels of the most favoured nation.

ARTICLE 272.

Germany agrees that, notwithstanding any stipulation to the contrary contained in
the Conventions relating to the North Sea fisheries and liquor traffic, all
rights of inspection and police shall, in the case of fishing-boats of the Allied
Powers, be exercised solely by ships belonging to those Powers.

ARTICLE 273.

In the case of vessels of the Allied or Associated Powers, all classes of
certificates or documents relating to the vessel, which were recognised as valid
by Germany before the war, or which may hereafter be recognised as valid by the
principal maritime States, shall be recognised by Germany as valid and as
equivalent to the corresponding certificates issued to German vessels.

A similar recognition shall be accorded to the certificates and documents issued
to their vessels by the Governments of new States, whether they have a sea-coast
or not, provided that such certificates and documents shall be issued m
conformity with the general practice observed in the principal maritime States.

The High Contracting Parties agree to recognise the flag flown by the vessels of
an Allied or Associated Power having no seacoast which are registered at some one
specified place situated in its territory; such place shall serve as the port of
registry of such vessels.

CHAPTER III

UNFAIR COMPETITION.

ARTICLE 274.

Germany undertakes to adopt all the necessary legislative and administrative
measures to protect goods the produce or manufacture of any one of the Allied and
Associated Powers from all forms of unfair competition in commercial
transactions.

Germany undertakes to prohibit and repress by seizure and by other appropriate
remedies the importation, exportation, manufacture, distribution, sale or
offering for sale in its territory of all goods bearing upon themselves or their
usual get-up or wrappings any marks, names, devices, or description whatsoever
which are calculated to convey directly or indirectly a false indication of the
origin, type, nature, or special characteristics of such goods.

ARTICLE 275

Germany undertakes on condition that reciprocity is accorded in these matters to
respect any law, or any administrative or judicial decision given in conformity
with such law, in force in any Allied or Associated State and duly communicated
to her by the proper authorities, defining or regulating the right to any
regional appellation in respect of wine or spirits produced in the State to which
the region belongs, or the conditions under which the use of any such appellation
may be permitted; and the importation, exportation, manufacture, distribution,
sale or offering for sale of products or articles bearing regional appellations
inconsistent with such law or order shall be prohibited by the German Government
and repressed by the measures prescribed in the preceding Article.

CHAPTER IV.

TREATMENT OF NATIONALS OF ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS.

ARTICLE 276.

Germany undertakes:

(a) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers to any
prohibition in regard to the exercise of occupations, professions, trade and
industry, which shall not be equally applicable to all aliens without exception;

(b) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers in regard to
the rights referred to in paragraph (a) to any regulation or restriction which
might contravene directly or indirectly the stipulations of the said paragraph,
or which shall be other or more disadvantageous than those which are applicable
to nationals of the most favoured nation;

(c) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers, their
property, rights or interests, including companies and associations In which they
are interested, to any charge, tax or impost, direct or indirect, other or higher
than those which are or may be imposed on her own nationals or their property,
rights or interests;

(d) Not to subject the nationals of any one of the Allied and Associated Powers
to any restriction which was not applicable on July l, 1914, to the nationals of
such Powers unless such restriction is likewise imposed on her own nationals.

ARTICLE 277.

The nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in German territory
a constant protection for their persons and for their property, rights and
interests, and shall have free access to the courts of law.

ARTICLE 278.

Germany undertakes to recognise any new nationality which has been or may be
acquired by her nationals under the laws of the Allied and Associated Powers and
in accordance with the decisions of the competent authorities of these Powers
pursuant to naturalisation laws or under treaty stipulations, and to regard such
persons as having, in consequence of the acquisition of such new nationality, in
all respects severed their allegiance to their country of origin.

ARTICLE 279.

The Allied and Associated Powers may appoint consuls-general, consuls,
vice-consuls, and consular agents in German towns and ports. Germany undertakes
to approve the designation of the consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and
consular agents, whose names shall be notified to her, and to admit them to the
exercise of their functions in conformity with the usual rules and customs.

CHAPTER V.

GENERAL ARTICLES

ARTICLE 280.

The obligations imposed on Germany by Chapter I and by Articles 27l and 272 of
Chapter II above shall cease to have effect five years from the date of the
coming into force of the present Treaty, unless otherwise provided in the text,
or unless the Council of the League of Nations shall, at least twelve months
before the expiration of that period, decide that these obligations shall be
maintained for a further period with or without amendment.

Article 276 of Chapter IV shall remain in operation, with or without amendment,
after the period of five years for such further period, if any, not exceeding
five years, as may be determined by a majority of the Council of the League of
Nations.

ARTICLE 28l.

If the German Government engages in international trade, it shall not in respect
thereof have or be deemed to have any rights, privileges or immunities of
sovereignty.


SECTION II.

TREATIES.

ARTICLE 282.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to the provisions
thereof the multilateral treaties, conventions and agreements of an economic or
technical character enumerated below and in the subsequent Articles shall alone
be applied as between Germany and those of the Allied and Associated Powers party
thereto:

(l) Conventions of March l4, 1884, December 1, 1886, and March 23, 1887, and
Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protection of submarine cables.

(2) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the international circulation of
motor-cars.

(3) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway trucks subject to
customs inspection, and Protocol of May 18, 1907.

(4) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the technical standardisation of
railways.

(5) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of customs tariffs and
the organisation of an International Union for the publication of customs
tariffs.

(6) Convention of December 31, 1913, regarding the unification of commercial
statistics.

(7) Convention of April 25, 1907, regarding the raising of the Turkish customs
tariff.

(8) Convention of March 14, 1857, for the redemption of toll dues on the Sound
and Belts.

(9) Convention of June 22, 1861, for the redemption of the Stade Toll on the
Elbe.

(10) Convention of July 16, 1863, for the redemption of the toll dues on the
Scheldt.

(11) Convention of October 29, 1888, regarding the establishment of a definite
arrangement guaranteeing the free use of the Suez Canal.

(12) Conventions of September 23, 1910, respecting the unification of certain
regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea.

(13) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding the exemption of hospital ships
from dues and charges in ports

(14) Convention of February 4, 1898, regarding the tonnage measurement of vessels
for inland navigation.

(15) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of nightwork for
women.

(16) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of the use of white
phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.

(17) Conventions of May 18, 1904, and May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of
the White Slave Traffic.

(18) Convention of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of obscene
publications.

(19) Sanitary Conventions of January 30, 1892, April l5, l893, April 3, l894,
March l9, 1897, and December 3, 1903.

(20) Convention of May 20, 1875, regarding the unification and improvement of the
metric system.

(21) Convention of November 29, 1906, regarding the unification of pharmacopoeial
formulae for potent drugs.

(22) Convention of November 16 and 19, 1885, regarding the establishment of a
concert pitch.

(23) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an International
Agricultural Institute at Rome.

(24) Conventions of November 3, 188l, and April l5, l889, regarding precautionary
measures against phylloxera.

(25) Convention of March 19, l902, regarding the protection of birds useful to
agriculture.

(26) Convention of June l2, 1902, as to the protection of minors.

ARTICLE 283.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties
shall apply the conventions and agreements hereinafter mentioned, in so far as
concerns them, on condition that the special stipulations contained in this
Article are fulfilled by Germany.

Postal Conventions:

Conventions and agreements of the Universal Postal Union concluded at Vienna,
July 4, 1891.

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Washington, June 15,
1897.

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Rome, May 26, 1906.

Telegraphic Conventions:

International Telegraphic Conventions signed at St. Petersburg July 10, 22, 1875.

Regulations and Tariffs drawn up by the International Telegraphic Conference,
Lisbon, June 11, 1908.

Germany undertakes not to refuse her assent to the conclusion by the new States
of the special arrangements referred to in the conventions and agreements
relating to the Universal Postal Union and to the International Telegraphic
Union, to which the said new States have adhered or may adhere.

ARTICLE 284.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties
shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the International Radio-Telegraphic
Convention of July S, 1912, on condition that Germany fulfills the provisional
regulations which will be indicated to her by the Allied and Associated Powers.

If within five years after the coming into force of the present Treaty a new
convention regulating international radio-telegraphic communications should have
been concluded to take the place of the Convention of July 5, 1912, this new
convention shall bind Germany, even if Germany should refuse either to take part
in drawing up the convention, or to subscribe thereto.

This new convention will likewise replace the provisional regulations in force.

ARTICLE 285.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty, the High Contracting Parties
shall apply in so far as concerns them and under the conditions stipulated in
Article 272, the conventions hereinafter mentioned:

(1) The Conventions of May 6, 1882, and February 1, 1889, regulating the
fisheries in the North Sea outside territorial waters.

(2) The Conventions and Protocols of November 16, 1887, February 14, 1893, and
April 11, 1894, regarding the North Sea liquor traffic.

ARTICLE 286.

The International Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883, for the protection of
industrial property, revised at Washington on June 2, 1911; and the International
Convention of Berne of September 9, 1886, for the protection of literary and
artistic works, revised at Berlin on November 13, 1908, and completed by the
additional Protocol signed at Berne on March 20, 1914, will again come into
effect as from the coming into force of the present Treaty, in so far as they are
not affected or modified by the exceptions and restrictions resulting therefrom.

ARTICLE 287.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties
shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the Convention of the Hague of July 17,
1905, relating to civil procedure. This renewal, however, will not apply to
France, Portugal and Roumania.

ARTICLE 288.

The special rights and privileges granted to Germany by Article 3 of the
Convention of December 2, 1899, relating to Samoa shall be considered to have
terminated on August 4, 1914.

ARTICLE 289.

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers, being guided by the general principles
or special provisions of the present Treaty, shall notify to Germany the
bilateral treaties or conventions which such Allied or Associated Power wishes to
revive with Germany.

The notification referred to in the present Article shall be made either directly
or through the intermediary of another Power. Receipt thereof shall be
acknowledged in writing by Germany. The date of the revival shall be that of the
notification.

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake among themselves not to revive with
Germany any conventions or treaties which are not in accordance with the terms of
the present Treaty.

The notification shall mention any provisions of the said conventions and
treaties which, not being in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty,
shall not be considered as revived.

In case of any difference of opinion, the League of Nations will be called on to
decide.

A period of six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty is
allowed to the Allied and Associated Powers within which to make the
notification.

Only those bilateral treaties and conventions which have been the subject of such
a notification shall be revived between the Allied and Associated Powers and
Germany; all the others are and shall remain abrogated.

The above regulations apply to all bilateral treaties or conventions existing
between all the Allied and Associated Powers signatories to the present Treaty
and Germany, even if the said Allied and Associated Powers have not been in a
state of war with Germany.

ARTICLE 290.

Germany recognises that all the treaties, conventions or agreements which she has
concluded with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria or Turkey since August 1, 1914, until
the coming into force of the present Treaty are and remain abrogated by the
present Treaty.

ARTICLE 291.

Germany undertakes to secure to the Allied and Associated Powers, and to the
officials and nationals of the said Powers, the enjoyment of all the rights and
advantages of any kind which she may have granted to Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria
or Turkey, or to the officials and nationals of these States by treaties,
conventions or arrangements concluded before August 1, 1914, so long as those
treaties, conventions or arrangements remain in force.

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to accept or not the enjoyment
of these rights and advantages.

ARTICLE 292.

Germany recognises that all treaties, conventions or arrangements which she
concluded with Russia, or with any State or Government of which the territory
previously formed a part of Russia, or with Roumania, before August 1, 1914, or
after that date until coming into force of the present Treaty, are and remain
abrogated.

ARTICLE 293.

Should an Allied or Associated Power, Russia, or a State or Government of which
the territory formerly constituted a part of Russia, have been forced since
August 1, 1914, by reason of military occupation or by any other means or for any
other cause, to grant or to allow to be granted by the act of any public
authority, concessions, privileges and favours of any kind to Germany or to a
German national, such concessions, privileges and favours are ipso facto annulled
by the present Treaty.

No claims or indemnities which may result from this annulment hall be charged
against the Allied or Associated Powers or the Powers, States, Governments or
public authorities which are released from their engagements by the present
Article.

ARTICLE 294.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty Germany undertakes to give the
Allied and Associated Powers and their nationals the benefit ipso facto of the
rights and advantages of any kind which she has granted by treaties, conventions,
or arrangements to nonbelligerent States or their nationals since August 1, 1914,
until the coming into force of the present Treaty, so long as those treaties,
conventions or arrangements remain in force.

ARTICLE 295.

Those of the High Contracting Parties who have not yet signed, or who have signed
but not yet ratified, the Opium Convention signed at The Hague on January 23,
1912, agree to bring the said Convention into force, and for this purpose to
enact the necessary legislation without delay and in any case within a period of
twelve months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Furthermore, they agree that ratification of the present Treaty should in the
case of Powers which have not yet ratified the Opium Convention be deemed in all
respects equivalent to the ratification of that Convention and to the signature
of the Special Protocol which was opened at The Hague in accordance with the
resolutions adopted by the Third Opium Conference in 1914 for bringing the said
Convention into force.

For this purpose the Government of the French Republic will communicate to the
Government of the Netherlands a certified copy of the protocol of the deposit of
ratifications of the present Treaty, and will invite the Government of the
Netherlands to accept and deposit the said certified copy as if it were a deposit
of ratifications of the Opium Convention and a signature of the Additional
Protocol of 1914.

SECTION III.

DEBTS.

ARTICLE 296.

There shall be settled through the intervention of clearing offices to be
established by each of the High Contracting Parties within three months of the
notification referred to in paragraph (e) hereafter the following classes of
pecuniary obligations:

(1) Debts payable before the war and due by a national of one of the Contracting
Powers, residing within its territory, to a national of an Opposing Power,
residing within its territory;

(2) Debts which became payable during the war to nationals of one Contracting
Power residing within its territory and arose out of transactions or contracts
with the nationals of an Opposing Power, resident within its territory, of which
the total or partial execution was suspended on account of the declaration of
war;

(3) Interest which has accrued due before and during the war to a national of one
of the Contracting Powers in respect of securities issued by an Opposing Power,
provided that the payment of interest on such securities to the nationals of that
Power or to neutrals has not been suspended during the war;

(4) Capital sums which have become payable before and during the war to nationals
of one of the Contracting Powers in respect of securities issued by one of the
Opposing Powers, provided that the payment of such capital sums to nationals of
that Power or to neutrals has not been suspended during the war.

The proceeds of liquidation of enemy property, rights and interests mentioned in
Section IV and in the Annex thereto will be accounted for through the Clearing
Offices, in the currency and at the rate of exchange hereinafter provided in
paragraph (d), and disposed of by them under the conditions provided by the said
Section and Annex.

The settlements provided for in this Article shall be effected according to the
following principles and in accordance with the Annex to this Section:

(a) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall prohibit, as from the coming into
force of the present Treaty, both the payment and the acceptance of payment of
such debts, and also all communications between the interested parties with
regard to the settlement of the said debts otherwise than through the Clearing
Offices;

(b) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be respectively responsible for
the payment of such debts due by its nationals, except in the cases where before
the war the debtor was in a state of bankruptcy or failure, or had given formal
indication of insolvency or where the debt was due by a company whose business
has been liquidated under emergency legislation during the war. Nevertheless,
debts due by the inhabitants of territory invaded or occupied by the enemy before
the Armistice will not be guaranteed by the States of which those territories
form part;

(c) The sums due to the nationals of one of the High Contracting Parties by the
nationals of an Opposing State will be debited to the Clearing Office of the
country of the debtor, and paid to the creditor by the Clearing Office of the
country of the creditor;

(d) Debts shall be paid or credited in the currency of such one of the Allied and
Associated Powers, their colonies or protectorates, or the British Dominions or
India, as may be concerned. If the debts are payable in some other currency they
shall be paid or credited in the currency of the country concerned, whether an
Allied or Associated Power, Colony, Protectorate, British Dominion or India, at
the pre-war rate of exchange.

For the purpose of this provision the pre-war rate of exchange shall be defined
as the average cable transfer rate prevailing in the Allied or Associated country
concerned during the month immediately preceding the outbreak of war between the
said country concerned and Germany.

If a contract provides for a fixed rate of exchange governing the conversion of
the currency in which the debt is stated into the currency of the Allied or
Associated country concerned, then the above provisions concerning the rate of
exchange shall not apply.

In the case of new States the currency in which and the rate of exchange at which
debts shall be paid or credited shall be determined by the Reparation Commission
provided for in Part VIII (Reparation);

(e) The provisions of this Article and of the Annex hereto shall not apply as
between Germany on the one hand and any one of the Allied and Associated Powers,
their colonies or protectorates, or any one of the British Dominions or India on
the other hand, unless within a period of one month from the deposit of the
ratification of the present Treaty by the Power in question, or of the
ratification on behalf of such Dominion or of India, notice to that effect is
given to Germany by the Government of such Allied or Associated Power or of such
Dominion or of India as the case may be;

(f) The Allied and Associated Powers who have adopted this Article and the Annex
hereto may agree between themselves to apply them to their respective nationals
established in their territory so far as regards matters between their nationals
and German nationals. In this case the payments made by application of this
provision will be subject to arrangements between the Allied and Associated
Clearing Offices concerned.

ANNEX.

1.

Each of the High Contracting Parties will, within three months from the
notification provided for in Article 296, paragraph (e) establish a Clearing
Office for the collection and payment of enemy debts.

Local Clearing Offices may be established for any particular portion of the
territories of the High Contracting Parties. Such local Clearing Offices may
perform all the functions of a central Clearing Office in their respective
districts, except that all transactions with the Clearing Office in the Opposing
State must be effected through the central Clearing Office.

2.

In this Annex the pecuniary obligations referred to in the first paragraph of
Article 296 are described “as enemy debts”, the persons from whom the same are
due as “enemy debtors”, the persons to whom they are due as “enemy creditors”,
the Clearing Office in the country of the creditor is called the “Creditor
Clearing Office”, and the Clearing Office in the country of the debtor is called
the “Debtor Clearing Office.”

3.

The High Contracting Parties will subject contraventions of paragraph (a) of
Article 296 to the same penalties as are at present provided by their legislation
for trading with the enemy. They will similarly prohibit within their territory
all legal process relating to payment of enemy debts, except in accordance with
the provisions of this Annex.

4.

The Government guarantee specified in paragraph (b) of Article 296 shall take
effect whenever, for any reason, a debt shall not be recoverable, except in a
case where at the date of the outbreak of war the debt was barred by the laws of
prescription in force in the country of the debtor, or where the debtor was at
that time in a state of bankruptcy or failure or had given formal indication of
insolvency, or where the debt was due by a company whose business has been
liquidated under emergency legislation during the war. In such case the procedure
specified by this Annex shall apply to payment of the dividends.

The terms “bankruptcy” and “failure” refer to the application of legislation
providing for such juridical conditions. The expression “formal indication of
insolvency” bears the same meaning as it has in English law.

5.

Creditors shall give notice to the Creditor Clearing Office within six months of its establishment of debts due to them, and shall furnish the Clearing Office with any documents and information required of them.

The High Contracting Parties will take all suitable measures to trace and punish collusion between enemy creditors and debtors. The Clearing Offices will communicate to one another any evidence and information which might help the discovery and punishment of such collusion.

The High Contracting Parties will facilitate as much as possible postal and telegraphic communication at the expense of the parties concerned and through the intervention of the Clearing Offices between debtors and creditors desirous of coming to an agreement as to the amount of their debt.

The Creditor Clearing Office will notify the Debtor Office of all debts declared to it. The Debtor Clearing Office will, in due course, inform the Creditor Clearing Office which debts are admitted and which debts are contested. In the latter case, the Debtor Clearing Office will give the grounds for the non-admission of debt.

6.

When a debt has been admitted, in whole or in part, the Debtor Clearing Office
will at once credit the Creditor Clearing Office with the amount admitted, and at
the same time notify it of such credit.

7.

The debt shall be deemed to be admitted in full and shall be credited forthwith
to the Creditor Clearing Office unless within three months from the receipt of
the notification or such longer time as may be agreed to by the Creditor Clearing
Office notice has been given by the Debtor Clearing Office that it is not
admitted.

8.

When the whole or part of a debt is not admitted the two Clearing Offices will
examine into the matter jointly and will endeavour to bring the parties to an
agreement.

9.

The Creditor Clearing Office will pay to the individual creditor the sums
credited to it out of the funds placed at its disposal by the Government of its
country and in accordance with the conditions fixed by the said Government,
retaining any sums considered necessary to cover risks, expenses or commissions.

10.

Any person having claimed payment of an enemy debt which is not admitted in whole
or in part shall pay to the clearing office, by way of fine, interest at 5 per
cent. on the part not admitted. Any person having unduly refused to admit the
whole or part of a debt claimed from him shall pay, by way of fine, interest at 5
per cent. on the amount with regard to which his refusal shall be disallowed.

Such interest shall run from the date of expiration of the period provided for in
paragraph 7 until the date on which the claim shall have been disallowed or the
debt paid.

Each Clearing Office shall in so far as it is concerned take steps to collect the
fines above provided for, and will be responsible if such fines cannot be
collected.

The fines will be credited to the other Clearing Office, which shall retain them
as a contribution towards the cost of carrying out the present provisions.

11.

The balance between the Clearing Offices shall be struck monthly and the credit
balance paid in cash by the debtor State within a week.

Nevertheless, any credit balances which may be due by one or more of the Allied
and Associated Powers shall be retained until complete payment shall have been
effected of the sums due to the Allied or Associated Powers or their nationals on
account of the war.

12.

To facilitate discussion between the Clearing Offices each of them shall have a
representative at the place where the other is established.

13.

Except for special reasons all discussions in regard to claims will, so far as
possible, take place at the Debtor Clearing Office.

14

In conformity with Article 296, paragraph (b), the High Contracting Parties are
responsible for the payment of the enemy debts owing by their nationals.

The Debtor Clearing Office will therefore credit the Creditor Clearing Office
with all debts admitted, even in case of inability to collect them from the
individual debtor. The Governments concerned will, nevertheless, invest their
respective Clearing Offices with all necessary powers for the recovery of debts
which have been admitted.

As an exception, the admitted debts owing by persons having suffered injury from
acts of war shall only be credited to the Creditor Clearing Office when the
compensation due to the person concerned in respect of such injury shall have
been paid.

15.

Each Government will defray the expenses of the Clearing Office set up in its
territory, including the salaries of the staff.

16.

Where the two Clearing Offices are unable to agree whether a debt claimed is due,
or in case of a difference between an enemy debtor and an enemy creditor or
between the Clearing Offices, the dispute shall either be referred to arbitration
if the parties so agree under conditions fixed by agreement between them, or
referred to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI hereafter.

At the request of the Creditor Clearing Office the dispute may, however, be
submitted to the jurisdiction of the Courts of the place of domicile of the
debtor.

17.

Recovery of sums found by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, the Court, or the
Arbitration Tribunal to be due shall be effected through the Clearing Offices as
if these sums were debts admitted by the Debtor Clearing Office.

18.

Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint an agent who will be responsible
for the presentation to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal of the cases conducted on
behalf of its Clearing Office. This agent will exercise a general control over
the representatives or counsel employed by its nationals.

Decisions will be arrived at on documentary evidence, but it will be open to the
Tribunal to hear the parties in person, or according to their preference by their
representatives approved by the two Governments, or by the agent referred to
above, who shall be competent to intervene along with the party or to reopen and
maintain a claim abandoned by the same.

19.

The Clearing Offices concerned will lay before the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal all
the information and documents in their possession, so as to enable the Tribunal
to decide rapidly on the cases which are brought before it.

20.

Where one of the parties concerned appeals against the joint decision of the two
Clearing Offices he shall make a deposit against the costs, which deposit shall
only be refunded when the first judgment is modified in favour of the appellant
and in proportion to the success he may attain, his opponent in case of such a
refund being required to pay an equivalent proportion of the costs and expenses.
Security accepted by the Tribunal may be substituted for a deposit.

A fee of 5 per cent. of the amount in dispute shall be charged in respect of all
cases brought before the Tribunal. This fee shall, unless the Tribunal directs
otherwise, be borne by the unsuccessful party. Such fee shall be added to the
deposit referred to. It is also independent of the security.

The Tribunal may award to one of the parties a sum in respect of the expenses of
the proceedings.

Any sum payable under this paragraph shall be credited to the Clearing Office of
the successful party as a separate item.

21.

With a view to the rapid settlement of claims, due regard shall be paid in the
appointment of all persons connected with the Clearing Offices or with the Mixed
Arbitral Tribunal to their knowledge of the language of the other country
concerned.

Each of the Clearing Offices will be at liberty to correspond with the other and
to forward documents in its own language.

22.

Subject to any special agreement to the contrary between the Governments
concerned, debts shall carry interest in accordance with the following
provisions:

Interest shall not be payable on sums of money due by way of dividend, interest
or other periodical payments which themselves represent interest on capital.

The rate of interest shall be 5 per cent. per annum except in cases where, by
contract, law or custom, the creditor is entitled to payment of interest at a
different rate. In such cases the rate to which he is entitled shall prevail.

Interest shall run from the date of commencement of hostilities (or, if the sum
of money to be recovered fell due during the war, from the date at which it fell
due) until the sum is credited to the Clearing Office of the creditor.

Sums due by way of interest shall be treated as debts admitted by the Clearing
Offices and shall be credited to the Creditor Clearing Office in the same way as
such debts.

23.

Where by decision of the Clearing Offices or the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal a claim
is held not to fall within Article 296, the creditor shall be at liberty to
prosecute the claim before the Courts or to take such other proceedings as may be
open to him.

The presentation of a claim to the Clearing Office suspends the operation of any
period of prescription.

24.

The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the Mixed Arbitral
Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to render them binding upon their
nationals.

25.

In any case where a Creditor Clearing Office declines to notify a claim to the
Debtor Clearing Office, or to take any step provided for in this Annex, intended
to make effective in whole or in part a request of which it has received due
notice, the enemy creditor shall be entitled to receive from the Clearing Office
a certificate setting out the amount of the claim, and shall then be entitled to
prosecute the claim before the courts or to take such other proceedings as may be
open to him.


SECTION IV.

PROPERTY, RIGHTS AND INTERESTS.

ARTICLE 297.

The question of private property, rights and interests in an enemy country shall
be settled according to the principles laid down in this Section and to the
provisions of the Annex hereto.

(a) The exceptional war measures and measures of transfer (defined in paragraph 3
of the Annex hereto) taken by Germany with respect to the property, rights and
interests of nationals of Allied or Associated Powers, including companies and
associations in which they are interested, when liquidation has not been
completed, shall be immediately discontinued or stayed and the property, rights
and interests concerned restored to their owners, who shall enjoy full rights
therein in accordance with the provisions of Article 298.

(b) Subject to any contrary stipulations which may be provided for in the present
Treaty, the Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to retain and
liquidate all property, rights and interests belonging at the date of the coming
into force of the present Treaty to German nationals, or companies controlled by
them, within their territories, colonies, possessions and protectorates including
territories ceded to them by the present Treaty.

The liquidation shall be carried out in accordance with the laws of the Allied or
Associated State concerned, and the German manowners shall not be able to dispose
of such property, rights or interests nor to subject them to any charge without
the consent of that State.

German nationals who acquire ipso facto the nationality of an Allied or
Associated Power in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty will not
be considered as German nationals within the meaning of this paragraph.

(c) The price or the amount of compensation in respect of the exercise of the
right referred to in the preceding paragraph (b) will be fixed in accordance with
the methods of sale or valuation adopted by the laws of the country in which the
property has been retained or liquidated.

(d) As between the Allied and Associated Powers or their nationals on the one
hand and Germany or her nationals on the other hand, all the exceptional war
measures, or measures of transfer, or acts done or to be done in execution of
such measures as defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 of the Annex hereto shall be
considered as final and binding upon all persons except as regards the
reservations laid down in the present Treaty.

(e) The nationals of Allied and Associated Powers shall be entitled to
compensation in respect of damage or injury inflicted upon their property, rights
or interests, including any company or association in which they are interested,
in German territory as it existed on August 1, 1914, by the application either of
the exceptional war measures or measures of transfer mentioned in paragraphs 1
and 3 of the Annex hereto. The claims made in this respect by such nationals
shall be investigated, and the total of the compensation shall be determined by
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI or by an Arbitrator
appointed by that Tribunal. This compensation shall be borne by Germany, and may
be charged upon the property of German nationals within the territory or under
the control of the claimant’s State. This property may be constituted as a pledge
for enemy liabilities under the conditions fixed by paragraph 4 of the Annex
hereto. The payment of this compensation may be made by the Allied or Associated
State, and the amount will be debited to Germany.

(f) Whenever a national of an Allied or Associated Power is entitled to property
which has been subjected to a measure of transfer in German territory and
expresses a desire for its restitution, his claim for compensation in accordance
with paragraph (6) shall be satisfied by the restitution of the said property if
it still exists in specie.

In such case Germany shall take all necessary steps to restore the evicted owner
to the possession of his property, free from all encumbrances or burdens with
which it may have been charged after the liquidation, and to indemnify all third
parties injured by the restitution.

If the restitution provided for in this paragraph cannot be effected, private
agreements arranged by the intermediation of the Powers concerned or the Clearing
Offices provided for in the Annex to Section III may be made, in order to secure
that the national of the Allied or Associated Power may secure compensation for
the injury referred to in paragraph (e) by the grant of advantages or equivalents
which he agrees to accept in place of the property, rights or interests of which
he was deprived.

Through restitution in accordance with this Article, the price or the amount of
compensation fixed by the application of paragraph (e) will be reduced by the
actual value of the property restored, account being taken of compensation in
respect of loss of use or deterioration.

(g) The rights conferred by paragraph (f) are reserved to owners who are
nationals of Allied or Associated Powers within whose territory legislative
measures prescribing the general liquidation of enemy property, rights or
interests were not applied before the signature of the Armistice.

(h) Except in cases where, by application of paragraph (f), restitutions in
specie have been made, the net proceeds of sales of enemy property, rights or
interests wherever situated carried out either by virtue of war legislation, or
by application of this Article, and in general all cash assets of enemies, shall
be dealt with as follows:

(1) As regards Powers adopting Section III and the Annex thereto, the said
proceeds and cash assets shall be credited to the Power of which the owner is a
national, through the Clearing Office established thereunder; any credit balance
in favour of Germany resulting therefrom shall be dealt with as provided in
Article 243.

(2) As regards Powers not adopting Section III and the Annex thereto, the
proceeds of the property, rights and interests, and the cash assets, of the
nationals of Allied or Associated Powers held by Germany shall be paid
immediately to the person entitled thereto or to his Government; the proceeds of
the property, rights and interests, and the cash assets, of German nationals
received by an Allied or Associated Power shall be subject to disposal by such
Power in accordance with its laws and regulations and may be applied in payment
of the claims and debts defined by this Article or paragraph 4 of the Annex
hereto. Any property, rights and interests or proceeds thereof or cash assets not
used as above provided may be retained by the said Allied or Associated Power and
if retained the cash value thereof shall be dealt with as provided in Article
243.

In the case of liquidations effected in new States, which are signatories of the
present Treaty as Allied and Associated Powers, or in States which are not
entitled to share in the reparation payments to be made by Germany, the proceeds
of liquidations effected by such States shall, subject to the rights of the
Reparation Commission under the present Treaty, particularly under Articles 235
and 260, be paid direct to the owner. If on the application of that owner, the
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, provided for by Section VI of this Part, or an
arbitrator appointed by that Tribunal is satisfied that the conditions of the
sale or measures taken by the Government of the State in question outside its
general legislation were unfairly prejudicial to the price obtained, they shall
have discretion to award to the owner equitable compensation to be paid by that
State.

(i) Germany undertakes to compensate her nationals in respect of the sale or
retention of their property, rights or interests in Allied or Associated States.

(j) The amount of all taxes and imposts upon capital levied or to be levied by
Germany on the property, rights and interests of the nationals of the Allied or
Associated Powers from November 11, 1918, until three months from the coming into
force of the present Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights or interests
which have been subjected to exceptional measures of war, until restitution in
accordance with the present Treaty, shall be restored to the owners.

ARTICLE 298.

Germany undertakes, with regard to the property, rights and interests, including
companies and associations in which they were interested, restored to nationals
of Allied and Associated Powers in accordance with the provisions of Article 297,
paragraph (a) or (f):

(a) to restore and maintain, except as expressly provided in the present Treaty,
the property, rights and interests of the nationals of Allied or Associated
Powers in the legal position obtaining in respect of the property, rights and
interests of German nationals under the laws in force before the war;

(b) not to subject the property, rights or interests of the nationals of the
Allied or Associated Powers to any measures in derogation of property rights
which are not applied equally to the property, rights and interests of German
nationals, and to pay adequate compensation in the event of the application of
these measures.

ANNEX.

1.

In accordance with the provisions of Article 297 paragraph (d), the validity of
vesting orders and of orders for the winding up of businesses or companies, and
of any other orders, directions, decisions or instructions of any court or any
department of the Government of any of the High Contracting Parties made or
given, or purporting to be made or given, in pursuance of war legislation with
regard to enemy property, rights and interests is confirmed. The interests of all
persons shall be regarded as having been effectively dealt with by any order,
direction, decision or instruction dealing with property in which they may be
interested, whether or not such interests are specifically mentioned in the
order, direction, decision, or instruction. No question shall be raised as to the
regularity of a transfer of any property, rights or interests dealt with in
pursuance of any such order, direction, decision or instruction. Every action
taken with regard to any property, business, or company, whether as regards its
investigation, sequestration, compulsory administration, use, requisition,
supervision, or winding up, the sale or management of property, rights or
interests, the collection or discharge of debts, the payment of costs, charges or
expenses, or any other matter whatsoever, in pursuance of orders, directions,
decisions, or instructions of any court or of any department of the Government of
any of the High Contracting Parties, made or given, or purporting to be made or
given, in pursuance of war legislation with regard to enemy property, rights or
interests, is confirmed. Provided that the provisions of this paragraph shall not
be held to prejudice the titles to property heretofore acquired in good faith and
for value and in accordance with the laws of the country in which the property is
situated by nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers.

The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to such of the above-mentioned
measures as have been taken by the German authorities in invaded or occupied
territory, nor to such of the above mentioned measures as have been taken by
Germany or the German authorities since November 11, 1918, all of which shall be
void.

2.

No claim or action shall be made or brought against any Allied or Associated
Power or against any person acting on behalf of or under the direction of any
legal authority or Department of the Government of such a Power by Germany or by
any German national wherever resident in respect of any act or omission with
regard to his property, rights or interests during the war or in preparation for
the war. Similarly no claim or action shall be made or brought against any person
in respect of any act or omission under or in accordance with the exceptional war
measures, laws or regulations of any Allied or Associated Power.

3.

In Article 297 and this Annex the expression “exceptional war measures” includes
measures of all kinds, legislative administrative, judicial or others, that have
been taken or will be taken hereafter with regard to enemy property, and which
have had or will have the effect of removing from the proprietors the power of
disposition over their property, though without affecting the ownership, such as
measures of supervision, of compulsory administration, and of sequestration; or
measures which have had or will have as an object the seizure of, the use of, or
the interference with enemy assets, for whatsoever motive, under whatsoever form
or in whatsoever place. Acts in the-execution of these measures include all
detentions, instructions, orders or decrees of Government departments or courts
applying these measures to enemy property, as well as acts performed by any
person connected with the administration or the supervision of enemy property,
such as the payment of debts, the collecting of credits, the payment of any
costs, charges or expenses, or the collecting of fees.

Measures of transfer are those which have affected or will affect the ownership
of enemy property by transferring it in whole or in part to a person other than
the enemy owner, and without his consent, such as measures directing the sale,
liquidation, or devolution of ownership in enemy property, or the cancelling of
titles or securities.

4.

All property, rights and interests of German nationals within the territory of
any Allied or Associated Power and the net proceeds of their sale, liquidation or
other dealing therewith may be charged by that Allied or Associated Power in the
first place with payment of amounts due in respect of claims by the nationals of
that Allied or Associated Power with regard to their property, rights and
interests, including companies and associations in which they are interested, in
German territory, or debts owing to them by German nationals, and with payment of
claims growing out of acts committed by the German Government or by any German
authorities since July 31, 1914, and before that Allied or Associated Power
entered into the war. The amount of such claims may be assessed by an arbitrator
appointed by Mr. Gustave Ador, if he is willing, or if no such appointment is
made by him, by an arbitrator appointed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided
for in Section VI. They may be charged in the second place with payment of the
amounts due in respect of claims by the nationals of such Allied or Associated
Power with regard to their property, rights and interests in the territory of
other enemy Powers, in so far as those claims are otherwise unsatisfied.

5.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 297, where immediately before the
outbreak of war a company incorporated in an Allied or Associated State had
rights in common with a company controlled by it and incorporated in Germany to
the use of trademarks in third countries, or enjoyed the use in common with such
company of unique means of reproduction of goods or articles for sale in third
countries, the former company shall alone have the right to use these trade-marks
in third countries to the exclusion of the German company, and these unique means
of reproduction shall be handed over to the former company, notwithstanding any
action taken under German war legislation with regard to the latter company or
its business, industrial property or shares. Nevertheless, the former company, if
requested, shall deliver the latter company derivative copies permitting the
continuation of reproduction of articles for use within German territory.

6.

Up to the time when restitution is carried out in accordance with Article 297,
Germany is responsible for the conservation of property, rights and interests of
the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers, including companies and
associations in which they are interested, that have been subjected by her to
exceptional war measures.

7

Within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty the Allied or
Associated Powers will specify the property, rights and interests over which they
intend to exercise the right provided in Article 297, paragraph (f).

8.

The restitution provided in Article 297 will be carried out by order of the
German Government or of the authorities which have been substituted for it.
Detailed accounts of the action of administrators shall be furnished to the
interested persons by the German authorities upon request, which may be made at
any time after the coming into force of the present Treaty.

9.

Until completion of the liquidation provided for by Article 297, paragraph (b),
the property, rights and interests of German nationals will continue to be
subject to exceptional war measures that have been or will be taken with regard
to them.

10.

Germany will, within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
deliver to each Allied or Associated Power all securities, certificates, deeds,
or other documents of title held by its nationals and relating to property,
rights or interests situated in the territory of that Allied or Associated Power,
including any shares, stock, debentures, debenture stock, or other obligations of
any company incorporated in accordance with the laws of that Power.

Germany will at any time on demand of any Allied or Associated Power furnish such
information as may be required with regard to the property, rights and interests
of German nationals within the territory of such Allied or Associated Power, or
with regard to any transactions concerning such property, rights or interests
effected since July 1, 1914.

11.

The expression “cash assets” includes all deposits or funds established before or
after the declaration of war, as well as all assets coming from deposits,
revenues, or profits collected by administrators, sequestrators, or others from
funds placed on deposit or otherwise, but does not include sums belonging to the
Allied or Associated Powers or to their component States, Provinces, or
Municipalities.

12.

All investments wheresoever effected with the cash assets of nationals of the
High Contracting Parties, including companies and associations in which such
nationals were interested, by persons responsible for the administration of enemy
properties or having control over such administration, or by order of such
persons or of any authority whatsoever shall be annulled. These cash assets shall
be accounted for irrespective of any such investment.

13.

Within one month from the coming into force of the present Treaty, or on demand
at any time, Germany will deliver to the Allied and Associated Powers all
accounts, vouchers, records, documents and information of any kind which may be
within German territory, and which concern the property, rights and interests of
the nationals of those Powers, including companies and associations in which they
are interested, that have been subjected to an exceptional war measure, or to a
measure of transfer either in German territory or in territory occupied by
Germany or her allies.

The controllers, supervisors, managers, administrators, sequestrators,
liquidators and receivers shall be personally responsible under guarantee of the
German Government for the immediate delivery in full of these accounts and
documents, and for their accuracy.

14.

The provisions of Article 297 and this Annex relating to property, rights and
interests in an enemy country, and the proceeds of the liquidation thereof, apply
to debts, credits and accounts, Section III regulating only the method of
payment.

In the settlement of matters provided for in Article 297 between Germany and the
Allied or Associated States, their colonies or protectorates, or any one of the
British Dominions or India, in respect of any of which a declaration shall not
have been made that they adopt Section III, and between their respective
nationals, the provisions of Section III respecting the currency in which payment
is to be made and the rate of exchange and of interest shall apply unless the
Government of the Allied or Associated Power concerned shall within six months of
the coming into force of the present Treaty notify Germany that the said
provisions are not to be applied.

15.

The provisions of Article 297 and this Annex apply to industrial, literary and
artistic property which has been or will be dealt with in the liquidation of
property, rights, interests, companies or businesses under war legislation by the
Allied or Associated Powers, or in accordance with the stipulations of Article
297, paragraph (b).

SECTION V.

CONTRACTS, PRESCRIPTIONS, JUDGMENTS.

ARTICLE 299.

(a) Any contract concluded between enemies shall be regarded as having been
dissolved as from the time when any two of the parties became enemies, except in
respect of any debt or other pecuniary obligation arising out of any act done or
money paid thereunder, and subject to the exceptions and special rules with
regard to particular contracts or classes of contracts contained herein or in the
Annex hereto.

(b) Any contract of which the execution shall be required in the general
interest, within six months from the date of the coming into force of the present
Treaty, by the Allied or Associated Governments of which one of the parties is a
national, shall be excepted from dissolution under this Article.

When the execution of the contract thus kept alive would owing to the alteration
of trade conditions, cause one of the parties substantial prejudice the Mixed
Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Section VI shall be empowered to grant to the
prejudiced party equitable compensation.

(c) Having regard to the provisions of the constitution and law of the United
States of America, of Brazil, and of Japan, neither the present Article, nor
Article 300, nor the Annex hereto shall apply to contracts made between nationals
of these States and German nationals; nor shall Article 305 apply to the United
States of America or its nationals.

(d) The present Article and the annex hereto shall not apply to contracts the
parties to which became enemies by reason of one of them being an inhabitant of
territory of which the sovereignty has been transferred, if such party shall
acquire under the present Treaty the nationality of an Allied or Associated
Power, nor shall they apply to contracts between nationals of the Allied and
Associated Powers between whom trading has been prohibited by reason of one of
the parties being in Allied or Associated territory in the occupation of the
enemy.

(e) Nothing in the present Article or the annex hereto shall be deemed to
invalidate a transaction lawfully carried out in accordance with a contract
between enemies if it has been carried out with the authority of one of the
belligerent Powers.

ARTICLE 300.

(a) All periods of prescription, or limitation of right of action, whether they
began to run before or after the outbreak of war, shall be treated in the
territory of the High Contracting Parties, so far as regards relations between
enemies, as having been suspended for the duration of the war. They shall begin
to run again at earliest three months after the coming into force of the present
Treaty. This provision shall apply to the period prescribed for the presentation
of interest or dividend coupons or for the presentation for repayment of
securities drawn for repayment or repayable on any other ground.

(b) Where, on account of failure to perform any act or comply with any formality
during the war, measures of execution have been taken in German territory to the
prejudice of a national of an Allied or Associated Power, the claim of such
national shall, if the matter does not fall within the competence of the Courts
of an Allied or Associated Power, be heard by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal
provided for by Section VI.

(c) Upon the application of any interested person who is a national of an Allied
or Associated Power the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall order the restoration of
the rights which have been prejudiced by the measures of execution referred to in
paragraph (b), wherever, having regard to the particular circumstances of the
case, such restoration is equitable and possible.

If such restoration is inequitable or impossible the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal may
grant compensation to the prejudiced party to be paid by the German Government.

(d) Where a contract between enemies has been dissolved by reason either of
failure on the part of either party to carry out its provisions or of the
exercise of a right stipulated in the contract itself the party prejudiced may
apply to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal for relief. The Tribunal will have the
powers provided for in paragraph (c.)

(e) The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article shall apply to the
nationals of Allied and Associated Powers who have been prejudiced by reason of
measures referred to above taken by Germany in invaded or occupied territory, if
they have not been otherwise compensated.

(f) Germany shall compensate any third party who may be prejudiced by any
restitution or restoration ordered by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal under the
provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article.

(g) As regards negotiable instruments, the period of three months provided under
paragraph (a) shall commence as from the date on which any exceptional
regulations applied in the territories of the interested Power with regard to
negotiable instruments shall have definitely ceased to have force.

ARTICLE 301.

As between enemies no negotiable instrument made before the war shall be deemed
to have become invalid by reason only of failure within the required time to
present the instrument for acceptance or payment or to give notice of
non-acceptance or nonpayment to drawers or indorsers or to protest the
instrument, nor by reason of failure to complete any formality during the war.

Where the period within which a negotiable instrument should have been presented
for acceptance or for payment, or within which notice of non-acceptance or
non-payment should have been given to the drawer or indorser, or within which the
instrument should have been protested, has elapsed during the war, and the party
who should have presented or protested the instrument or have given notice of
non-acceptance or non-payment has failed to do so during the war, a period of not
less than three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be
allowed within which presentation, notice of non-acceptance or nonpayment or
protest may be made.

ARTICLE 302.

Judgments given by the Courts of an Allied or Associated Power in all cases
which, under the present Treaty, they are competent to decide, shall be
recognised in Germany as final, and shall be enforced without it being necessary
to have them declared executory.

If a judgment in respect to any dispute which may have arisen has been given
during the war by a German Court against a national of an Allied or Associated
State in a case in which he was not able to make his defence, the Allied and
Associated national who has suffered prejudice thereby shall be entitled to
recover compensation, to be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in
Section VI.

At the instance of the national of the Allied or Associated Power the
compensation above-mentioned may, upon order to that effect of the Mixed Arbitral
Tribunal, be effected where it is possible by replacing the parties in the
situation which they occupied before the judgment was given by the German Court.

The above compensation may likewise be obtained before the Mixed Arbitral
Tribunal by the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers who have suffered
prejudice by judicial measures taken in invaded or occupied territories, if they
have not been otherwise compensated.

ARTICLE 303.

For the purpose of Sections III, IV, V and VII, the expression “during the war”
means for each Allied or Associated Power the period between the commencement of
the state of war between that Power and Germany and the coming into force of the
present Treaty.

ANNEX.

I. General Provisions.

1.

Within the meaning of Articles 299, 300 and 301, the parties to a contract shall
be regarded as enemies when trading between them shall have been prohibited by or
otherwise became unlawful under laws, orders or regulations to which one of those
parties was subject. They shall be deemed to have become enemies from the date
when such trading was prohibited or otherwise became unlawful.

2.

The following classes of contracts are excepted from dissolution by Article 299
and, without prejudice to the rights contained in Article 297 (b) of Section IV,
remain in force subject to the application of domestic laws, orders or
regulations made during the war by the Allied and Associated Powers and subject
to the terms of the contracts:

(a) Contracts having for their object the transfer of estates or of real or
personal property where the property therein had passed or the object had been
delivered before the parties became enemies;

(b) Leases and agreements for leases of land and houses

(c) Contracts of mortgage, pledge or lien;

(d) Concessions concerning mines, quarries or deposits;

(e) Contracts between individuals or companies and States provinces,
municipalities, or other similar juridical persons charged with administrative
functions, and concessions granted by States, provinces, municipalities, or other
similar juridical persons charged with administrative functions.

3.

If the provisions of a contract are in part dissolved under Article 299, the
remaining provisions of that contract shall, subject to the same application of
domestic laws as is provided for in paragraph 2, continue in force if they are
severable, but where they are not severable the contract shall be deemed to have
been dissolved in its entirety.


II. Provisions relating to certain classes of Contracts.

Stock Exchange and Commercial Exchange Contracts.

4.

(a) Rules made during the war by any recognised Exchange or Commercial
Association providing for the closure of contracts entered into before the war by
an enemy are confirmed by the High Contracting Parties, as also any action taken
thereunder, provided:

(1) That the contract was expressed to be made subject to the rules of the
Exchange or Association in question;

(2) That the rules applied to all persons concerned;

(3) That the conditions attaching to the closure were fair and reasonable.

(b) The preceding paragraph shall not apply to rules made during the occupation
by Exchanges or Commercial Associations in the districts occupied by the enemy.

(c) The closure of contracts relating to cotton “futures”, which were closed as
on July 31, 1914, under the decision of the Liverpool Cotton Association, is also
confirmed.

Security.

5.

The sale of a security held for an unpaid debt owing by an enemy shall be deemed
to have been valid irrespective of notice to the owner if the creditor acted in
good faith and with reasonable care and prudence, and no claim by the debtor on
the ground of such sale shall be admitted.

This stipulation shall not apply to any sale of securities effected by an enemy
during the occupation in regions invaded or occupied by the enemy.

Negotiable Instruments.

6.

As regards Powers which adopt Section III and the Annex thereto the pecuniary
obligations existing between enemies and resulting from the issue of negotiable
instruments shall be adjusted in conformity with the said Annex by the
instrumentality of the Clearing Offices, which shall assume the rights of the
holder as regards the various remedies open to him.

7.

If a person has either before or during the war become liable upon a negotiable
instrument in accordance with an undertaking given to him by a person who has
subsequently become an enemy, the latter shall remain liable to indemnify the
former in respect of his liability notwithstanding the outbreak of war.

III. Contracts of Insurance.

8.

Contracts of insurance entered into by any person with another person who
subsequently became an enemy will be dealt with in accordance with the following
paragraphs.

Fire Insurance.

9.

Contracts for the insurance of property against fire entered into by a person
interested in such property with another person who subsequently became an enemy
shall not be deemed to have been dissolved by the outbreak of war, or by the fact
of the person becoming an enemy, or on account of the failure during the war and
for a period of three months thereafter to perform his obligations under the
contract, but they shall be dissolved at the date when the annual premium becomes
payable for the first time after the expiration of a period of three months after
the coming into force of the present Treaty.

A settlement shall be effected of unpaid premiums which became due during the
war, or of claims for losses which occurred during the war.

10.

Where by administrative or legislative action an insurance against fire effected
before the war has been transferred during the war from the original to another
insurer, the transfer will be recognised and the liability of the original
insurer will be deemed to have ceased as from the date of the transfer. The
original insurer will, however, be entitled to receive on demand full information
as to the terms of the transfer, and if it should appear that these terms were
not equitable they shall be amended so far as may be necessary to render them
equitable.

Furthermore, the insured shall, subject to the concurrence of the original
insurer, be entitled to retransfer the contract to the original insurer as from
the date of the demand.

Life Insurance.

11.

Contracts of life insurance entered into between an insurer and a person who
subsequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to have been dissolved by the
outbreak of war, or by the fact of the person becoming an enemy.

Any sum which during the war became due upon a contract deemed not to have been
dissolved under the preceding provision shall be recoverable after the war with
the addition of interest at five per cent. per annum from the date of its
becoming due up to the day of payment.

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to nonpayment of premiums, or
has become void from breach of the conditions of the contract, the assured or his
representatives or the person entitled shall have the right at any time within
twelve months of the coming into force of the present Treaty to claim from the
insurer the surrender value of the policy at the date of its lapse or avoidance.

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to nonpayment of premiums the
payment of which has been prevented by the enforcement of measures of war, the
assured or his representative or the persons entitled shall have the right to
restore the contract on payment of the premiums with interest at five per cent.
per annum within three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

12.

Any Allied or Associated Power may within three months of the coming into force
of the present Treaty cancel all the contracts of insurance running between a
German insurance company and its nationals under conditions which shall protect
its nationals from any prejudice.

To this end the German insurance company will hand over to the Allied or
Associated Government concerned the proportion of its assets attributable to the
policies so cancelled and will be relieved from all liability in respect of such
policies. The assets to be handed over shall be determined by an actuary
appointed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal.

13.

Where contracts of life insurance have been entered into by a local branch of an
insurance company established in a country which subsequently became an enemy
country, the contract shall, in the absence of any stipulation to the contrary in
the contract itself, be governed by the local law, but the insurer shall be
entitled to demand from the insured or his representatives the refund of sums
paid on claims made or enforced under measures taken during the war, if the
making or enforcement of such claims was not in accordance with the terms of the
contract itself or was not consistent with the laws or treaties existing at the
time when it was entered into.

14.

In any case where by the law applicable to the contract the insurer remains bound
by the contract notwithstanding the nonpayment of premiums until notice is given
to the insured of the termination of the contract, he shall be entitled where the
giving of such notice was prevented by the war to recover the unpaid premiums
with interest at five per cent. per annum from the insured.

15.

Insurance contracts shall be considered as contracts of life assurance for the
purpose of paragraphs 11 to 14 when they depend on the probabilities of human
life combined with the rate of interest for the calculation of the reciprocal
engagements between the two parties.

Marine Insurance.

16.

Contracts of marine insurance including time policies and voyage policies entered
into between an insurer and a person who subsequently became an enemy, shall be
deemed to have been dissolved on his becoming an enemy, except in cases where the
risk undertaken in the contract had attached before he became an enemy.

Where the risk had not attached, money paid by way of premium or otherwise shall
be recoverable from the insurer.

Where the risk had attached effect shall be given to the contract notwithstanding
the party becoming an enemy, and sums due under the contract either by way of
premiums or in respect of losses shall be recoverable after the coming into force
of the present Treaty.

In the event of any agreement being come to for the payment of interest on sums
due before the war to or by the nationals of States which have been at war and
recovered after the war, such interest shall in the case of losses recoverable
under contracts of marine insurance run from the expiration of a period of one
year from the date of the loss.

17.

No contract of marine insurance with an insured person who subsequently became an
enemy shall be deemed to cover losses due to belligerent action by the Power of
which the insurer was a national or by the allies or associates of such Power.

18.

Where it is shown that a person who had before the war entered into a contract of
marine insurance with an insurer who subsequently became an enemy entered after
the outbreak of war into a new contract covering the same risk with an insurer
who was not an enemy, the new contract shall be deemed to be substituted for the
original contract as from the date when it was entered into, and the premiums
payable shall be adjusted on the basis of the original insurer having remained
liable on the contract only up till the time when the new contract was entered
into.

Other Insurances.

19.

Contracts of insurance entered into before the war between an insurer and a
person who subsequently became an enemy, other than contracts dealt with in
paragraphs g to 18, shall be treated in all respects on the same footing as
contracts of fire insurance between the same persons would be dealt with under
the said paragraphs.

Re-insurance.

20.

All treaties of re-insurance with a person who became an enemy shall be regarded
as having been abrogated by the person becoming an enemy, but without prejudice
in the case of life or marine risks which had attached before the war to the
right to recover payment after the war for sums due in respect of such risks.

Nevertheless if, owing to invasion, it has been impossible for the re-insured to
find another re-insurer, the treaty shall remain in force until three months
after the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Where a re-insurance treaty becomes void under this paragraph, there shall be an
adjustment of accounts between the parties in respect both of premiums paid and
payable and of liabilities for losses in respect of life or marine risks which
had attached before the war. In the case of risks other than those mentioned in
paragraphs 11 to 18 the adjustment of accounts shall be made as at the date of
the parties becoming enemies without regard to claims for losses which may have
occurred since that date.

21.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph will extend equally to re-insurances
existing at the date of the parties becoming enemies of particular risks
undertaken by the insurer in a contract of insurance against any risks other than
life or marine risks.

22.

Re-insurance of life risks effected by particular contracts and not under any
general treaty remain in force.

The provisions of paragraph 12 apply to treaties of re-insurance of life
insurance contracts in which enemy companies are the reinsurers.

23.

In case of a re-insurance effected before the war of a contract of marine
insurance, the cession of a risk which had been ceded to the re-insurer shall, if
it had attached before the outbreak of war, remain valid and effect be given to
the contract notwithstanding the outbreak of war; sums due under the contract of
re-insurance in respect either of premiums or of losses shall be recoverable
after the war.

24.

The provisions of paragraphs 17 and 18 and the last part of paragraph 16 shall
apply to contracts for the re-insurance of marine risks.

SECTION VI.

MIXED ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL.

ARTICLE 304.

(a) Within three months from the date of the coming into force of the present
Treaty, a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between each of the Allied
and Associated Powers on the one hand and Germany on the other hand. Each such
Tribunal shall consist of three members. Each of the Governments concerned shall
appoint one of these members. The President shall be chosen by agreement between
the two Governments concerned.

In case of failure to reach agreement, the President of the Tribunal and two
other persons, either of whom may in case of need take his place, shall be chosen
by the Council of the League of Nations, or, until this is set up, by M. Gustave
Ador if he is willing. These persons shall be nationals of Powers that have
remained neutral during the war.

If any Government does not proceed within a period of one month in case there is
a vacancy to appoint a member of the Tribunal, such member shall be chosen by the
other Government from the two persons mentioned above other than the President.

The decision of the majority of the members of the Tribunal shall be the decision
of the Tribunal.

(b) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to paragraph (a), shall
decide all questions within their competence under Sections III, IV, V and VII.

In addition, all questions, whatsoever their nature, relating to contracts
concluded before the coming into force of the present Treaty between nationals of
the Allied and Associated Powers and German nationals shall be decided by the
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, always excepting questions which, under the laws of the
Allied, Associated or Neutral Powers, are within the jurisdiction of the National
Courts of those Powers. Such questions shall be decided by the National Courts in
question, to the exclusion of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. The party who is a
national of an Allied or Associated Power may nevertheless bring the case before
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal if this is not prohibited by the laws of his country.

(c) If the number of cases justifies it, additional members shall be appointed
and each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall sit in divisions. Each of these divisions
will be constituted as above.

(d) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal will settle its own procedure except in so far
as it is provided in the following Annex, and is empowered to award the sums to
be paid by the loser in respect of the costs and expenses of the proceedings.

(e) Each Government will pay the remuneration of the member of the Mixed Arbitral
Tribunal appointed by it and of any agent whom it may appoint to represent it
before the Tribunal. The remuneration of the President will be determined by
special agreement between the Governments concerned; and this remuneration and
the joint expenses of each Tribunal will be paid by the two Governments in equal
moieties.

(f) The High Contracting Parties agree that their courts and authorities shall
render to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals direct all the assistance in their power,
particularly as regards transmitting notices and collecting evidence.

(g) The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the Mixed
Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to render them binding upon their
nationals.

ANNEX.

1.

Should one of the members of the Tribunal either die, retire, or be unable for
any reason whatever to discharge his function, the same procedure will be
followed for filling the vacancy as was followed for appointing him.

2.

The Tribunal may adopt such rules of procedure as shall be in accordance with
justice and equity and decide the order and time at which each party must
conclude its arguments, and may arrange all formalities required for dealing with
the evidence.

3.

The agent and counsel of the parties on each side are authorised to present
orally and in writing to the Tribunal arguments in Support or in defence of each
case.

4.

The Tribunal shall keep record of the questions and cases submitted and the
proceedings thereon, with the dates of such proceedings.

5.

Each of the Powers concerned may appoint a secretary. These secretaries shall act
together as joint secretaries of the Tribunal and shall be subject to its
direction. The Tribunal may appoint and employ any other necessary officer or
officers to assist in the performance of its duties.

6.

The Tribunal shall decide all questions and matters submitted upon such evidence
and information as may be furnished by the parties concerned.

7.

Germany agrees to give the Tribunal all facilities and information required by it
for carrying out its investigations.

8.

The language in which the proceedings shall be conducted shall, unless otherwise
agreed, be English, French, Italian or Japanese, as may be determined by the
Allied or Associated Power concerned.

9.

The place and time for the meetings of each Tribunal shall be determined by the
President of the Tribunal.

ARTICLE 305.

Whenever a competent court has given or gives a decision in a case covered by
Sections III, IV, V or VII, and such decision is inconsistent with the provisions
of such Sections, the party who is prejudiced by the decision shall be entitled
to obtain redress which shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. At the
request of the national of an Allied or Associated Power, the redress may,
whenever possible, be effected by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal directing the
replacement of the parties in the position occupied by them before the judgment
was given by the German court.

SECTION VII.

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY.

ARTICLE 306.

Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of industrial, literary
and artistic property, as such property is defined by the International
Conventions of Paris and of Berne, mentioned in Article 286, shall be
re-established or restored, as from the coming into force of the present Treaty,
in the territories of the High Contracting Parties, in favour of the persons
entitled to the benefit of them at the moment when the state of war commenced or
their legal representatives. Equally, rights which, except for the war, would
have been acquired during the war in consequence of an application made for the
protection of industrial property, or the publication of a literary or artistic
work, shall be recognised and established in favour of those persons who would
have been entitled thereto, from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Nevertheless, all acts done by virtue of the special measures taken during the
war under legislative, executive or administrative authority of any Allied or
Associated Power in regard to the rights of German nationals in industrial,
literary or artistic property shall remain in force and shall continue to
maintain their full effect.

No claim shall be made or action brought by Germany or German nationals in
respect of the use during the war by the Government of any Allied or Associated
Power, or by any persons acting on behalf or with the assent of such Government,
of any rights in industrial, literary or artistic property, nor in respect of the
sale, offering for sale, or use of any products, articles or apparatus whatsoever
to which such rights applied.

Unless the legislation of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers in force at
the moment of the signature of the present Treaty otherwise directs, sums due or
paid in virtue of any act or operation resulting from the execution of the
special measures mentioned in paragraph l of this Article shall be dealt with in
the same way as other sums due to German nationals are directed to be dealt with
by the present Treaty; and sums produced by any special measures taken by the
German Government in respect of rights in industrial, literary or artistic
property belonging to the nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers shall be
considered and treated in the same way as other debts due from German nationals.

Each of the Allied and Associated Powers reserves to itself the right to impose
such limitations, conditions or restrictions on rights of industrial, literary or
artistic property (with the exception of trade-marks) acquired before or during
the war, or which may be subsequently acquired in accordance with its
legislation, by German nationals, whether by granting licences, or by the
working, or by preserving control over their exploitation, or in any other way,
as may be considered necessary for national defence, or in the public interest,
or for assuring the fair treatment by Germany of the rights of industrial,
literary and artistic property held in German territory by its nationals, or for
securing the due fulfilment of all the obligations undertaken by Germany in the
present Treaty. As regards rights of industrial, literary and artistic property
acquired after the coming into force of the present Treaty, the right so reserved
by the Allied and Associated Powers shall only be exercised in cases where these
limitations, conditions or restrictions may be considered necessary for national
defence or in the public interest.

In the event of the application of the provisions of the preceding paragraph by
any Allied or Associated Power, there shall be paid reasonable indemnities or
royalties, which shall be dealt with in the same way as other sums due to German
nationals are directed to be dealt with by the present Treaty.

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers reserves the right to treat as void and
of no effect any transfer in whole or in part of or other dealing with rights of
or in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property effected after August
1, 1914, or in the future, which would have the result of defeating the objects
of the provisions of this Article.

The provisions of this Article shall not apply to rights in industrial, literary
or artistic property which have been dealt with in the liquidation of businesses
or companies under war legislation by the Allied or Associated Powers, or which
may be so dealt with by virtue of Article 297, paragraph (b).

ARTICLE 307.

A minimum of one year after the coming into force of the present Treaty shall be
accorded to the nationals of the High Contracting Parties, without extension fees
or other penalty, in order to enable such persons to accomplish any act, fulfil
any formality, pay any fees, and generally satisfy any obligation prescribed by
the laws or regulations of the respective States relating to the obtaining,
preserving, or opposing rights to, or in respect of, industrial property either
acquired before August 1, 1914, or which, except for the war, might have been
acquired since that date as a result of an application made before the war or
during its continuance, but nothing in this Article shall give any right to
reopen interference proceedings in the United States of America where a final
hearing has taken place.

All rights in, or in respect of, such property which may have lapsed by reason of
any failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, or make any payment,
shall revive, but subject in the case of patents and designs to the imposition of
such conditions as each Allied or Associated Power may deem reasonably necessary
for the protection of persons who have manufactured or made use of the subject
matter of such property while the rights had lapsed. Further, where rights to
patents or designs belonging to German nationals are revived under this Article,
they shall be subject in respect of the grant of licences to the same provisions
as would have been applicable to them during the war, as well as to all the
provisions of the present Treaty.

The period from August 1, 1914, until the coming into force of the present Treaty
shall be excluded in considering the time within which a patent should be worked
or a trade mark or design used, and it is further agreed that no patent,
registered trade mark or design in force on August 1, 1914, shall be subject to
revocation or cancellation by reason only of the failure to work such patent or
use such trade mark or design for two years after the coming into force of the
present Treaty.

ARTICLE 308.

The rights of priority, provided by Article 4 of the International Convention for
the Protection of Industrial Property of Paris, of March 20, 1883, revised at
Washington in 1911 or by any other Convention or Statute, for the filing or
registration of applications for patents or models of utility, and for the
registration of trade marks, designs and models which had not expired on August
1, 1914, and those which have arisen during the war, or would have arisen but for
the war, shall be extended by each of the High Contracting Parties in favour of
all nationals of the other High Contracting Parties for a period of six months
after the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Nevertheless, such extension shall in no way affect the right of any of the High
Contracting Parties or of any person who before the coming into force of the
present Treaty was bona fide in possession of any rights of industrial property
conflicting with rights applied for by another who claims rights of priority in
respect of them, to exercise such rights by itself or himself personally, or by
such agents or licensees as derived their rights from it or him before the coming
into force of the present Treaty; and such persons shall not be amenable to any
action or other process of law in respect of infringement.

ARTICLE 309.

No action shall be brought and no claim made by persons residing or carrying on
business within the territories of Germany on the one part and of the Allied or
Associated Powers on the other, or persons who are nationals of such Powers
respectively, or by any one deriving title during the war from such persons, by
reason of any action which has taken place within the territory of the other
party between the date of the declaration of war and that of the coming into
force of the present Treaty, which might constitute an infringement of the rights
of industrial property or rights of literary and artistic property, either
existing at any time during the war or revived under the provisions of Articles
307 and 308.

Equally, no action for infringement of industrial, literary or artistic property
rights by such persons shall at any time be permissible in respect of the sale or
offering for sale for a period of one year after the signature of the present
Treaty in the territories of the Allied or Associated Powers on the one hand or
Germany on the other, of products or articles manufactured, or of literary or
artistic works published, during the period between the declaration of war and
the signature of the present Treaty, or against those who have acquired and
continue to use them. It is understood, nevertheless, that this provision shall
not apply when the possessor of the rights was domiciled or had an industrial or
commercial establishment in the districts occupied by Germany during the war.

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of America on the one
hand and Germany on the other.

ARTICLE 310.

Licenses in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property concluded before
the war between nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers or persons residing
in their territory or carrying on business therein, on the one part, and German
nationals, on the other part, shall be considered as cancelled as from the date
of the declaration of war between Germany and the Allied or Associated Power.
But, in any case, the former beneficiary of a contract of this kind shall have
the right, within a period of six months after the coming into force of the
present Treaty, to demand from the proprietor of the rights the grant of a new
license, the conditions of which, in default of agreement between the parties,
shall be fixed by the duly qualified tribunal in the country under whose
legislation the rights had been acquired, except in the case of licenses held in
respect of rights acquired under German law. In such cases the conditions shall
be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in Section VI of this Part.
The tribunal may, if necessary, fix also the amount which it may deem just should
be paid by reason of the use of the rights during the war.

No license in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property, granted under
the special war legislation of any Allied or Associated Power, shall be affected
by the continued existence of any license entered into before the war, but shall
remain valid and of full effect, and a license so granted to the former
beneficiary of a license entered into before the war shall be considered as
substituted for such license.

Where sums have been paid during the war by virtue of a license or agreement
concluded before the war in respect of rights of industrial property or for the
reproduction or the representation of literary, dramatic or artistic works, these
sums shall be dealt with in the same manner as other debts or credits of German
nationals, as provided by the present Treaty.

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of America on the one
hand and Germany on the other.

ARTICLE 311

The inhabitants of territories separated from Germany by virtue of the present
Treaty shall, notwithstanding this separation and the change of nationality
consequent thereon, continue to enjoy in Germany all the rights in industrial,
literary and artistic property to which they were entitled under German
legislation at the time of the separation.

Rights of industrial, literary, and artistic property which are in force in the
territories separated from Germany under the present Treaty at the moment of the
separation of these territories from Germany, or which will be re-established or
restored in accordance with the provisions of Article 306 of the present Treaty,
shall be recognised by the State to which the said territory is transferred and
shall remain in force in that territory for the same period of time given them
under the German law.


SECTION VIII.

SOCIAL AND STATE INSURANCE IN CEDED

TERRITORY.

ARTICLE 312.

Without prejudice to the provisions contained in other Articles of the present
Treaty, the German Government undertakes to transfer to any Power to which German
territory in Europe is ceded, and to any Power administering former German
territory as a mandatory under Article 22 of Part I (League of Nations), such
portion of the reserves accumulated by the Government of the German Empire or of
German States, or by public or private organisations under their control, as is
attributable to the carrying on of Social or State Insurance in such territory.

The Powers to which these funds are transferred must apply them to the
performance of the obligations arising from such insurances

The conditions of the transfer will be determined by special conventions to be
concluded between the German Government and the Governments concerned.

In case these special conventions are not concluded in accordance with the above
paragraph within three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty,
the conditions of transfer shall in each case be referred to a Commission of five
members one of whom shall be appointed by the German Government, one by the other
interested Government and three by the Governing Body of the International Labour
Office from the nationals of other States. This Commission shall by majority
vote, within three months after appointment adopt recommendations for submission
to the Council of the League of Nations, and the decisions of the Council shall
forthwith be accepted as final by Germany

PART XI.

AERIAL NAVIGATION.

ARTICLE 313.

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have full liberty of
passage and landing over and in the territory and territorial waters of Germany,
and shall enjoy the same privileges as German aircraft, particularly in case of
distress by land or sea.

ARTICLE 314

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall, while in transit to any
foreign country whatever, enjoy the right of flying over the territory and
territorial waters of Germany without landing, subject always to any regulations
which may be made by Germany, and which shall be applicable equally to the
aircraft of Germany and to those of the Allied and Associated countries.

ARTICLE 315

All aerodromes in Germany open to national public traffic shall be open for the
aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers, and in any such aerodrome such
aircraft shall be treated on a footing of equality with German aircraft as
regards charges of every description, including charges for landing and
accommodation.

ARTICLE 316.

Subject to the present provisions, the rights of passage, transit and landing,
provided for in Articles 313, 314 and 315, are subject to the observance of such
regulations as Germany may consider it necessary to enact, but such regulations
shall be applied without distinction to German aircraft and to those of the
Allied and Associated countries.

ARTICLE 317.

Certificate of nationality, airworthiness, or competency, and licences, issued or
recognised as valid by any of the Allied or Associated Powers, shall be
recognised in Germany as valid and as equivalent to the certificates and licences
issued by Germany.

ARTICLE 318.

As regards internal commercial air traffic, the aircraft of the, Allied and
Associated Powers shall enjoy in Germany most favoured nation treatment.

ARTICLE 319.

Germany undertakes to enforce the necessary measures to ensure that all German
aircraft flying over her territory shall comply with the Rules as to lights and
signals, Rules of the Air and Rules for Air Traffic on and in the neighbourhood
of aerodromes, which have been laid down in the Convention relative to Aerial
Navigation concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers.

ARTICLE 320.

The obligations imposed by the preceding provisions shall remain in force until
January 1, 1923, unless before that date Germany shall have been admitted into
the League of Nations or shall have been authorised, by consent of the Allied and
Associated Powers, to adhere to the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation
concluded between those Powers.

PART XII.

PORTS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS.

SECTION I.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 321.

Germany undertakes to grant freedom of transit through her territories on the
routes most convenient for international transit, either by rail, navigable
waterway, or canal, to persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails
coming from or going to the territories of any of the Allied and Associated
Powers (whether contiguous or not); for this purpose the crossing of territorial
waters shall be allowed. Such persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons, and
mails shall not be subjected to any transit duty or to any undue delays or
restrictions, and shall be entitled in Germany to national treatment as regards
charges, facilities, and all other matters.

Goods in transit shall be exempt from all Customs or other similar duties.

All charges imposed on transport in transit shall be reasonable, having regard to
the conditions of the traffic. No charge, facility or restriction shall depend
directly or indirectly on the ownership or on the nationality of the ship or
other means of transport on which any part of the through journey has been, or is
to be, accomplished.

ARTICLE 322.

Germany undertakes neither to impose nor to maintain any control over
transmigration traffic through her territories beyond measures necessary to
ensure that passengers are bona fide in transit; nor to allow any shipping
company or any other private body, corporation or person interested in the
traffic to take any part whatever in, or to exercise any direct or indirect
influence over, any administrative service that may be necessary for this
purpose.

ARTICLE 323.

Germany undertakes to make no discrimination or preference direct or indirect, in
the duties, charges and prohibitions relating to importations into or
exportations from her territories, or, subject to the special engagements
contained in the present Treaty, in the charges and conditions of transport of
goods or persons entering or leaving her territories, based on the frontier
crossed; or on the kind, ownership or flag of the means of transport (including
aircraft) employed, or on the original or immediate place of departure of the
vessel, wagon or aircraft or other means of transport employed, or its ultimate
or intermediate destination; or on the route of or places of trans-shipment on
the journey; or on whether any port through which the goods are imported or
exported is a German port or a port belonging to any foreign country or on
whether the goods are imported or exported by sea, by land or by air.

Germany particularly undertakes not to establish against the ports and vessels of
any of the Allied and Associated Powers any surtax or any direct or indirect
bounty for export, or import by German ports or vessels, or by those of another
Power, for example by means of combined tariffs. She further undertakes that
persons or goods passing through a port or using a vessel of any of the Allied
and Associated Powers shall not be subjected to any formality or delay whatever
to which such persons or goods would not be subjected if they passed through a
German port or a port of any other Power, or used a German vessel or a vessel of
any other Power.

ARTICLE 324.

All necessary administrative and technical measures shall be taken to shorten, as
much as possible, the transmission of goods across the German frontiers and to
ensure their forwarding and transport from such frontiers, irrespective of
whether such goods are coming from or going to the territories of the Allied and
Associated Powers or are in transit from or to those territories, under the same
material conditions in such matters as rapidity of carriage and care en route as
are enjoyed by other goods of the same kind carried on German territory under
similar conditions of transport.

In particular, the transport of perishable goods shall be promptly and regularly
carried out, and the customs formalities shall be effected in such a way as to
allow the goods to be carried straight through by trains which make connection.

ARTICLE 325.

The seaports of the Allied and Associated Powers are entitled to all favours and
to all reduced tariffs granted on German railways or navigable waterways for the
benefit of German ports or of any port of another Power.

ARTICLE 326.

Germany may not refuse to participate in the tariffs or combinations of tariffs
intended to secure for ports of any of the Allied and Associated Powers
advantages similar to those granted by Germany to her own ports or the ports of
any other Power.

SECTION II.

NAVIGATION.

CHAPTER I.

FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION.

ARTICLE 327.

The nationals of any of the Allied and Associated Powers as well as their vessels
and property shall enjoy in all German ports and on the inland navigation routes
of Germany the same treatment in all respects as German nationals, vessels and
property.

In particular the vessels of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers shall be
entitled to transport goods of any description, and passengers, to or from any
ports or places in German territory to which German vessels may have access,
under conditions which shall not be more onerous than those applied in the case
of national vessels; they shall be treated on a footing of equality with national
vessels as regards port and harbour facilities and charges of every description,
including facilities for stationing loading, and unloading, and duties and
charges of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, light-house, quarantine, and all analogous
duties and charges of whatsoever nature, levied in the name of or for the profit
of the Government, public functionaries, private individuals, corporations or
establishments of any kind.

In the event of Germany granting a preferential regime to any of the Allied or
Associated Powers or to any other foreign Power, this regime shall be extended
immediately and unconditionally to all the Allied and Associated Powers.

There shall be no impediment to the movement of persons or vessels other than
those arising from prescriptions concerning customs, police, sanitation,
emigration, and immigration, and those relating to the import and export of
prohibited goods. Such regulations must be reasonable and uniform and must not
impede traffic unnecessarily.


CHAPTER II.

FREE ZONES 1N PORTS.

ARTICLE 328.

The free zones existing in German ports on August 1, 1914, shall be maintained.
These free zones, and any other free zones which may be established in German
territory by the present Treaty, shall be subject to the regime provided for in
the following

Goods entering or leaving a free zone shall not be subjected to any import or
export duty, other than those provided for in Article 330.

Vessels and goods entering a free zone may be subjected to the charges
established to cover expenses of administration, upkeep and improvement of the
port, as well as to the charges for the use of various installations, provided
that these charges shall be reasonable having regard to the expenditure incurred,
and shall be levied in the conditions of equality provided for in Article 327.

Goods shall not be subjected to any other charge except a statistical duty which
shall not exceed 1 mille ad valorem, and which shall be devoted exclusively to
defraying the expenses of compiling statements of the traffic in the port.

ARTICLE 329.

The facilities granted for the erection of warehouses, for packing and for
unpacking goods, shall be in accordance with trade requirements for the time
being. All goods allowed to be consumed in the free zone shall be exempt from
duty, whether of excise or of any other description, apart from the statistical
duty provided for in Article 328 above.

There shall be no discrimination in regard to any of the provisions of the
present Article between persons belonging to different nationalities or between
goods of different origin or destination.

ARTICLE 330.

Import duties may be levied on goods leaving the free zone for consumption in the
country on the territory of which the port is situated. Conversely, export duties
may be levied on goods coming from such country and brought into the free zone.
These import and export duties shall be levied on the same basis and at the same
rates as similar duties levied at the other Customs frontiers of the country
concerned. On the other hand, Germany shall not levy, under any denomination, any
import, export or transit duty on goods carried by land or water across her
territory to or from the free zone from or to any other State.

Germany shall draw up the necessary regulations to secure and guarantee such
freedom of transit over such railways and waterways in her territory as normally
give access to the free zone.

CHAPTER III.

CLAUSES RELATING TO THE ELBE, THE ODER, THE NIEMEN (RUSSSTROM-MEMEL-NIEMEN) AND
THE DANUBE.

(l) General Clauses.

ARTICLE 331.

The following rivers are declared international: the Elbe (Labe) from its
confluence with the Vltava (Moldau), and the Vltava (Moldau) from Prague; the
Oder (Odra) from its confluence with the Oppa; the Niemen
(Russstrom-Memel-Niemen) from Grodno; the Danube from Ulm; and all navigable
parts of these river systems which naturally provide more than one State with
access to the sea, with or without transshipment from one vessel to another;
together with lateral canals and channels constructed either to duplicate or to
improve naturally navigable sections of the specified river systems, or to
connect two naturally navigable sections of the same river.

The same shall apply to the Rhine-Danube navigable waterway, should such a
waterway be constructed under the conditions laid down in Article 353.

ARTICLE 332.

On the waterways declared to be international in the preceding Article, the
nationals, property and flags of all Powers shall be treated on a footing of
prefect equality, no distinction being made to the detriment of the nationals,
property or flag of any Power between them and the nationals, property or flag of
the riparian State itself or of the most favoured nation.

Nevertheless, German vessels shall not be entitled to carry passengers or goods
by regular services between the ports of any Allied or Associated Power, without
special authority from such Power.

ARTICLE 333.

Where such charges are not precluded by any existing conventions, charges varying
on different sections of a river may be levied on vessels using the navigable
channels or their approaches, provided that they are intended solely to cover
equitably the cost of maintaining in a navigable condition, or of improving, the
river and its approaches, or to meet expenditure incurred in the interests of
navigation. The schedule of such charges shall be calculated on the basis of
such expenditure and shall be posted up in the ports. These charges shall be
levied in such a manner as to render any detailed examination of cargoes
unnecessary, except in cases of suspected fraud or contravention.

ARTICLE 334. The transit of vessels, passengers and goods on these waterways
shall be effected in accordance with the general conditions prescribed for
transit in Section I above.

When the two banks of an international river are within the same State goods in
transit may be placed under seal or in the custody of customs agents. When the
river forms a frontier goods and passengers in transit shall be exempt from all
customs formalities, the loading and unloading of goods, and the embarkation and
disembarkation of passengers, shall only take place in the ports specified by the
riparian State.

ARTICLE 335.

No dues of any kind other than those provided for in the present Part shall be
levied along the course or at the mouth of these rivers.

This provision shall not prevent the fixing by the riparian States of customs,
local octroi or consumption duties, or the creation of reasonable and uniform
charges levied in the ports, in accordance with public tariffs, for the use of
cranes, elevators, quays, warehouses, etc.

ARTICLE 336.

In default of any special organisation for carrying out the works connected with
the upkeep and improvement of the international portion of a navigable system,
each riparian State shall be bound to take suitable measures to remove any
obstacle or danger to navigation and to ensure the maintenance of good conditions
of navigation.

If a State neglects to comply with this obligation any riparian State, or any
State represented on the International Commission, if there is one, may appeal to
the tribunal instituted for this purpose by the League of Nations.

ARTICLE 337.

The same procedure shall be followed in the case of a riparian State undertaking
any works of a nature to impede navigation in the international section. The
tribunal mentioned in the preceding Article shall be entitled to enforce the
suspension or suppression of such works, making due allowance in its decisions
for all rights in connection with irrigation, water-power, fisheries, and other
national interests, which, with the consent of all the riparian States or of all
the States represented on the International Commission, if there is one, shall be
given priority over the requirements of navigation.

Appeal to the tribunal of the League of Nations does not require the suspension
of the works.

ARTICLE 338.

The regime set out in Articles 332 to 337 above shall be superseded by one to be
laid down in a General Convention drawn up by the Allied and Associated Powers,
and approved by the League of Nations, relating to the waterways recognised in
such Convention as having an international character. This Convention shall apply
in particular to the whole or part of the above-mentioned river systems of the
Elbe (Labe), the Oder (Odra), the Niemen (Russstrom-Memel-Niemen), and the
Danube, and such other parts of these river systems as may be covered by a
general definition.

Germany undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article 379, to adhere
to the said General Convention as well as to all projects prepared in accordance
with Article 343 below for the revision of existing international agreements and
regulations.

ARTICLE 339.

Germany shall cede to the Allied and Associated Powers concerned, within a
maximum period of three months from the date on which notification shall be given
her, a proportion of the tugs and vessels remaining registered in the ports of
the river systems referred to in Article 331 after the deduction of those
surrendered by way of restitution or reparation. Germany shall in the same way
cede material of all kinds necessary to the Allied and Associated Powers
concerned for the utilisation of those river systems.

The number of the tugs and boats, and the amount of the material so ceded, and
their distribution, shall be determined by an arbitrator or arbitrators nominated
by the United States of America, due regard being had to the legitimate needs of
the parties concerned, and particularly to the shipping traffic during the five
years preceding the war.

All craft so ceded shall be provided with their fittings and gear, shall be in a
good state of repair and in condition to carry goods and shall be selected from
among those most recently built.

The cessions provided for in the present Article shall entail a credit of which
the total amount, settled in a lump sum by the arbitrator or arbitrators, shall
not in any case exceed the value of the capital expended in the initial
establishment of the material ceded, and shall be set off against the total sums
due from Germany, in consequence, the indemnification of the proprietors shall be
a matter for Germany to deal with.

(2) Special Clauses relating to the Elbe, the Oder and the Niemen
(Russstrom-Memel-Niemen).

ARTICLE 340.

The Elbe (Labe) shall be placed under the administration of an International
Commission which shall comprise:

4 representatives of the German States bordering on the river:

2 representatives of the Czecho-Slovak State;

1 representative of Great Britain;

1 representative of France;

1 representative of Italy;

1 representative of Belgium.

Whatever be the number of members present, each delegation shall have the right
to record a number of votes equal to the number of representatives allotted to
it.

If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the time of the coming
into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of the Commission shall
nevertheless be valid.

ARTICLE 341.

The Oder (Odra) shall be placed under the administration of an International
Commission, which shall comprise:

1 representative of Poland;

3 representatives of Prussia;

1 representative of the Czecho-Slovak State;

1 representative of Great Britain;

1 representative of France;

1 representative of Denmark;

1 representative of Sweden.

If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the time of the coming
into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of the Commission shall
nevertheless be valid.

ARTICLE 342.

On a request being made to the League of Nations by any riparian State, the
Niemen (Russstrom-Memel-Niemen) shall be placed under the administration of an
International Commission which shall comprise one representative of each riparian
State and three representatives of other States specified by the League of
Nations.

ARTICLE 343.

The International Commissions referred to in Articles 340 and 342 shall meet
within three months of the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
The International Commission referred to in Article 342 shall meet within three
months from the date of the request made by a riparian State. Each of these
Commissions shall proceed immediately to prepare a project for the revision of
the existing international agreements and regulations drawn up in conformity with
the General Convention referred to in Article 338, should such Convention have
been already concluded. In the absence of such Convention, the project for
revision shall be in conformity with the principles of Articles 332 to 337 above.

ARTICLE 344.

The projects referred to in the preceding Article shall, inter alia:

(a) designate the headquarters of the International Commission, and prescribe the
manner in which its President is to be nominated;

(b) specify the extent of the Commission’s powers, particularly in regard to the
execution of works of maintenance, control, and improvement on the river system,
the financial regime, the fixing and collection of charges, and regulations for
navigation-

(c) define the sections of the river or its tributaries to which the
international regime shall be applied.

ARTICLE 345.

The international agreements and regulations at present governing the navigation
of the Elbe (Labe), the Oder (Odra), and the Niemen (Russstrom-Memel-Niemen)
shall be provisionally maintained in force until the ratification of the
above-mentioned projects. Nevertheless, in all cases where such agreements and
regulations in force are in conflict with the provisions of Articles 332 to 337
above, or of the General Convention to be concluded, the latter provisions shall
prevail.

(3) Special Clauses relating to the Danube.

ARTICLE 346.

The European Commission of the Danube reassumes the powers it possessed before
the war. Nevertheless, as a provisional measure, only representatives of Great
Britain, France, Italy and Roumania shall constitute this Commission.

ARTICLE 347.

From the point where the competence of the European Commission ceases, the Danube
system referred to in Article 33l shall be placed under the administration of an
International Commission composed as follows:

2 representatives of German riparian States; 1 representative of each other
riparian State; 1 representative of each non-riparian State represented in the
future on the European Commission of the Danube.

If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the time of the coming
into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of the Commission shall
nevertheless be valid.

ARTICLE 348.

The International Commission provided for in the preceding Article shall meet as
soon as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty and shall
undertake provisionally the administration of the river in conformity with the
provisions of Articles 332 to 337, until such time as a definitive statute
regarding the Danube is concluded by the Powers dominated by the Allied and
Associated Powers.

ARTICLE 349.

Germany agrees to accept the regime which shall be laid down for the Danube by a
Conference of the Powers nominated by the Allied and Associated Powers, which
shall meet within one year after the coming into force of the present Treaty, and
at which German representatives may be present.

ARTICLE 350.

The mandate given by Article 57 of the Treaty of Berlin of July 13, 1878, to
Austria-Hungary, and transferred by her to Hungary to carry out works at the Iron
Gates, is abrogated. The Commission entrusted with the administration of this
part of the river shall lay down provisions for the settlement of accounts
subject to . the financial provisions of the present Treaty. Charges which may be
necessary shall in no case be levied by Hungary.

ARTICLE 351.

Should the Czecho-Slovak State, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or Roumania, with
the authorisation of or under mandate from the International Commission,
undertake maintenance, improvement, weir, or other works on a part of the river
system which forms a frontier, these States shall enjoy on the opposite bank, and
also on the part of the bed which is outside their territory, all necessary
facilities for the survey, execution and maintenance of such works.

ARTICLE 352.

Germany shall be obliged to make to the European Commission of the Danube all
restitutions, reparations and indemnities for damages inflicted on the Commission
during the war.

ARTICLE 353.

Should a deep-draught Rhine-Danube navigable waterway be constructed, Germany
undertakes to apply thereto the regime prescribed in Articles 332 to 338.

CHAPTER IV.

CLAUSES RELATING TO THE RHINE AND THE MOSELLE.

ARTICLE 354.

As from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Convention of Mannheim
of October 17, 1868, together with the Final Protocol thereof, shall continue to
govern navigation on the Rhine, subject to the conditions hereinafter laid down.

In the event of any provision of the said Convention being in conflict with those
laid down by the General Convention referred to in Article 338 (which shall apply
to the Rhine) the provisions of the General Convention shall prevail.

Within a maximum period of six months from the coming into force of the present
Treaty, the Central Commission referred to in Article 355 shall meet to draw up a
project of revision of the Convention of Mannheim. This project shall be drawn up
in harmony with the provisions of the General Convention referred to above,
should this have been concluded by that time, and shall be submitted to the
Powers represented on the Central Commission Germany hereby agrees to adhere to
the project so drawn up.

Further, the modifications set out in the following Articles shall immediately be
made in the Convention of Mannheim.

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve to themselves the right to arrive at an
understanding in this connection with Holland, and Germany hereby agrees to
accede if required to any such understanding.

ARTICLE 355.

The Central Commission provided for in the Convention of Mannheim shall consist
of nineteen members, viz.:

2 representatives of the Netherlands; 2 representatives of Switzerland; 4
representatives of German riparian States; 4 representatives of France, which in
addition shall appoint the President of the Commission; 2 representatives of
Great Britain; 2 representatives of Italy; 2 representatives of Belgium.

The headquarters of the Central Commission shall be at Strasburg.

Whatever be the number of members present, each Delegation shall have the right
to record a number of votes equal to the number of representatives allotted to
it.

If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the time of the coming
into force of the present Treaty, the decision of the Commission shall
nevertheless be valid.

ARTICLE 356.

Vessels of all nations, and their cargoes, shall have the same rights and
privileges as those which are granted to vessels belonging to the Rhine
navigation, and to their cargoes.

None of the provisions contained in Articles 15 to 20 and 26 of the
above-mentioned Convention of Mannheim, in Article 4 of the Final Protocol
thereof, or in later Conventions, shall impede the free navigation of vessels and
crews of all nations on the Rhine and on waterways to which such Conventions
apply, subject to compliance with the regulations concerning pilotage and other
police measures drawn up by the Central Commission.

The provisions of Article 22 of the Convention of Mannheim and of Article 5 of
the Final Protocol thereof shall be applied only to vessels registered on the
Rhine. The Central Commission shall decide on the steps to be taken to ensure
that other vessels satisfy the conditions of the general regulations applying to
navigation on the Rhine.

ARTICLE 357.

Within a maximum period of three months from the date on which notification shall
be given Germany shall cede to France tugs and vessels, from among those
remaining registered in German Rhine ports after the deduction of those
surrendered by way of restitution or reparation, or shares in German Rhine
navigation companies.

When vessels and tugs are ceded, such vessels and tugs, together with their
fittings and gear, shall be in good state of repair, shall be in condition to
carry on commercial traffic on the Rhine, and shall be selected from among those
most recently built.

The same procedure shall be followed in the matter of the cession by Germany to
France of:

(1) the installations, berthing and anchorage accommodation, platforms, docks,
warehouses, plant, etc., which German subjects or German companies owned on
August 1, 1914, in the port of Rotterdam, and

(2) the shares or interests which Germany or German nationals possessed in such
installations at the same date.

The amount and specifications of such cessions shall be determined within one
year of the coming into force of the present Treaty by an arbitrator or
arbitrators appointed by the United States of America, due regard being had to
the legitimate needs of the parties concerned.

The cessions provided for in the present Article shall entail a credit of which
the total amount, settled in a lump sum by the arbitrator or arbitrators
mentioned above shall not in any case exceed the value of the capital expended in
the initial establishment of the ceded material and installations, and shall be
set off against the total sums due from Germany; in consequence, the
indemnification of the proprietors shall be a matter for Germany to deal with.

ARTICLE 358.

Subject to the obligation to comply with the provisions of the Convention of
Mannheim or of the Convention which may be substituted therefor, and to the
stipulations of the present Treaty, France shall have on the whole course of the
Rhine included between the two extreme points of the French frontiers:

(a) the right to take water from the Rhine to feed navigation and irrigation
canals (constructed or to be constructed) or for any other purpose, and to
execute on the German bank all works necessary for the exercise of this right;

(b) the exclusive right to the power derived from works of regulation on the
river, subject to the payment to Germany of the value of half the power actually
produced, this payment, which will take into account the cost of the works
necessary for producing the power, being made either in money or in power and in
default of agreement being determined by arbitration. For this purpose France
alone shall have the right to carry out in this part of the river all works of
regulation (weirs or other works) which she may consider necessary for the
production of power. Similarly, the right of taking water from the Rhine is
accorded to Belgium to feed the Rhine-Meuse navigable waterway provided for
below.

The exercise of the rights mentioned under (a) and (b) of the present Article
shall not interfere with navigability nor reduce the facilities for navigation,
either in the bed of the Rhine or in, the derivations which may be substituted
therefor, nor shall it . involve any increase in the tolls formerly levied under
the Convention in force. All proposed schemes shall be laid before the Central
Commission in order that that Commission may assure itself that these conditions
are complied with.

To ensure the proper and faithful execution of the provisions contained in (a)
and (b) above, Germany:

(1) binds herself not to undertake or to allow the construction of any lateral
canal or any derivation on the right bank of the river opposite the French
frontiers;

(2) recognises the possession by France of the right of support on and the right
of way over all lands situated on the right bank which may be required in order
to survey, to build, and to operate weirs which France, with the consent of the
Central Commission, may subsequently decide to establish. In accordance with such
consent, France shall be entitled to decide upon and fix the limits of the
necessary sites, and she shall be permitted to occupy such lands after a period
of two months after simple notification, subject to the payment by her to Germany
of indemnities of which the total amount shall be fixed by the Central
Commission. Germany shall make it her business to indemnify the proprietors whose
property will be burdened with such servitudes or permanently occupied by the
works.

Should Switzerland so demand, and if the Central Commission approves, the same
rights shall be accorded to Switzerland for the part of the river forming her
frontier with other riparian States;

(3) shall hand over to the French Government, during the month following the
coming into force of the present Treaty, all projects, designs, drafts of
concessions and of specifications concerning the regulation of the Rhine for any
purpose whatever which have been drawn up or received by the Governments of
Alsace-Lorraine or of the Grand Duchy of Baden.

ARTICLE 359.

Subject to the preceding provisions, no works shall be carried out in the bed or
on either bank of the Rhine where it forms the boundary of France and Germany
without the previous approval of the Central Commission or of its agents.

ARTICLE 360.

France reserves the option of substituting herself as regards the rights and
obligations resulting from agreements arrived at between the Government of
Alsace-Lorraine and the Grand Duchy of Baden concerning the works to be carried
out on the Rhine; she may also denounce such agreements within a term of five
years dating from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

France shall also have the option of causing works to be carried out which may be
recognised as necessary by the Central Commission for the upkeep or improvement
of the navigability of the Rhine above Mannheim.

ARTICLE 361.

Should Belgium within a period of 25 years from the coming into force of the
present Treaty decide to create a deep-draught Rhine-Meuse navigable waterway, in
the region of Ruhrort, Germany shall be bound to construct, in accordance with
plans to be communicated to her by the Belgian Government, after agreement with
the Central Commission, the portion of this navigable waterway situated within
her territory.

The Belgian Government shall, for this purpose, have the right to carry out on
the ground all necessary surveys.

Should Germany fail to carry out all or part of these works, the Central
Commission shall be entitled to carry them out instead; and, for this purpose,
the Commission may decide upon and fix the limits of the necessary sites and
occupy the ground after a period of two months after simple notification, subject
to the payment of indemnities to be fixed by it and paid by Germany.

This navigable waterway shall be placed under the same administrative regime as
the Rhine itself, and the division of the cost of initial construction, including
the above indemnities, among the States crossed thereby shall be made by the
Central Commission.

ARTICLE 362.

Germany hereby agrees to offer no objection to any proposals of the Central Rhine
Commission for extending its jurisdiction:

(1) to the Moselle below the Franco-Luxemburg frontier down to the Rhine, subject
to the consent of Luxemburg;

(2) to the Rhine above Basle up to the Lake of Constance, subject to the consent
of Switzerland;

(3) to the lateral canals and channels which may be established either to
duplicate or to improve naturally navigable sections of the Rhine or the Moselle,
or to connect two naturally navigable sections of these rivers, and also any
other parts of the Rhine river system which may be covered by the General
Convention provided for in Article 338 above.

CHAPTER V.

CLAUSES GIVING TO THE CZECHO-SLOVAK STATE THE USE OF NORTHERN PORTS.

ARTICLE 363.

In the ports of Hamburg and Stettin Germany shall lease to the Czecho-Slovak
State, for a period of 99 years, areas which shall be placed under the general
regime of free zones and shall be used for the direct transit of goods coming
from or going to that State.

ARTICLE 364.

The delimitation of these areas, and their equipment, their exploitation, and in
general all conditions for their utilisation, including the amount of the rental,
shall be decided by a Commission consisting of one delegate of Germany, one
delegate of the Czecho-Slovak State and one delegate of Great Britain. These
conditions shall be susceptible of revision every ten years in the same manner.

Germany declares in advance that she will adhere to the decisions so taken.

SECTION III.

RAILWAYS.

CHAPTER I.

CLAUSES RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT.

ARTICLE 365.

Goods coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers, and going
to Germany, or in transit through Germany from or to the territories of the
Allied and Associated Powers, shall enjoy on the German railways as regards
charges to be collected (rebates and drawbacks being taken into account),
facilities, and all other matters, the most favourable treatment applied to goods
of the same kind carried on any German lines, either in internal traffic, or for
export, import or in transit, under similar conditions of transport, for example
as regards length of route. The same rule shall be applied, on the request of one
or more of the Allied and Associated Powers, to goods specially designated by
such Power or Powers coming from Germany and going to their territories.

International tariffs established in accordance with the rates referred to in the
preceding paragraph and involving through waybills shall be established when one
of the Allied and Associated Powers shall require it from Germany.

ARTICLE 366.

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Contracting Parties
shall renew, in so far as concerns them and under the reserves indicated in the
second paragraph of the present Article, the conventions and arrangements signed
at Berne on October 14, 1890, September 20, 1893, July 16, 1895, June 16, 1898,
and September 19, 1906, regarding the transportation of goods by rail.

If within five years from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty
a new convention for the transportation of passengers, luggage, and goods by rail
shall have been concluded to replace the Berne Convention of October 14, 1 890,
and the subsequent additions referred to above, this new convention and the
supplementary provisions for international transport by rail which may be based
on it shall bind Germany, even if she shall have refused to take part in the
preparation of the convention or to subscribe to it. Until a new convention shall
have been concluded, Germany shall conform to the provisions of the Berne
Convention and the subsequent additions referred to above, and to the current
supplementary provisions.

ARTICLE 367.

Germany shall be bound to co-operate in the establishment of through ticket
services (for passengers and their luggage) which shall be required by any of the
Allied and Associated Powers to ensure their communication by rail with each
other and with all other countries by transit across the territories of Germany;
in particular Germany shall, for this purpose, accept trains and carriages coming
from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers and shall forward them
with a speed at least equal to that of her best long-distance trains on the same
lines. The rates applicable to such through services shall not in any case be
higher than the rates collected on German internal services for the same
distance, under the same conditions of speed and comfort.

The tariffs applicable under the same conditions of speed and comfort to the
transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports of the Allied and
Associated Powers and using the German railways shall not be at a higher
kilometric rate than the most favourable tariffs (drawbacks and rebates being
taken into account) enjoyed on the said railways by emigrants going to or coming
from any other ports

ARTICLE 368.

Germany shall not apply specially to such through services, or to the
transportation of emigrants going to or coming from the ports of the Allied and
Associated Powers, any technical, fiscal or administrative measures, such as
measures of customs examination, general police, sanitary police, and control,
the result of which would be to impede or delay such services.

ARTICLE 369.


In case of transport partly by rail and partly by internal navigation, with or
without through way-bill, the preceding Articles shall apply to the part of the
journey performed by rail.

CHAPTER II.

ROLLING-STOCK.

ARTICLE 370.

Germany undertakes that German wagons shall be fitted with apparatus allowing:

(1) of their inclusion in goods trains on the lines of such of the Allied and
Associated Powers as are parties to the Berne Convention of May 15, 1886, as
modified on May 18, 1907, without hampering the action of the continuous brake
which may be adopted in such countries within ten years of the coming into force
of the present Treaty, and

(2) Of the acceptance of wagons of such countries in all goods trains on the
German lines.

The rolling-stock of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy on the German
lines the same treatment as German rollingstock as regards movement, upkeep, and
repairs.

CHAPTER III.

CESSIONS OF RAILWAY LINES.

ARTICLE 371.

Subject to any special provisions concerning the cession of ports, waterways and
railways situated in the territories over which Germany abandons her sovereignty,
and to the financial conditions relating to the concessionnaires and the
pensioning of the personnel, the cession of railways will take place under the
following conditions:

(1) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be handed over
complete and in good condition.

(2) When a railway system possessing its own rolling-stock is handed over in its
entirety by Germany to one of the Allied and Associated Powers, such stock shall
be handed over complete, in accordance with the last inventory before November
11, 1918, and in a normal state of upkeep.

(3) As regards lines without any special rolling-stock, Commissions of experts
designated by the Allied and Associated Powers, on which Germany shall be
represented, shall fix the proportion of the stock existing on the system to
which those lines belong to be handed over. These Commissions shall have regard
to the amount of the material registered on these lines in the last inventory
before November 11, 1918, the length of track (sidings included), and the nature
and amount of the traffic. These Commissions shall also specify the locomotives,
carriages and wagons to be handed over in each case; they shall decide upon the
conditions of their acceptance, and shall make the provisional arrangements
necessary to ensure their repair in German workshops.

(4) Stocks of stores, fittings and plant shall be handed over under the same
conditions as the rolling-stock.

The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall be applied to the lines of
former Russian Poland converted by Germany to the German gauge, such lines being
regarded as detached from the

Prussian State System.

CHAPTER IV.

PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN RAILWAY LINES.

ARTICLE 372.

When as a result of the fixing of new frontiers a railway connection between two
parts of the same country crosses another country, or a branch line from one
country has its terminus in another, the conditions of working, if not
specifically provided for in the present Treaty, shall be laid down in a
convention between the railway administrations concerned. If the administrations
cannot come to an agreement as to the terms of such convention, the points of
difference shall be decided by commissions of experts composed as provided in the
preceding Article.

ARTICLE 373.

Within a period of five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty
the Czecho-Slovak State may require the construction of a railway line in German
territory between the stations of Schlauney and Nachod. The cost of construction
shall be borne by the Czecho-Slovak State.

ARTICLE 374.

Germany undertakes to accept, within ten years of the coming into force of the
present Treaty, on request being made by the Swiss Government after agreement
with the Italian Government, the denunciation of the International Convention of
October l3, 1909, relative to the St. Gothard railway. In the absence of
agreement as to the conditions of such denunciation, Germany hereby agrees to
accept the decision of an arbitrator designated by the United States of America.

CHAPTER V.

TRANSITORY PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 375

Germany shall carry out the instructions given her, in regard to transport, by an
authorised body acting on behalf of the Allied and Associated Powers:

(1) For the carriage of troops under the provisions of the present Treaty, and of
material, ammunition and supplies for army use;

(2) As a temporary measure, for the transportation of supplies for certain
regions, as well as for the restoration, as rapidly as possible, of the normal
conditions of transport, and for the organisation of postal and telegraphic
services.

SECTION IV.

DISPUTES.

AND REVISION OF PERMANENT CLAUSES.

ARTICLE 376.

Disputes which may arise between interested Powers with regard to the
interpretation and application of the preceding Article shall be settled as
provided by the League of Nations.

ARTICLE 377.

At any time the League of Nations may recommend the revision of such of these
Articles as relate to a permanent administrative regime.

ARTICLE 378.

The stipulations in Articles 321 to 330, 332, 365, and 367 to 369 shall be
subject to revision by the Council of the League of Nations at any time after
five years from the coming into force of the present Treaty.

Failing such revision, no Allied or Associated Power can claim after the
expiration of the above period of five years the benefit of any of the
stipulations in the Articles enumerated above on behalf of any portion of its
territories in which reciprocity is not accorded in respect of such stipulations.
The period of five years during which reciprocity cannot be demanded may be
prolonged by the Council of the League of Nations.

SECTION V.

SPECIAL PROVISION.

ARTICLE 379.

Without prejudice to the special obligations imposed on her by the present Treaty
for the benefit of the Allied and Associated Powers, Germany undertakes to adhere
to any General Conventions regarding the international regime of transit,
waterways, ports or railways which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated
Powers, with the approval of the League of Nations, within five years of the
coming into force of the present Treaty.

SECTION VI.

CLAUSES RELATING TO THE KIEL CANAL.

ARTICLE 380.

The Kiel Canal and its approaches shall be maintained free and open to the
vessels of commerce and of war of all nations at peace with Germany on terms of
entire equality.

ARTICLE 381.

The nationals, property and vessels of all Powers shall, in respect of charges,
facilities, and in all other respects, be treated on a footing of perfect
equality in the use of the Canal, no distinction being made to the detriment of
nationals, property and vessels of any Power between them and the nationals,
property and vessels of Germany or of the most favoured nation.

No impediment shall be placed on the movement of persons or vessels other than
those arising out of police, customs, sanitary, emigration or immigration
regulations and those relating to the import or export of prohibited goods. Such
regulations must be reasonable and uniform and must not unnecessarily impede
traffic

ARTICLE 382.

Only such charges may be levied on vessels using the Canal or its approaches as
are intended to cover in an equitable manner the cost of maintaining in a
navigable condition, or of improving, the Canal or its approaches, or to meet
expenses incurred in the interests of navigation. The schedule of such charges
shall be calculated on the basis of such expenses, and shall be posted up in the
ports.

These charges shall be levied in such a manner as to render any detailed
examination of cargoes unnecessary, except in the case of suspected fraud or
contravention.

ARTICLE 383.

Goods in transit may be placed under seal or in the custody of customs agents;
the loading and unloading of goods, and the embarkation and disembarkation of
passengers, shall only take place in the ports specified by Germany.

ARTICLE 384.

No charges of any kind other than those provided for in the present Treaty shall
be levied along the course or at the approaches of the Kiel Canal.

ARTICLE 385.

Germany shall be bound to take suitable measures to remove any obstacle or danger
to navigation, and to ensure the maintenance of good conditions of navigation.
She shall not undertake any works of a nature to impede navigation on the Canal
or its approaches.

ARTICLE 386.

In the event of violation of any of the conditions of Articles 380 to 386, or of
disputes as to the interpretation of these Articles, any interested Power can
appeal to the jurisdiction instituted for the purpose by the League of Nations.

In order to avoid a reference of small questions to the League of Nations,
Germany will establish a local authority at Kiel qualified to deal with disputes
in the first instance and to give satisfaction so far as possible to complaints
which may be presented through the consular representatives of the interested
Powers.

PART XIII.

LABOUR.

SECTION I.

ORGANISATION OF LABOUR.

Whereas the League of Nations has for its object the establishment of universal
peace, and such a peace can be established only if it is based upon social
justice;

And whereas conditions of labour exist involving such injustice, hardship, and
privation to large numbers of people as to produce unrest so great that the peace
and harmony of the world are imperilled; and an improvement of those conditions
is urgently required: as, for example, by the regulation of the hours of work,
including the establishment of a maximum working day and week, the regulation of
the labour supply, the prevention of unemployment, the provision of an adequate
living wage, the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury
arising out of his employment, the protection of children, young persons and
women, provision for old age and injury, protection of the interests of workers
when employed in countries other than their own recognition of the principle of
freedom of association, the organisation of vocational and technical education
and other measures;

Whereas also the failure of any nation to adopt humane conditions of labour is an
obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to improve the conditions in
their own countries;

The HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, moved by sentiments of justice and humanity as well
as by the desire to secure the permanent peace of the world, agree to the
following:

CHAPTER l.

ORGANISATION.

ARTICLE 387.

A permanent organisation is hereby established for the promotion of the objects
set forth in the Preamble.

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be the original Members of
this organisation, and hereafter membership of the League of Nations shall carry
with it membership of the said organisation.

ARTICLE 388.

The permanent organisation shall consist of:

(1) a General Conference of Representatives of the Members and,

(2) an International Labour Office controlled by the Governing Body described in
Article 393.

ARTICLE 389.

The meetings of the General Conference of Representatives of the Members shall be
held from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once in every year.
It shall be composed of four Representatives of each of the Members, of whom two
shall be Government Delegates and the two others shall be Delegates representing
respectively the employers and the workpeople of each of the Members.

Each Delegate may be accompanied by advisers, who shall not exceed two in number
for each item on the agenda of the meeting. When questions specially affecting
women are to be considered by the Conference, one at least of the advisers should
be a woman.

The members undertake to nominate non-Government Delegates and advisers chosen in
agreement with the industrial organisations, if such organisations exist, which
are most representative of employers or workpeople, as the case may be, in their
respective countries.

Advisers shall not speak except on a request made by the Delegate whom they
accompany and by the special authorisation of the President of the Conference,
and may not vote.

A Delegate may by notice in writing addressed to the President appoint one of his
advisers to act as his deputy, and the adviser, while so acting, shall be allowed
to speak and vote.

The names of the Delegates and their advisers will be communicated to the
International Labour Office by the Government of each of the Members.

The credentials of Delegates and their advisers shall be subject to scrutiny by
the Conference, which may, by two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates
present, refuse to admit any Delegate or adviser whom it deems not to have been
nominated in accordance with this Article.

ARTICLE 390.

Every Delegate shall be entitled to vote individually on all matters which are
taken into consideration by the Conference.

If one of the Members fails to nominate one of the nonGovernment Delegates whom
it is entitled to nominate, the other non-Government Delegate shall be allowed to
sit and speak at the Conference, but not to vote.

If in accordance with Article 389 the Conference refuses admission to a Delegate
of one of the Members, the provisions of the present Article shall apply as if
that Delegate had not been nominated.

ARTICLE 391.

The meetings of the Conference shall be held at the seat of the League of
Nations, or at such other place as may be decided by the Conference at a previous
meeting by two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present.

ARTICLE 392.

The International Labour Office shall be established at the seat of the League of
Nations as part of the organisation of the League.

ARTICLE 393

The International Labour Office shall be under the control of a Governing Body
consisting of twenty-four persons, appointed in accordance with the following
provisions:

The Governing Body of the International Labour Office shall be constituted as
follows:

Twelve persons representing the Governments;

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference representing the
employers;

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference representing the workers.

Of the twelve persons representing the Governments eight shall be nominated by
the Members which are of the chief industrial importance, and four shall be
nominated by the Members selected for the purpose by the Government Delegates to
the Conference, excluding the Delegates of the eight Members mentioned above.

Any question as to which are the Members of the chief industrial importance shall
be decided by the Council of the League of Nations.

The period of office of the Members of the Governing Body will be three years.
The method of filling vacancies and other similar questions may be determined by
the Governing Body subject to the approval of the Conference.

The Governing Body shall, from time to time, elect one of its members to act as
its Chairman, shall regulate its own procedure and shall fix its own times of
meeting. A special meeting shall be held if a written request to that effect is
made by at least ten members of the Governing Body.

ARTICLE 394.

There shall be a Director of the International Labour Office, who shall be
appointed by the Governing Body, and, subject to the instructions of the
Governing Body, shall be responsible for the efficient conduct of the
International Labour Office and for such other duties as may be assigned to him.

The Director or his deputy shall attend all meetings of the Governing Body.

ARTICLE 395.

The staff of the International Labour Office shall be appointed by the Director
who shall, so far as is possible with due regard to the efficiency of the work of
the Office, select persons of different nationalities A certain number of these
persons shall be women.

ARTICLE 396.

The functions of the International Labour Office shall include the collection and
distribution of information on all subjects relating to the international
adjustment of conditions of industrial life and labour, and particularly the
examination of subjects which it is proposed to bring before the Conference with
a view to the conclusion of international conventions, and the conduct of such
special investigations as may be ordered by the Conference.

It will prepare the agenda for the meetings of the Conference.

It will carry out the duties required of it by the provisions of this Part of the
present Treaty in connection with international disputes.

It will edit and publish in French and English, and in such other languages as
the Governing Body may think desirable, a periodical paper dealing with problems
of industry and employment of international interest.

Generally, in addition to the functions set out in this Article, it shall have
such other powers and duties as may be assigned to it by the Conference.

ARTICLE 397.

The Government Departments of any of the Members which deal with questions of
industry and employment may communicate directly with the Director through the
Representative of their Government on the Governing Body of the International
Labour Office, or failing any such Representative, through such other qualified
official as the Government may nominate for the purpose.

ARTICLE 398.

The International Labour Office shall be entitled to the assistance of the
Secretary-General of the League of Nations in any matter in which it can be
given.

ARTICLE 399.

Each of the Members will pay the travelling and subsistence expenses of its
Delegates and their advisers and of its Representatives attending the meetings of
the Conference or Governing Body, as the case may be.

All the other expenses of the International Labour Office and of the meetings of
the Conference or Governing Body shall be paid to the Director by the
Secretary-General of the League of Nations out of the general funds of the
League.

The Director shall be responsible to the Secretary-General of the League for the
proper expenditure of all moneys paid to him in pursuance of this Article.

CHAPTER II.

PROCEDURE .

ARTICLE 400.

The agenda for all meetings of the Conference will be settled by the Governing
Body, who shall consider any suggestion as to the agenda that may be made by the
Government of any of the Members or by any representative organisation recognised
for the purpose of Article 389.

ARTICLE 401.

The Director shall act as the Secretary of the Conference, and shall transmit the
agenda so as to reach the Members four months before the meeting of the
Conference, and, through them, the non-Government Delegates when appointed.

ARTICLE 402.

Any of the Governments of the Members may formally object to the inclusion of any
item or items in the agenda. The grounds for such objection shall be set forth in
a reasoned statement addressed to the Director, who shall circulate it to all the
Members of the Permanent Organisation.

Items to which such objection has been made shall not, however, be excluded from
the agenda, if at the Conference a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by
the Delegates present is in favour of considering them.

If the Conference decides (otherwise than under the preceding paragraph) by
two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present that any subject shall be
considered by the Conference, that subject shall be included in the agenda for
the following meeting.

ARTICLE 403.

The Conference shall regulate its own procedure, shall elect its own President,
and may appoint committees to consider and report on any matter.

Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the present Treaty, all
matters shall be decided by a simple majority of the votes cast by the Delegates
present.

The voting is void unless the total number of votes cast is equal to half the
number of the Delegates attending the Conference.

ARTICLE 404.

The Conference may add to any committees which it appoints technical experts, who
shall be assessors without power to vote.

ARTICLE 405.

When the Conference has decided on the adoption of proposals with regard to an
item in the agenda, it will rest with the Conference to determine whether these
proposals should take the form: (a) of a recommendation to be submitted to the
Members for consideration with a view to effect being given to it by national
legislation or otherwise, or (b) of a draft international convention for
ratification by the Members.

In either case a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates
present shall be necessary on the final vote for the adoption of the
recommendation or draft convention, as the case may be, by the Conference.

In framing any recommendation or draft convention of general application the
Conference shall have due regard to those countries in which climatic conditions,
the imperfect development of industrial organisation or other special
circumstances make the industrial conditions substantially different and shall
suggest the modifications, if any, which it considers may be required to meet the
case of such countries.

A copy of the recommendation or draft convention shall be authenticated by the
signature of the President of the Conference and of the Director and shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the League of Nations. The
Secretary-General will communicate a certified copy of the recommendation or
draft convention to each of the members.

Each of the Members undertakes that it will, within the period of one year at
most from the closing of the session of the Conference, or if it is impossible
owing to exceptional circumstances to do so within the period of one year, then
at the earliest practicable moment and in no case later than eighteen months from
the closing of the session of the Conference, bring the recommendation or draft
convention before the authority or authorities within whose competence the matter
lies, for the enactment of legislation or other action.

In the case of a recommendation, the Members will inform the Secretary-General of
the action taken.

In the case of a draft convention, the Member will, if it obtains the consent of
the authority or authorities within whose competence the matter lies, communicate
the formal ratification of the convention to the Secretary-General and will take
such action as may be necessary to make effective the provisions of such
convention.

If on a recommendation no legislative or other action is taken to make a
recommendation effective, or if the draft convention fails to obtain the consent
of the authority or authorities within whose competence the matter lies, no
further obligation shall rest upon the Member.

In the case of a federal State, the power of which to enter into conventions on
labour matters is subject to limitations, it shall be in the discretion of that
Government to treat a draft convention to which such limitations apply as a
recommendation only, and the provisions of this Article with respect to
recommendations shall apply in such case.

The above Article shall be interpreted in accordance with the following
principle:

In no case shall any Member be asked or required, as a result of the adoption of
any recommendation or draft convention by the Conference, to lessen the
protection afforded by its existing legislation to the workers concerned.

ARTICLE 406.

Any convention so ratified shall be registered by the Secretary-General of the
League of Nations, but shall only be binding upon the Members which ratify it.

ARTICLE 407.

If any convention coming before the Conference for final consideration fails to
secure the support of two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present, it
shall nevertheless be within the right of any of the Members of the Permanent
Organisation to agree to such convention among themselves.

Any convention so agreed to shall be communicated by the Governments concerned to
the Secretary-General of the League of Nations, who shall register it.

ARTICLE 408.

Each of the Members agrees to make an annual report to the International Labour
Office on the measures which it has taken to give effect to the provisions of
conventions to which it is a party. These reports shall be made in such form and
shall contain such particulars as the Governing Body may request. The Director
shall lay a summary of these reports before the next meeting of the Conference.

ARTICLE 409.

In the event of any representation being made to the International Labour Office
by an industrial association of employers or of workers that any of the members
has failed to secure in any respect the effective observance within its
jurisdiction of any convention to which it is a party, the Governing Body may
communicate this representation to the Government against which it is made and
may invite that Government to make such statement on the subject as it may think
fit.

ARTICLE 410.

If no statement is received within a reasonable time from the Government in
question, or if the statement when received is not deemed to be satisfactory by
the Governing Body, the latter shall have the right to publish the representation
and the statement, if any, made in reply to it.

ARTICLE 411.

Any of the Members shall have the right to file a complaint with the
International Labour Office if it is not satisfied that any other Member is
securing the effective observance of any convention which both have ratified in
accordance with the foregoing Articles.

The Governing Body may, if it thinks fit, before referring such a complaint to a
Commission of Enquiry, as hereinafter provided for, communicate with the
Government in question in the manner described in Article 409.

If the Governing Body does not think it necessary to communicate the complaint to
the Government in question, or if, when they have made such communication, no
statement in reply has been received within a reasonable time which the Governing
Body considers to be satisfactory, the Governing Body may apply for the
appointment of a Commission of Enquiry to consider the complaint and to report
thereon.

The Governing Body may adopt the same procedure either of its own motion or on
receipt of a complaint from a Delegate to the Conference.

When any matter arising out of Articles 410 or 411 is being considered by the
Governing Body, the Government in question shall, if not already represented
thereon, be entitled to send a representative to take part in the proceedings of
the Governing Body while the matter is under consideration. Adequate notice of
the date on which the matter will be considered shall be given to the Government
in question.

ARTICLE 412.

The Commission of Enquiry shall be constituted in accordance with the following
provisions:

Each of the Members agrees to nominate within six months of the date on which the
present Treaty comes into force three persons of industrial experience, of whom
one shall be a representative of employers, one a representative of workers, and
one a person of independent standing, who shall together form a panel from which
the Members of the Commission of Enquiry shall be drawn.

The qualifications of the persons so nominated shall be subject to scrutiny by
the Governing Body, which may be two-thirds of the votes cast by the
representatives present refuse to accept the nomination of any person whose
qualifications do not in its Opinion comply with the requirements of the present
Article.

Upon the application of the Governing Body, the Secretary-General of the League
of Nations shall nominate three persons one from each section of this panel, to
constitute the Commission of Enquiry, and shall designate one of them as the
President of the Commission. None of these three persons shall be a person
nominated to the panel by any Member directly concerned in the complaint.

ARTICLE: 413.

The Members agree that, in the event of the reference of a complaint to a
Commission of Enquiry under Article 411, they will each, whether directly
concerned in the complaint or not, place at the disposal of the Commission all
the information in their possession which bears upon the subject-matter of the
complaint.

ARTICLE 414.

When the Commission of Enquiry has fully considered the complaint, it shall
prepare a report embodying its findings on all questions of fact relevant to
determining the issue between the parties and containing such recommendations as
it may think proper as to the steps which should be taken to meet the complaint
and the time within which they should be taken.

It shall also indicate in this report the measures, if any, of an economic
character against a defaulting Government which it considers to be appropriate,
and which it considers other Governments would be justified in adopting.

ARTICLE 415.

The Secretary-General of the League of Nations shall communicate the report of
the Commission of Enquiry to each of the Governments concerned in the complaint,
and shall cause it to be published.

Each of these Governments shall within one month inform the Secretary-General of
the League of Nations whether or not it accepts the recommendations contained in
the report of the Commission- and if not, whether it proposes to refer the
complaint to the Permanent Court of International Justice of the League of
Nations.

ARTICLE 416.

In the event of any Member failing to take the action required by Article 405,
with regard to a recommendation or draft Convention, any other Member shall be
entitled to refer the matter to the Permanent Court of International Justice.

ARTICLE 417.

The decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice in regard to a
complaint or matter which has been referred to it in pursuance of Article 415 or
Article 416 shall be final.

ARTICLE 4l8.

The Permanent Court of International Justice may affirm, vary or reverse any of
the findings or recommendations of the Commission of Enquiry, if any, and shall
in its decision indicate the measures, if any, of an economic character which it
considers to be appropriate, and which other Governments would be justified in
adopting against a defaulting Government.

ARTICLE 4l9.

In the event of any Member failing to carry out within the time specified the
recommendations, if any, contained in the report of the Commission of Enquiry, or
in the decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice, as the case may
be, any other Member may take against that Member the measures of an economic
character indicated in the report of the Commission or in the decision of the
Court as appropriate to the case.

ARTICLE 420.

The defaulting Government may at any time inform the Governing Body that it has
taken the steps necessary to comply with the recommendations of the Commission of
Enquiry or with those in the decision of the Permanent Court of International
Justice, as the case may be, and may request it to apply to the Secretary-General
of the League to constitute a Commission of Enquiry to verify its contention. In
this case the provisions of Articles 412, 413, 414, 415, 417 and 418 shall apply,
and if the report of the Commission of Enquiry or the decision of the Permanent
Court of International Justice is in favour of the defaulting Government, the
other Governments shall forthwith discontinue the measures of an economic
character that they have taken against the defaulting Government.

CHAPTER III.

GENERAL PRESCRIPTIONS.

ARTICLE 421.

The Members engage to apply conventions which they have ratified in accordance
with the provisions of this Part of the present Treaty to their colonies,
protectorates and possessions which are not fully self-governing:

(1) Except where owing to the local conditions the convention is inapplicable, or

(2) Subject to such modifications as may be necessary to adapt the convention to
local conditions.

And each of the Members shall notify to the International Labour Office the
action taken in respect of each of its colonies, protectorates and possessions
which are not fully self-governing.

ARTICLE 422.

Amendments to this Part of the present Treaty which are adopted by the Conference
by a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present shall take
effect when ratified by the States whose representatives compose the Council of
the League of Nations and by three-fourths of the Members.

ARTICLE 423.

Any question or dispute relating to the interpretation of this Part of the
present Treaty or of any subsequent convention concluded by the Members in
pursuance of the provisions of this Part of the present Treaty shall be referred
for decision to the Permanent Court of International Justice.

CHAPTER IV.

TRANSITORY PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 424.

The first meeting of the Conference shall take place in October, 1919. The place
and agenda for this meeting shall be as specified in the Annex hereto.

Arrangements for the convening and the organisation of the first meeting of the
Conference will be made by the Government designated for the purpose in the said
Annex. That Government shall be assisted in the preparation of the documents for
submission to the Conference by an International Committee constituted as
provided in the said Annex.

The expenses of the first meeting and of all subsequent meetings held before the
League of Nations has been able to establish a general fund, other than the
expenses of Delegates and their advisers, will be borne by the Members in
accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of the International Bureau of
the Universal Postal Union.

ARTICLE 425.

Until the League of Nations has been constituted all communications which under
the provisions of the foregoing Articles should be addressed to the
Secretary-General of the League will be preserved by the Director of the
International Labour Office, who will transmit them to the Secretary-General of
the League.

ARTICLE 426.

Pending the creation of a Permanent Court of International Justice disputes which
in accordance with this Part of the present Treaty would be submitted to it for
decision will be referred to a tribunal of three persons appointed by the Council
of the League of Nations.

ANNEX.

FIRST MEETING OF ANNUAL LABOUR CONFERENCE, 1919.

The place of meeting will be Washington.

The Government of the United States of America is requested to convene the
Conference.

The International Organising Committee will consist of seven Members, appointed
by the United States of America, Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium and
Switzerland. The Committee may, if it thinks necessary, invite other Members to
appoint representatives.

Agenda:

(1) Application of principle of the 8-hours day or of the 48-hours week.

(2) Question of preventing or providing against unemployment.

(3) Women’s employment:

(a) Before and after child-birth, including the question of maternity benefit;

(b) During the night;

(c) In unhealthy processes.

(4) Employment of children:

(a) Minimum age of employment;

(b) During the night;

(c) In unhealthy processes.

(5) Extension and application of the International Conventions adopted at Berne
in 1906 on the prohibition of night work for women employed in industry and the
prohibition of the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.


SECTION II.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

ARTICLE 427.

The High Contracting Parties, recognising that the well-being, physical, moral
and intellectual, of industrial wage-earners is of supreme international
importance, have framed, in order to further this great end, the permanent
machinery provided for in Section l and associated with that of the League of
Nations.

They recognise that differences of climate, habits, and customs, of economic
opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uniformity in the conditions of
labour difficult of immediate attainment. But, holding as they do, that labour
should not be regarded merely as an article of commerce, they think that there
are methods and principles for regulating labour conditions which all industrial
communities should endeavour to apply, so far as their special circumstances will
permit.

Among these methods and principles, the following seem to the High Contracting
Parties to be of special and urgent importance:

First.­The guiding principle above enunciated that labour should not be regarded
merely as a commodity or article of commerce.

Second.­The right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well
as by the employers.

Third.­The payment to the employed of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable
standard of life as this is understood in their time and country.

Fourth.­The adoption of an eight hours day or a forty-eight hours week as the
standard to be aimed at where it has not already been attained.

Fifth.­The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four hours, which should
include Sunday wherever practicable.

Sixth.­The abolition of child labour and the imposition of such limitations on
the labour of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education
and assure their proper physical development.

Seventh.­The principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for
work of equal value.

Eighth.­The standard set by law in each country with respect to the conditions of
labour should have due regard to the equitable economic treatment of all workers
lawfully resident therein.

Ninth.­Each State should make provision for a system of inspection in which women
should take part, in order to ensure the enforcement of the laws and regulations
for the protection of the employed.

Without claiming that these methods and principles are either complete or final,
the High Contracting Parties are of opinion that they are well fitted to guide
the policy of the League of Nations; and that, if adopted by the industrial
communities who are members of the League, and safeguarded in practice by an
adequate system of such inspection, they will confer lasting benefits upon the
wage-earners of the world.

PART XIV.

GUARANTEES.

SECTION I.

WESTERN EUROPE.

ARTICLE 428.

As a guarantee for the execution of the present Treaty by . Germany, the German
territory situated to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will
be occupied by Allied and Associated troops for a period of fifteen years from
the coming into force of the present Treaty.

ARTICLE 429.

If the conditions of the present Treaty are faithfully carried out by Germany,
the occupation referred to in Article 428 will be successively restricted as
follows:

(1) At the expiration of five years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of
Cologne and the territories north of a line running along the Ruhr, then along
the railway Julich, Duren, Euskirchen, Rheinbach, thence along the road Rheinbach
to Sinzig, and reaching the Rhine at the confluence with the Ahr; the roads,
railways and places mentioned above being excluded from the area evacuated.

(2) At the expiration of ten years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of
Coblenz and the territories north of a line to be drawn from the intersection
between the frontiers of Belgium, Germany and Holland, running about from 4
kilometres south of Aix-la-Chapelle, then to and following the crest of Forst
Gemund, then east of the railway of the Urft valley, then along Blankenheim,
Valdorf, Dreis, Ulmen to and following the Moselle from Bremm to Nehren, then
passing by Kappel and Simmern, then following the ridge of the heights between
Simmern and the Rhine and reaching this river at Bacharach; all the places
valleys, roads and railways mentioned above being excluded from the area
evacuated.

(3) At the expiration of fifteen years there will be evacuated: the bridgehead of
Mainz, the bridgehead of Kehl and the remainder of the German territory under
occupation.

If at that date the guarantees against unprovoked aggression by Germany are not
considered sufficient by the Allied and Associated Governments, the evacuation of
the occupying troops may be delayed to the extent regarded as necessary for the
purpose of obtaining the required guarantees.

ARTICLE 430.

In case either during the occupation or after the expiration of the fifteen years
referred to above the Reparation Commission finds that Germany refuses to observe
the whole or part of her obligations under the present Treaty with regard to
reparation, the whole or part of the areas specified in Article 429 will be
reoccupied immediately by the Allied and Associated forces.

ARTICLE 431.

If before the expiration of the period of fifteen years Germany complies with all
the undertakings resulting from the present Treaty, the occupying forces will be
withdrawn immediately.

ARTICLE 432.

All matters relating to the occupation and not provided for by the present Treaty
shall be regulated by subsequent agreements, which Germany hereby undertakes to
observe.

SECTION II.

EASTERN EUROPE.

ARTICLE 433.

As a guarantee for the execution of the provisions of the present Treaty, by
which Germany accepts definitely the abrogation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, and
of all treaties, conventions and agreements entered into by her with the
Maximalist Government in Russia, and in order to ensure the restoration of peace
and good government in the Baltic Provinces and Lithuania, all German troops at
present in the said territories shall return to within the frontiers of Germany
as soon as the Governments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers shall
think the moment suitable, having regard to the internal situation of these
territories. These troops shall abstain from all requisitions and seizures and
from any other coercive measures, with a view to obtaining supplies intended for
Germany, and shall in no way interfere with such measures for national defence as
may be adopted by the Provisional Governments of Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

No other German troops shall, pending the evacuation or after the evacuation is
complete, be admitted to the said territories.

PART XV.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

ARTICLE 434.

Germany undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of Peace and
Additional Conventions which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers
with the Powers who fought on the side of Germany and to recognise whatever
dispositions nay be made concerning the territories of the former
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, of the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Ottoman Empire,
and to recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.

ARTICLE 435.

The High Contracting Parties, while they recognise the guarantees stipulated by
the Treaties of 1815, and especially by the Act of November 20, l815, in favour
of Switzerland, the said guarantees constituting international obligations for
the maintenance of peace, declare nevertheless that the provisions of these
treaties, conventions, declarations and other supplementary Acts concerning the
neutralized zone of Savoy, as laid down in paragraph 1 of Article 92 of the Final
Act of the Congress of Vienna and in paragraph 2 of Article 3 of the Treaty of
Paris of November 20, 1815, are no longer consistent with present conditions. For
this reason the High Contracting Parties take note of the agreement reached
between the French Government and the Swiss Government for the abrogation of the
stipulations relating to this zone which are and remain abrogated.

The High Contracting Parties also agree that the stipulations of the Treaties of
1815 and of the other supplementary Acts concerning the free zones of Upper Savoy
and the Gex district are no longer consistent with present conditions, and that
it is for France and Switzerland to come to an agreement together with a view to
settling between themselves the status of these territories under such conditions
as shall be considered suitable by both countries.

ANNEX.

I.

The Swiss Federal Council has informed the French Government on May 5, 1919, that
after examining the provisions of Article 435 in a like spirit of sincere
friendship it has happily reached the conclusion that it was possible to
acquiesce in it under the following conditions and reservations:

(1) The neutralised zone of Haute-Savoie:

(a) It will be understood that as long as the Federal Chambers have not ratified
the agreement come to between the two Governments concerning the abrogation of
the stipulations in respect of the neutralised zone of Savoy, nothing will be
definitively settled, on one side or the other, in regard to this subject.

(b) The assent given by the Swiss Government to the abrogation of the above
mentioned stipulations presupposes, in conformity with the text adopted, the
recognition of the guarantees formulated in favour of Switzerland by the Treaties
of 1815 and particularly by the Declaration of November 20, 1815.

(c) The agreement between the Governments of France and Switzerland for the
abrogation of the above mentioned stipulations will only be considered as valid
if the Treaty of Peace contains this Article in its present wording. In addition
the Parties to the Treaty of Peace should endeavour to obtain the assent of the
signatory Powers of the Treaties of 1815 and of the Declaration of November 20,
1815, which are not signatories of the present Treaty of Peace.

(2) Free zone of Haute-Savoie and the district of Gex:

(a) The Federal Council makes the most express reservations to the interpretation
to be given to the statement mentioned in the last paragraph of the above Article
for insertion in the Treaty of Peace, which provides that ,,the stipulations of
the Treaties of 1815 and other supplementary acts concerning the free zones of
Haute-Savoie and the Gex district are no longer consistent with present
conditions.,, The Federal Council would not wish that its acceptance of the above
wording should lead to the conclusion that it would agree to the suppression of a
system intended to give neighbouring territory the benefit of a special regime
which is appropriate to the geographical and economical situation and which has
been well tested.

In the opinion of the Federal Council the question is not the modification of the
customs system of the zones as set up by the Treaties mentioned above, but only
the regulation in a manner more appropriate to the economic conditions of the
present day of the terms of the exchange of goods between the regions in
question. The Federal Council has been led to make the preceding observations by
the perusal of the draft Convention concerning the future constitution of the
zones which was annexed to the note of April 26 from the French Government. While
making the above reservations the Federal Council declares its readiness to
examine in the most friendly spirit any proposals which the French Government may
deem it convenient to make on the subject.

(b) It is conceded that the stipulations of the Treaties of 1815 and other
supplementary acts relative to the free zones will remain in force until a new
arrangement is come to between France and Switzerland to regulate matters in this
territory.

II.

The French Government have addressed to the Swiss Government, on May 18, 1919,
the following note in reply to the communication set out in the preceding
paragraph:

In a note dated May 5 the Swiss Legation in Paris was good enough to inform the
Government of the French Republic that the Federal Government adhered to the
proposed Article to be inserted in the Treaty of Peace between the Allied and
Associated Governments and Germany.

The French Government have taken note with much pleasure of the agreement thus
reached, and, at their request, the proposed Article, which had been accepted by
the Allied and Associated Governments, has been inserted under No. 435 in the
Peace conditions presented to the German Plenipotentiaries.

The Swiss Government, in their note of May 5 on this subject, have expressed
various views and reservations.

Concerning the observations relating to the free zones of Haute-Savoie and the
Gex district, the French Government have the honour to observe that the
provisions of the last paragraph of Article 435 are so clear that their purport
cannot be misapprehended, especially where it implies that no other Power but
France and Switzerland will in future be interested in that question.

The French Government, on their part, are anxious to protect the interests of the
French territories concerned, and, with that object, having their special
situation in view, they bear in mind the desirability of assuring them a suitable
customs regime and determining, in a manner better suited to present conditions,
the methods of exchanges between these territories and the adjacent Swiss
territories, while taking into account the reciprocal interests of both regions.

It is understood that this must in no way prejudice the right of France to adjust
her customs line in this region in conformity with her political frontier, as is
done on the other portions of her territorial boundaries, and as was done by
Switzerland long ago on her own boundaries in this region

The French Government are pleased to note on this subject in what a friendly
disposition the Swiss Government take this opportunity of declaring their
willingness to consider any French proposal dealing with the system to be
substituted for the present regime of the said free zones, which the French
Government intend to formulate in the same friendly spirit.

Moreover, the French Government have no doubt that the provisional maintenance of
the regime of 1815 as to the free zones referred to in the above mentioned
paragraph of the note from the Swiss Legation of May 5, whose object is to
provide for the passage from the present regime to the conventional regime, will
cause no delay whatsoever in the establishment of the new situation which has
been found necessary by the two Governments. This remark applies also to the
ratification by the Federal Chambers, dealt with in paragraph 1 (a), of the Swiss
note of May 5, under the heading “Neutralised zone of Haute-Savoie.”

ARTICLE 436.

The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that they have taken
note of the Treaty signed by the Government of the French Republic on July 17,
1918, with His Serene Highness the Prince of Monaco defining the relations
between France and the Principality

ARTICLE 437.

The High Contracting Parties agree that, in the absence of a subsequent agreement
to the contrary, the Chairman of any Commission established by the present Treaty
shall in the event of an equality of votes be entitled to a second vote.

ARTICLE 438.

The Allied and Associated Powers agree that where Christian religious missions
were being maintained by German societies or persons in territory belonging to
them, or of which the government is entrusted to them in accordance with the
present Treaty, the property which these missions or missionary societies
possessed, including that of trading societies whose profits were devoted to the
support of missions, shall continue to be devoted to missionary purposes. In
order to ensure the due execution of this undertaking the Allied and Associated
Governments will hand over such property to boards of trustees appointed by or
approved by the Governments and composed of persons holding the faith of the
Mission whose property is involved.

The Allied and Associated Governments, while continuing to maintain full control
as to the individuals by whom the Missions are conducted, will safeguard the
interests of such Missions.

Germany, taking note of the above undertaking, agrees to accept all arrangements
made or to be made by the Allied or Associated Government concerned for carrying
on the work of the said missions or trading societies and waives all claims on
their behalf.

ARTICLE 439.

Without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty, Germany undertakes not
to put forward directly or indirectly against any Allied or Associated Power,
signatory of the present Treaty, including those which without having declared
war, have broken off diplomatic relations with the German Empire, any pecuniary
claim based on events which occurred at any time before the coming into force of
the present Treaty.

The present stipulation will bar completely and finally all claims of this
nature, which will be thenceforward extinguished, whoever may be the parties in
interest.


ARTICLE 440.

Germany accepts and recognises as valid and binding all decrees and orders
concerning German ships and goods and all orders relating to the payment of costs
made by any Prize Court of any of the Allied or Associated Powers, and undertakes
not to put forward any claim arising out of such decrees or orders on behalf of
any German national.

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to examine in such manner as
they may determine all decisions and orders of German Prize Courts, whether
affecting the property rights o, nationals of those Powers or of neutral Powers.
Germany agrees to furnish copies of all the documents constituting the record of
the cases, including the decisions and orders made, and to accept and give effect
to the recommendations made after such examination of the cases.

THE PRESENT TREATY, of which the French and English texts are both authentic,
shall be ratified.

The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris as soon as possible.

Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe will be entitled
merely to inform the Government of the French Republic through their diplomatic
representative at Paris that their ratification has been given; in that case they
must transmit the instrument of ratification as soon as possible.

A first proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn up as soon as
the Treaty has been ratified by Germany on the one hand, and by three of the
Principal Allied and Associated Powers on the other hand.

From the date of this first proces-verbal the Treaty will come into force between
the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it. For the determination of all
periods of time provided for in the present Treaty this date will be the date of
the coming into force of the Treaty.

In all other respects the Treaty will enter into force for each Power at the date
of the deposit of its ratification.

The French Government will transmit to all the signatory Powers a certified copy
of the proces-verbaux of the deposit of ratifications.

IN FAITH WHEREOF the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present
Treaty.

Done at Versailles, the twenty-eighth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and
nineteen, in a single copy which will remain deposited in the archives of the
French Republic, and of which authenticated copies will be transmitted to each of
the Signatory Powers.

 

The Sugar Act 1764

The Sugar Act  1764

 

The Sugar Act

British Parliament

1764

An act for granting certain duties in the British colonies and plantations in America,; for continuing, amending, and making perpetual, an act passed in the sixth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, (initituled, An act for the better securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty’s sugar colonies in America😉 for applying the produce of such duties, and of the duties to arise by virtue of the said act, towards defraying the expences of defending, protecting, and securing the said colonies and plantations; for explaining an act made in the twenty fifth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, (intituled, An act for the encouragement of the Greenland and Eastland trades, and for the better securing the plantation trade;) and for altering and disallowing several drawbacks on exports from this kingdom, and more effectually preventing the clandestine conveyance of goods to and from the said colonies and plantation, and improving and securing the trade between the same and Great Britain.

Whereas it is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this kingdom, and for extending and securing the navigation and commerce between Great Britain and your Majesty’s dominions in America, which, by the peace, have been so happily enlarged: and whereas it is just and necessary, that a revenue be raised, in your Majesty’s said dominions in America, for defraying the expences of defending, protecting, and securing the same; we, your Majesty’s most dutiful and loyal subjects, the commons of Great Britain, in parliament assembled, being desirous to make some provision, in this present session of parliament, towards raising the said revenue in America, have resolved to give and grant unto your Majesty the several rates and duties herein after-mentioned; and do most humbly beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the King’s most excellent majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, there shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto his Majesty, his heirs and successors, for and upon all white or clayed sugars of the produce or manufacture of any colony or plantation in America, not under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs and successors; for and upon indigo, and coffee of foreign produce or manufacture; for and upon wines (except French wine;) for and upon all wrought silks, bengals, and stuffs, mixed with silk or herbs of the manufacture of Persia, China, or East India, and all callico painted, dyed, printed, or stained there; and for and upon all foreign linen cloth called Cambrick and French Lawns, which shall be imported or brought into any colony or plantation in America, which now is, or hereafter may be, under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs and successors, the several rates and duties following; that is to say,

For every hundred weight avoirdupois of such foreign white or clayed sugars, one pound two shillings, over and above all other duties imposed by any former act of parliament.

For every pound weight avoirdupois of such foreign indigo, six pence.

For every hundred weight avoirdupois of such foreign coffee, which shall be imported from any place, except Great Britain, two pounds, nineteen shillings, and nine pence.

For every ton of wine of the growth of the Madeiras, or of any other island or place from whence such wine may be lawfully imported, and which shall be so imported from such islands or place, the sum of seven pounds

For every ton of Portugal, Spanish, or any other wine (except French wine) imported from Great Britain, the sum of ten shillings.

For every pound weight avoirdupois of wrought silks, bengals, and stuffs, mixed silk or herbs, of the manufacture of Persia, China, or East India, imported from Great Britain, two shillings.

For every piece of callico painted, dyed, printed, or stained, in Persia, China, or East India, imported from Great Britain, two shillings and six pence.

For every piece of foreign linen cloth, called Cambrick, imported from Great Britain, three shillings.

For every piece of French lawn imported from Great Britain, three shillings.

And after those rates for any greater or lesser quantity of such goods respectively.

II. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, there shall also be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto his Majesty, his heirs and successors, for and upon all coffee and pimento of the growth and produce of any British colony or plantation in America, which shall be there laden on board any British ship or vessel, to be carried out from thence to any other place whatsoever, except Great Britain, the several rates and duties following; that is to say,

III. For every hundred weight avoirdupois of such British coffee, seven shillings.

For every pound weight avoirdupois of such British pimento, one halfpenny.

And after those rates for any greater or lesser quantity of such goods respectively.

IV. And whereas an act was made in the sixth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, intituled, An act for the better securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty’s sugar colonies in America, which was to continue in force for five years, to be computed from the twenty fourth day of June, one thousand seven hundred and thirty three, and to the end of the then next session of parliament, and which, by several subsequent acts made in the eleventh, the nineteenth, the twenty sixth, and twenty ninth, and the thirty first years of the reign of his said late Majesty, was, from time to time, continued; and, by an act made in the first year of the reign of his present Majesty, was further continued until the end of this present session of parliament; and although the said act hath been found in some degree useful, yet it is highly expedient that the same should be altered, enforced, and made more effectual; but, in consideration of the great distance of several of the said colonies and plantations from this kingdom, it will be proper further to continue the said act for a short space, before any alterations and amendments shall take effect, in order that all persons concerned may have due and proper notice thereof; be it therefore enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said act made in the sixth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, intituled, An act for the better securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty’s sugar colonies in America, shall be, and the same is hereby further continued, until the thirtieth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four.

V. And it be further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, the said act, subject to such alterations and amendments as are herein after contained, shall be, and the same is hereby made perpetual.

VI. And it be further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in lieu and instead of the rate and duty imposed by the said act upon molasses and syrups, there shall, from and after the said twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, be raised, levied, collected, and paid, unto his Majesty, his heirs and successors, for and upon every gallon of molasses or syrups, being the growth, product, or manufacture, of any colony or plantation in America, not under the dominion of his Majesty, his heir or successors, which shall be imported or brought into any colony or plantation in America, which now is, or hereafter may be, under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, the sum of three pence.

VII. And it be hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said rates and duties hereby charged upon such foreign white or clayed sugars, foreign indigo, foreign coffee, wines, wrought silks, bengals, and stuffs, mixed with silk or herbs, callico, cambricks, French lawns, and foreign molasses or syrups, imported into any British American colony or plantation shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, in the same manner and form, and by such rules, ways and means, and under such penalties and forfeitures (not otherwise altered by this act) as are mentioned and expressed in the said act of parliament, made in the sixth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, with respect to the raising, levying, collecting, and payment, of the rates and duties thereby granted; and that the aforesaid duties hereby charged upon British coffee and pimento, exported from any British colony or plantation, shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid, in the same manner and form, and forfeitures, as are mentioned and referred unto in an act of parliament, made in the twenty fifth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, intituled, An act for the encouragement of the Greenland and Eastland trades, and for the better securing the plantation trade, with respect to the raising, levying, collecting, and payment of the rates and duties thereby granted upon the several goods therein particularly enumerated: and that all powers, penalties, provisions, articles, and clauses, in those acts respectively contained and referred unto (except in such cases where any alteration is made by this act) shall be observed, applied, practised, and put in execution, for the raising, levying, collecting, and answering, the respective rates and duties granted by this act, as fully and effectually, as if the same were particularly and at large re-enacted in the body of this present act, and applied to the rates and duties hereby imposed; and as fully and effectually, to all intents and purposes, as the same could have been at any time put in execution, for the like purposes, with respect to the rates and duties granted by the said former acts.

VIII. Provided always, and it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if the importer of any wines shall refuse to pay the duties hereby imposed thereon, it shall and may be lawful for the collector, or other proper officer of the customs where such wines shall be imported, and he is hereby respectively required to take and secure the same, with the casks or other package thereof, and to cause the same to be publickly sold, within the space of twenty days at the most after such refusal made, and at such time and place as such officer, shall, by four or more days publick notice, appoint for that purpose; which wine shall be sold to the best bidder, and the money arising by the said duties, together with the charges that shall have been occasioned by the said sale; and the overplus, if any, shall be paid to such importer, or any other person authorized to receive the same.

IX. Provided also, That if the money offered for the purchase of such wine shall not be sufficient to discharge the duty and charges aforesaid, then, and in every such case, the collector, or other proper officer, shall cause the wine to be staved, split, or otherwise destroyed, and shall return the casks or other package wherein the same was contained to such importer.

X. And it is hereby declared and enacted, That every piece of callico intended to be charged with the duty herein beforementioned, if of the breadth of one yard and a quarter or under, shall not exceed in length ten yards; and if above that breadth, shall not exceed six yards in length, and that every piece of cambrick and French lawn shall contain thirteen ells each, and shall pay duty for the same in those proportions for any greater or lesser quantity, according to the sum herein before charged upon each piece of such goods respectively.

XI. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all the monies which, from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four shall arise by the several rates and duties herein before granted; and also by the duties which, from and after the said twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, shall be raised upon sugars and paneles, by virtue of the said act made in the sixth year of the reign of his said late majesty King George the Second (except the necessary charges of raising, collecting, levying, recovering, answering, paying, and accounting for the same) shall be paid into the receipt of his Majesty’s Exchequer, and shall be entered separate and apart from all other monies paid or payable to his Majesty, his heirs or successors: and shall be there reserved, to be, from time to time, disposed of by parliament, towards defraying the necessary expences of defending, protecting, and securing, the British colonies and plantations in America,

XII. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the tenth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, upon the exportation of any sort of wine (except French wines) from this kingdom to any British colony or plantation in America, as merchandize, the exporter shall be paid, in lieu of all former drawbacks, a drawback or allowance of all the duties paid upon the importation of such wine, except the sum of three pounds ten shillings per ton, part of the additional duty of four pounds per ton, granted by an act made in the last session of parliament (intituled, An act for granting to his Majesty several additional duties upon wines imported into this kingdom, and certain duties upon all cyder and perry, and for raising the sum of three millions five hundred thousand pounds, by way of annuities and lotteries, to be charged on the said duties) and also except such part of the duties paid upon wines imported by strangers or aliens, or in foreign ships, as exceeds what would have been payable upon such wines, if the same had been imported by British subjects and in British ships; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding; which drawback or allowance shall be made in such manner, and under such rules, regulations, penalties, and forfeitures, in all respects, as any former drawback or allowance, payable out of the duties of customs upon the exportation of such wine, was, could, or might be made, before the passing of this act.

XIII. Provided always, and it is hereby further enacted, That upon the entry of any such wine for exportation to any British colony or plantation in America, and before any debenture shall be made out for allowing the drawback thereon, the exporter shall give bond, with sufficient security, to his Majesty, his heirs and successors, to be approved of by the collector, or other principal officer of the customs at the port of exportation, in treble the amount of the drawback payable for the goods, that the same, and every part thereof, shall (the danger of the seas and enemies excepted) be really and truly exported to, and landed in, some British colony or plantation in America, and that the same shall not be exported, or carried to any other place or country whatsoever, nor relanded in any part of Great Britain, Ireland, or the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, or Man or either of them: and such bonds shall not be delivered up nor discharged, until a certificate shall be produced, under the hands and seals of the collector or other principal officer of the customs at the port or place where such goods shall be landed, testifying the landing thereof: and the condition of such bond shall be, to produce such certificate in eighteen months from the date of the bonds (the dangers of the seas and enemies excepted.) And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the first day of May, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no part of the rate or duty, commonly called The old subsidy, shall be repaid or drawn back for any foreign goods of the growth, production, or manufacture, of Europe, or the East Indies, which shall be exported from this kingdom to any British colony or plantation in America (wines, white callicoes, and muslins, only excepted;) any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

XIV. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the tenth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, upon the exportation of any sort of white callicoes or muslins, except as herein after is mentioned, from this kingdom to any British colony or plantation in America, besides the one half of the rate or duty commonly called The old subsidy, which now remains, and is not drawn back for the same, there also shall not be repaid or drawn back the further sum of four pounds fifteen shillings for every hundred pounds of the true and real value of such goods, according to the gross price at which they were sold at the sale of the united company of merchants trading to the East Indies, being the third part of the net duties granted thereon respectively by two several acts of parliament, the one made in the eleventh and twelfth year of the reign of King William the Third, intituled, An act for the laying further duties upon wrought silks, muslins, and some other commodities of the East Indies, and for enlarging the time for purchasing certain reversionary annuities therein mentioned; and the other made in the third and fourth year of the reign of Queen Anne, intituled, An act for continuing duties upon low wines, and upon coffee, tea, chocolate, spice, and pictures, and upon hawkers, pedlars, and petty chapmen, and upon muslins; and for granting new duties upon several of the said commodities, and also upon callicoes, China-ware, and drugs; any law, custom, or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

XV. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That until the first day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty five, upon the exportation from this kingdom, to any British colony or plantation in America of white callicoes or muslins only as were sold on or before the twenty fifth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, at the sale of the united company of merchants trading to the East Indies, such and the same drawbacks shall be allowed as are now payable upon the exportation of the said goods.

XVI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any merchant or other person, shall from and after the said fifth day of May, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, enter any goods for exportation to parts beyond the seas, in order to obtain any drawback not allowed by this act upon the exportation of such goods to the said British colonies or plantations in America, and the said goods shall nevertheless be carried to any British colony or plantation in America, and landed there contrary to the true intent and meaning hereof, that then, and in such case, the drawback shall be forfeited, and the exporter of such goods, and the master of the ship or vessel on board which the same were loaden and exported, shall forfeit double the amount of the drawback paid or to be paid for the same, and also treble the value of the said goods.

XVII. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said first day of May, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any goods, not allowed to draw back any part of the old subsidy, or any other duty by this act, shall be entered for exportation from this kingdom to any other place beyond the seas, except to some British colony or plantation in America, in every case where the exporter is required, by any law now in force, to swear that such goods are not landed or intended to be landed in Great Britain, Ireland, or the isle of Man, there shall also be added to and included in, the oath upon the debenture, for such goods, “any British colonies or plantations in America.

XVIII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, on thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no rum or spirits of the produce or manufacture of any of the colonies or plantations in America, not in the possession or under the dominion off his Majesty, his heirs or successors, shall be imported or brought into any of the colonies or plantations in America which now are, or hereafter may be, in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, upon forfeiture of all such rum or spirits, together with the ship or vessel in which the same shall be imported, with the tackle, apparel, and furniture thereof; to be seized by any officer or officers of his Majesty’s customs, and prosecuted in such manner and form as herein after is expressed; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

XIX. And it is hereby further enacted and declare by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, nothing in the before-recited act made in the fifth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, or any other act of parliament, shall extend, or be construed to extend, to give liberty to any person or persons whatsoever to import into the kingdom of Ireland any sort of sugars, but such only as shall be fairly and bona fide loaden and shipped in Great Britain, and carried directly from thence in ships navigated according to law.

XX. And, for the better preventing frauds in the importation of foreign sugars and paneles, rum and spirits, molasses and syrups, into any of his Majesty’s dominions, under pretence that the same are the growth, produce, or manufacture, of the British colonies or plantations, it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, every person or persons loading on board any ship or vessel, in any of the British colonies or plantations in America, any rum or spirits, sugars or paneles, molasses or syrups, as of the growth, product, or manufacture, of any British colony or plantation, shall, before the clearing out of the said ship or vessel, produce and deliver to the collector or other principal officer of the customs at the loading port, an affidavit signed and sword to before some justice of the peace in the said British colonies or plantation, either by the grower, maker, or shipper, of such goods, or his or their known agent or factor, expressing, in words at length and not in figure, the quality of the goods so shipped, with the number and denomination of the packages, and describing the name or names of the plantation or plantations, and the name of the colony where the same grew or were produced and manufactured; which affidavit shall be attested, under the hand of the said justice of the peace, to have been sworn to in his presence; who is hereby required to do the same without fee or reward: and the collector or other principal officer of the customs to whom such affidavit shall be delivered, shall thereupon grant to the master, or other person having the charge of the ship or vessel, a certificate under his hand and seal of office (without fee or reward) of his having received such affidavit pursuant to the directions of this act; which certificate shall express the quality of the goods shipped on board such ship or vessel, with the number and denomination of the packages: and such collector or other principal officer of the customs shall also (without fee or reward) within thirty days after the sailing of the ship or vessel, transmit an exact copy of the said affidavit to the secretary’s office for the respective colony or plantation where the goods were shipped, on forfeiture of five pounds.

XXI. And it is further enacted, That upon the arrival of such ship or vessel into the port of her discharge, either in Great Britain or any other port of his Majesty’s dominions, where such goods may be lawfully imported, the master or other person taking the charge of the ship or vessel shall, at the time he makes his report of his cargo, deliver the said certificate to the collector or other principal officer of the customs, and make oath before him, that the goods so reported are the same that are mentioned in the said certificate, on forfeiture of one hundred pounds; and if any rum or spirits, sugars or paneles, molasses or syrups, shall be imported or found on board any such ship or vessel, for which no such certificate shall be produced, or which shall not agree therewith, the same shall be deemed and taken to be foreign rum and spirits, sugar and paneles, molasses and syrups, and shall be liable to the same duties, restrictions, regulations, penalties, and forfeitures, in all respects, as rum, spirits, sugar, paneles, molasses, and syrups, of the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any foreign colony or plantation, would respectively be liable to by law.

XXII. Provided always, That if any rum of spirits, sugar or paneles, molasses or syrups, shall be imported into Great Britain from any British colony or plantation in America, without being included in such certificate as is herein before directed, and it shall be made to appear, to the satisfaction of the commissioners of his Majesty’s customs at London or Edinburgh respectively, that the goods are really and truly the produce of such British plantation or colony, and that no fraud was intended, it shall and may in such case be lawful for the said respective commissioners to permit the said goods to be entered, upon the payment of the like duties as such goods would be liable to if this law had not been made.

XXIII. And whereas by an act of parliament made in the twelfth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, intituled, An act for encouraging and increasing of shipping and navigation, and several subsequent acts of parliament which are now in force, it is amongst other things, directed, that for every ship or vessel that shall load any commodities, in those acts particularly enumerated, at any British plantation, being the growth, product, or manufacture thereof, bonds shall be given with one surety, to the value of one thousand pounds, if the ship be of less burthen than one hundred tons, and of the sum of two thousand pounds; if the ship be of greater burthen, that the same commodities shall be brought by such ship or vessel to some other British plantation, or to some port in Great Britain; notwithstanding which, there is great reason to apprehend such goods are frequently carried to foreign parts, and landed there: and whereas great quantities of foreign molasses and syrups are clandestinely run on shore in the British colonies, to the prejudice of the revenue, and the great detriment of the trade of this kingdom, and it’s American plantations: to remedy which practices for the future, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, bond and security, in the like penalty, shall also be given to the collector or other principal officer of the customs at any port or place in any of the British American colonies or plantations, with one surety besides the master of every ship or vessel that shall lade or take on board there any goods not particularly enumerated in the said acts, being the product or manufacture of any of the said colonies or plantations, with condition, that, in case any molasses or syrups, being the produce of any of the plantations, not under the dominions of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, shall be laden on board such ship or vessel, the same shall (the danger of the seas and enemies excepted) be brought, without fraud or wilful diminution, by the said ship or vessel to some of his Majesty’s colonies or plantations in America, or to some port in Great Britain; and that the master or other person having the charge of such ship or vessel, shall, immediately upon his arrival at every port or place in Great Britain, or in the British American colonies and plantations, make a just and true report of all the goods laden on board such ship or vessel under their true and proper denominations; and if any such non-enumerated goods shall be laden on board any such ship or vessel before such bond shall be given, the goods so laden together with the ship or vessel and her furniture shall be forfeited, and shall and may be seized by any officer of the customs, and prosecuted in the manner herein after directed.

XXIV. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That every master or person having the charge of any ship or vessel shall, before he departs from any British colony or plantation where he receives his lading, take a certificate under the hands and seals of the collector or other principal officer of the customs there (which certificate such officers are hereby required to grant without fee or reward) that bond hath been given, pursuant to the directions of this or any other act of parliament, as the case shall require; and the master or person having the charge of such ship or vessel, shall keep such certificate in his custody till the voyage is compleated, and shall then deliver the same up to the collector or other chief officer of the customs at the port or place where he shall discharge his lading, either in Great Britain, or any British American colony or plantation, on forfeiture of one hundred pounds for each and every offence.

XXV. And it is hereby further enacted, That if any British ship or vessel laden, as aforesaid, with any goods of the produce or manufacture of any British colony or plantation in America, or having on board any molasses or syrups the produce of any foreign colony or plantation, shall be discovered by any officer of his Majesty’s customs within two leagues of the shore of any British colony or plantation in America, and the master or person taking charge of such ship or vessel shall not produce a certificate that bond has been given, pursuant to the direction of this or any other act of parliament, as the case may require; or if he shall not produce certificate to the collector or other chief officer of the customs where he shall arrive, either in Great Britain or any British American colony or plantation, such ship or vessel, with her tackle, apparel, and furniture, and all the goods therein laden, shall be forfeited, and shall and may be seized and prosecuted as herein after is directed.

XXVI. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said bond directed to be given by this act with respect to such non-enumerated goods, shall continue in force for one year from and after the completion of the voyage; and in case no fraud shall appear within that time, it shall be lawful for the commissioners of his Majesty’s customs, or any four or more of them, to direct the said bond to be delivered up.

XXVII. And it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, all coffee, pimento, cocoa nuts, whale fins, raw silks, hides and skins, pot and pearl ashes, of the growth, production, or manufacture, of any British colony or plantation in America, shall be imported directly from thence into this kingdom, or some other British colony or plantation, under the like securities, penalties, and forfeitures, as are particularly mentioned in two acts of parliament made in the twelfth and twenty fifth years of the reign of King Charles the Second, the former intituled, An act for the encouraging and increasing of shipping and navigation, and the latter intituled, An act for the encouragement of the Greenland and eastland trades and for the better securing the plantation trade, or either of them, with respect to the goods in those acts particularly enumerated; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

XXVIII. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no iron, nor any sort of wood, commonly called Lumber, as specified in an act passed in the eighth year of the reign of King George the First, intituled, An act for giving further encouragement of the importation of naval stores, and for other purposes therein mentioned, of the growth, production, or manufacture, of any British colony or plantation in America, shall be there loaden on board any ship of vessel to be carried from thence, until sufficient bond shall be given, with one surety besides the master of the vessel, to the collector or other principal officer of the customs at the loading port in a penalty of double the value of the goods, which condition, that the said goods shall not be landed in any part of Europe except Great Britain; which bonds shall be discharged in the manner hereafter mentioned; that is to say, for such of the said goods as shall be entered for, or landed in, Great Britain, the condition of the bonds shall be, to bring a certificate in discharge thereof within eighteen months from the date of the bond; and within eighteen months from the date of the bond; and within six months for such of the said goods as shall be entered for, or landed in, any of the British colonies or plantations in America; which respective certificates shall be under the hands and seals of the collector or other principal officer of the customs resident at the port or place where such goods shall be landed, testifying the landing thereof; and for such of the said goods as shall be entered for, or landed at, any other place in America, Africa, or Asia, to bring the like certificate within twelve months, under the common seal of the chief magistrate, or under the hands and seals of two known Britishmerchants residing there; or such bond or bonds shall be discharged, in either of the said cases, by proof upon oath made by credible persons, that the said goods were taken by enemies, or perished in the seas.

XXIX. And, for the better preventing frauds in the importation or exportation of goods that are liable to the payment of duties, or are prohibited, in the British colonies or plantations in America, it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no goods, wares, or merchandizes, of any kind whatsoever, shall be shipped or laden on board any ship or vessel in any of the British colonies or plantations in America, to be carried from thence to any other British colony or plantation, without a sufferance or warrant first had and obtained from the collector or other proper officer of the customs at the port or place where such goods shall be intended to be put on board; and the master of every such ship or vessel shall, before the same be removed or carried out from the port or place where he takes in his lading, take out a cocket or cockets expressing the quantity and quality of the goods, and marks of the package, so laden, with the merchants names by whom shipped and to whom consigned; and if they are goods that liable to the payment of any duty, either upon the importation into, or upon the exportation from, the said colonies or plantation, the said cocket or cockets shall likewise distinctly specify that the duties have been paid for the same, referring to the times or dates of entry and payment of such duties, and by whom they were paid; which cocket or cockets shall be produced by the master of such ship or vessel, to the collector or other principal officer of the customs at the port of place where such ship or vessel shall arrive in any of the British colonies or plantations in America, before any part of the goods are unladen or put on shore: and if any goods or merchandizes shall be shipped as aforesaid without such sufferance, or the vessel shall depart and proceed on her voyage without such cocket or cockets are produced at the port of place of discharge, or if the goods do not agree in all respects therewith, the goods, in any of either of those cases, shall be forfeited and lost; and any office of his Majesty’s customs is hereby empowered to stop any such ship or vessel, bound aforesaid, which shall be discovered within two leagues of the shore of any of the said British colonies of plantations in America, and to seize and take from thence all the goods which shall be found on board such ship or vessel for which no such cocket or cockets shall be produced to him.

XXX. And whereas British vessels arriving from foreign parts at several of the out ports of this kingdom, fully or in part laden abroad with goods that are pretended to be destined to some foreign plantation, do frequently take on board some small parcels of goods in this kingdom which are entered outwards for some British colony or plantation, and a cocket and clearance thereupon granted for such goods, under cover of which the whole cargoes of such vessels are clandestinely landed in the British American dominions, contrary to several acts of parliament now in force, to the great prejudice of the trade and revenue of the kingdom; for remedy whereof, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the first day of May, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no ship or vessel shall, upon any pretence whatsoever, be cleared outwards from any port of this kingdom, for any land, island, plantation, colony, territory, or place, to his Majesty belonging, or which shall hereafter belong unto or be in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, in America, unless the whole and entire cargo of such ship or vessel shall be bona fide, and without fraud, laden and shipped in this kingdom; and any officer of is Majesty’s customs is hereby empowered to stop anyBritish ship or vessel arriving from any part of Europe, which shall be discovered within two leagues of the shore of any of the said British colonies or plantations in America, and to seize and take from thence, as forfeited, any goods (except as herein after mentioned) for which the master or other person taking the charge of such ship or vessel shall not produce a cocket or clearance from the collector or proper officer of his Majesty’s customs, certifying that the said goods were laden on board the said ship or vessel in some port of Great Britain.

XXXI. Provided always, That this act shall not extend, nor be construed to extend, to forfeit, for want of such cocket or clearance, any salt laden in Europe for the fisheries in New England, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Nova Scotia, or any other place to which salt is or shall be allowed by law to be carried; wines laden in the Madeiras, of the growth thereof; and wines of the growth of the Western Islands, or Azores, and laden there; nor any horses, victuals, or linen cloth, of and from Ireland, which may be laden on board such ships or vessels.

XXXII. And it is hereby further enacted, That if any person or persons shall counterfeit, raise, alter, or falsify, any affidavit, certificate, sufferance, cocket, or clearance, required or directed by this act, or shall knowingly or willingly make use of any affidavit, certificate, sufferance, cocket, or clearance, so counterfeited, raised, altered, or falsified, such person or persons shall knowingly or willingly , or every such offence, forfeit the sum of five hundred pounds; and such affidavit, certificate, sufferance, cocket, or clearance, shall be invalid and of no effect.

XXXIII. And whereas by an act of parliament, made in the ninth year of the reign of his late majesty King George the Second, intituled, An act for indemnifying persons who have been guilty of offences against the laws made for securing the revenue of customs and excise, and for enforcing those laws for the future, and by other acts of parliament since made, which are now in force, in order to prevent the clandestine landing of goods in this kingdom from vessels which hover upon the coasts thereof, several goods and vessels, in those laws particularly mentioned and described, are declared to be forfeited, if such vessels are found at anchor, or hovering within two leagues of the shore of this kingdom, without being compelled thereto by necessity or distress of weather; which laws have been found very beneficial to the publick revenue: and whereas, if some provision of that sort was extended to his Majesty’s American dominions, it may be a means of preventing an illicit trade therewith, and tend to enforce an act made in the twelfth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, intituled, An act for the encouraging and increasing of shipping and navigation, and another act made in the seventh and eighth years of the reign of King William the Third, intituled, An act for preventing frauds, and regulating abuses in the plantation trade, so far as those laws do prohibit any goods or commodities to be imported into or exported out of any British colony or plantation in America, in any foreign ship or vessel; to which end therefore, be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any foreign ship or vessel whatsoever shall be found at anchor, or hovering within two leagues of the shore of any land, island, plantation, colony, territory, or place, which shall or may be in the possession or under the dominion of his Majesty, his heirs or successors, in America, and shall not depart from the coast, and proceed upon her voyage to some foreign port or place, within forty eight hours after the master or other person taking the charge of such ship or vessel shall be required so to do by any officer of his Majesty’s customs, unless in case of unavoidable necessity and distress of weather, such ship or vessel, with all the goods therein laden, shall be forfeited and lost, whether bulk shall have been broken or not; and shall and may be seized and prosecuted by any officer of his Majesty’s customs, in such manner and form as herein after is expressed.

XXXIV. Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to any ship or vessel belonging to the subjects of the French king, which shall be found fishing, and not carrying on any illicit trade, on that part of the island of Newfoundland, which stretches from the place called Cape Bonavista to the northern part of the said island, and from thence running down to the western side, reaches as far as the place called Point Riche.

XXXV. And, in order to prevent an illicit trade or commerce between his Majesty’s subjects in America, and the subjects of the crown of France in the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any British ship or vessel shall be found standing into, or coming out from, either of those islands, or hovering or at anchor within two leagues of the coasts thereof, or shall be discovered to have taken any goods or merchandizes on board at either of them, or to have been there for the purpose; such ship or vessel, and all the goods so taken on board there, shall be forfeited and lost, and shall and may be seized and prosecuted by any officer of his Majesty’s customs; and the master or other person having the charge of such ship or vessel, and every person concerned in taking any such goods on board, shall forfeit treble the value thereof.

XXXVI. And, to prevent the concealing any goods in false packages, or private places, on board any ship or vessel arriving at any of the British colonies or plantations in America, with intent to their being clandestinely landed there, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, all goods which shall be found concealed in any place whatsoever on board any such ship or vessel, at any time after the master thereof shall have made his report to the collector or other proper officer of the customs, and which shall not be comprized or mentioned in the said report, shall be forfeited and lost, and shall and may be seized and prosecuted by any officer of the customs; and the master or other person having the charge or command of such ship or vessel (in case it can be made appear, that he was any wise consenting or privy to such fraud or concealment) shall forfeit treble the value of the goods so found.

XXXVII. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any goods or merchandizes whatsoever, liable to the payment of duties in any British colony or plantation in America by this or any other act of parliament, shall be loaded on board any ship or vessel outward bound, or shall be unshipped or landed from any ship or vessel inward bound, before the respective duties due thereon are paid, agreeable to law; or if any prohibited goods whatsoever shall be imported into, or exported out of, any of the said colonies or plantations, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this or any other act of parliament; every person who shall be assisting, or otherwise concerned, either in the loading outwards, or in the unshipping or landing inwards, such goods, or to whose hands the same shall knowingly come after the loading or unshipping thereof, shall, for each and every offence, forfeit treble the value of such goods, to be estimated and computed according to the best price that each respective commodity bears at the place where such offence was committed; and all the boats, horses, cattle, and other carriages whatsoever, made use of in the loading, landing, removing, carriage, or conveyance, of any of the aforesaid goods, shall also be forfeited and lost, and shall and may be seized and prosecuted, by any officer of his Majesty’s customs, as herein after mentioned.

XXXVIII. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any officer of his Majesty’s customs shall, directly or indirectly, take or receive any bribe, recompence, or reward, in any kind whatsoever; or connive at any false entry, or make any collusive seizure or agreement; or do any other act or deed whatsoever by which his Majesty, his heirs or successors, shall or may be defrauded in his or their duties, or whereby any goods prohibited shall be suffered to pass either inwards or outwards, or whereby the forfeitures and penalties inflicted by this or any other act of parliament relating to his Majesty’s customs in America may be evaded; every such officer therein offending shall, for each and every offence, forfeit the sum of five hundred pounds, and be rendered incapable of serving his Majesty in any office or employment civil or military: and if any person or persons whatsoever shall give, any officer, or promise to give, any bribe, recompence, or reward, to any officer of the customs, to do, conceal, or connive at, any act, whereby any of the provisions made by this or any other act of parliament relating to his Majesty’s customs in America may be evaded or broken, every such person or persons shall, for each and every such offence (whether the same offer, proposal, or promise, be accepted or performed, or not) forfeit the sum of fifty pounds.

XXXIX. And whereas by an act of parliament made in the seventh and eighth year of the reign of King William the Third, intituled, An act for preventing frauds, and regulating abuses, in the plantation trade, all governors or commanders in chief of any of his Majesty’s colonies or plantations, are required to take a solemn oath, to do their utmost that all the clauses, matters, and things, contained in that act, and several other acts of parliament therein referred to, relating to the said colonies and plantations, be punctually and bona fide observed, according to the true intent and meaning thereof: and whereas divers other good laws have been since made, for the better regulating and securing the plantation trade: be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all the present governors or commanders in chief of any British colony or plantation shall, before the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, and all who hereafter shall be made governors or commanders in chief of the said colonies or plantations, or any of them, before their entrance into their government, shall take a solemn oath, to do their utmost that all the clauses, matters, and things, contained in any act of parliament heretofore made, and now in force, relating to the said colonies and plantations, and that all and every the clauses contained in this present act, be punctually and bona fide observed, according to the true intent and meaning thereof, so far as appertains unto the said governors or commanders in chief respectively, under the like penalties, forfeitures, and disabilities, either for neglecting to take the said oath, or for wittingly neglecting to do their duty accordingly, as are mentioned and expressed in the said recited act made in the seventh and eighth year of the reign of King William the Third; and the said oath, hereby required to be taken, shall be administered by such person or persons as hath or have been, or shall be, appointed to administer the oath required to be taken by the said act made in the seventh and eighth year of the reign of King William the Third.

XL. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all penalties and forfeitures herein before mentioned, which shall be incurred in Great Britain, shall and may be prosecuted, sued for, and recovered, in any of his Majesty’s courts of record at Westminister,or in the court of Exchequer in Scotland, respectively; and (all necessary charges for the recovery thereof being first deducted) shall be divided and applied, one moiety to and for the use of his Majesty, his heirs and successors, and the other moiety to the seizor or prosecutor.

XLI. And it is hereby further enacted and declared, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, all sums of money granted and imposed by this act, and by an act made in the twenty fifth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, intituled, An act for the encouragement of the Greenland and Eastland trades, and for the better securing the plantation trade, as rates or duties; and also all sums of money imposed as penalties or forfeitures, by this or any other act of parliament relating to the customs, which shall be paid, incurred, or recovered, in any of the British colonies or plantations in America; shall be deemed, and are hereby declared to be sterling money of Great Britain, and shall be collected, recovered, and paid, to the amount of the value which such nominal sums bear in Great Britain; and that such monies shall and may be received and taken according to the proportion and value of five shillings and six pence the ounce in silver; and that all the forfeitures and penalties inflicted by this or any other act or acts of parliament relating to the trade and revenues of the said British colonies or plantations where such offence shall be appointed over all America (which court of admiralty or vice admiralty are hereby respectively authorized and required to proceed, hear, and determine the same) at the election of the informer or prosecutor.

XLII. And it is hereby further enacted, That all penalties and forfeitures so recovered there, under this or any former act of parliament, shall be divided, paid, and applied, as follows; that is to say, after deducting the charges of prosecution from the gross produce thereof, one third part of the net produce shall be paid into the hands of the collector of his Majesty’s customs at the port or place where such penalties or forfeitures shall be recovered, for the use of his Majesty, his heirs and successors; one third part to the governor or commander in chief of the said colony or plantation; and the other third part to the person who shall seize, inform, and sue for the same; excepting such seizures as shall be made at sea by the commanders or officers of his Majesty’s ships or vessels of war duly authorized to make seizures; one moiety of which seizures, and of the penalties and forfeitures recovered thereon, first deducting the charges of prosecution from the gross produce thereof, shall be paid as aforesaid to the collector of his Majesty’s customs, to and for the use of his Majesty, his heirs and successors, and the other moiety to him or them who shall seize, inform, and sue for the same; any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding; subject nevertheless to such distribution of the produce of the seizures so made at sea, as well with regard to the moiety herein before granted to his Majesty, his heirs and successors, shall think fit to order and direct or by any order or orders of council, or by any proclamation or proclamations, to be made for that purpose.

XLIII. Provided always, and it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if the produce of any seizure made in America, shall not be sufficient to answer the expences of condemnation and sale; or if, upon the trial of any seizure of any ship or goods, a verdict or sentence shall be given for the claimant, in either of those cases, the charges attending the seizing and prosecuting such ship or goods shall and may, with the consent and approbation of any four of the commissioners of his Majesty’s customs, be paid out of any branch of the revenue of customs arising in any of the British colonies or plantations in America; any thing in this or any other act of parliament to the contrary notwithstanding.

XLIV. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the said twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, no person shall be admitted to enter a claim to any ship or goods seized in pursuance of this or any other act of parliament, and prosecuted in any of the British colonies or plantations in America, until sufficient security be first given, by persons of known ability, in the court where such seizures is prosecuted, in the penalty of sixty pounds, to answer the costs and charges of prosecution; and, in default of giving such security, such ship or goods shall be adjudged to be forfeited, and shall be condemned.

XLV. And it is hereby further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, if any ship or goods shall be seized for any cause of forfeiture, and any dispute shall arise whether the customs and duties for such goods have been paid, or the same have been lawfully imported or exported, or concerning the growth, product, or manufacture, of such goods, or the place from whence such goods were brought, then, and in such cases, the proof thereof shall lie upon the owner or claimer of such ship or goods, and not upon the officer who shall seize or stop the same; any law, custom, or usage, any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary notwithstanding.

XLVI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty ninth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and sixty four, in case any information shall be commenced and brought to trial in America, on account of any seizure of any ship or goods as forfeited by this or any other act of parliament relating to his Majesty’s customs, wherein a verdict or sentence shall be given for the claimer thereof; and it shall appear to the judge or court before whom the same shall be tried, that there was a probable cause of seizure, the judge or court before whom the same shall be tried shall certify on the record or other proceedings, that there was a probable cause for the prosecutors seizing the said ship or goods; and, in such case, the defendant shall not be intitled to any costs of suit whatsoever; nor shall the person who seized the said ship or goods, be liable to any action, or other suit or prosecution, on account of such seizure: and in any case any action, or other suit or prosecution, shall be commenced and brought to trial against any person or persons whatsoever, on account of the seizing any such ship or goods, where no information shall be commenced or brought to trial to condemn the same, and a verdict or sentence shall be given upon such action or prosecution against the defendant or defendants, if the court or judge before whom such action or prosecution, shall certify in like manner as aforesaid that there was a probable cause for such seizure, then the plaintiff besides his ship or goods so seized, or the value thereof, shall not be intitled to above two pence damages, nor to any costs of suit; nor shall the defendant in such prosecution be fined above one shilling.

XLVII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any action or suit shall be commenced, either in Great Britain or America, against any person or persons for any thing done in pursuance of this or any other act of parliament relating to his Majesty’s customs, the defendant or defendants in such action or suit may plead the general issue, and give the said acts, and the special matter, in evidence at any trial to be had thereupon, and that the same was done in pursuance and by the authority of such act; and if it shall appear so to have been done, the jury shall find for the defendant or defendants; and if the plaintiff shall be non-suited, or discontinue his action after the defendant or defendants shall have appeared, or if judgment shall be given upon verdict or demurrer against the plaintiff, the defendant or defendants shall recover treble costs, and have the like remedy for the same as defendants have in other cases by law.

 

The Second Virginia Charter May 23, 1609

The Second Virginia Charter

 

The Second Virginia Charter


May 23, 1609

          James, by the grace of God [King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, etc.] To all [to whom these presents shall come, greeting.]

          Whereas, at the humble suite and request of sondrie oure lovinge and well disposed subjects intendinge to deduce a colonie and to make habitacion and plantacion of sondrie of oure people in that parte of America comonlie called Virginia, and other part and territories in America either apperteyninge unto us or which are not actually possessed of anie Christian prince or people within certaine bound and regions, wee have formerly, by oure lettres patents bearinge date the tenth of Aprill in the fourth yeare of oure raigne of England, Fraunce, and Ireland, and the nine and thirtieth of Scotland, graunted to Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers and others, for the more speedie accomplishment of the said plantacion and habitacion, that they shoulde devide themselves into twoe colloniesthe one consistinge of divers Knights, gentlemen, merchaunts and others of our cittie of London, called the First Collonie; and the other of sondrie Knights, gentlemen and others of the citties of Bristoll, Exeter, the towne of Plymouth, and other places, called the Seccond Collonieand have yielded and graunted maine and sondrie priviledges and liberties to each Collonie for their quiet setlinge and good government therein, as by the said lettres patents more at large appeareth.

          Nowe, forasmuch as divers and sondrie of oure lovinge subjects, as well adventurers as planters, of the said First Collonie (which have alreadie engaged them selves in furtheringe the businesse of the said plantacion and doe further intende by the assistance of Almightie God to prosecute the same to a happie ende) have of late ben humble suiters unto us that, in respect of their great chardeges and the adventure of manie of their lives which they have hazarded in the said discoverie and plantacion of the said countrie, wee woulde be pleased to graunt them a further enlargement and explanacion of the said graunte, priviledge and liberties, and that suche counsellors and other officers maie be appointed amonngest them to manage and direct their affaires [as] are willinge and readie to adventure with them; as also whose dwellings are not so farr remote from the cittye of London but that they maie at convenient tymes be readie at hande to give advice and assistance upon all occacions requisite.

          We, greatlie affectinge the effectual prosecucion and happie successe of the said plantacion and comendinge their good desires theirin, for their further encouragement in accomplishinge so excellent a worke, much pleasinge to God and profitable to oure Kingdomes, doe, of oure speciall grace and certeine knowledge and meere motion, for us, oure heires and successors, give, graunt and confirme to oure trustie and welbeloved subjects,

  • Robert, Earle of Salisburie [Salisbury]
  • Thomas, Earle of Suffolke [Suffolk]
  • Henrie, Earle of Southampton
  • William. Earle of Pembroke [Henrie]
  • [Henrie] Earle of Lincolne [Lincoln]
  • Henrie, Earle of Dorsett [Dorset]
  • Thomas, Earle of Exeter
  • Phillipp, Earle of Mountgommery
  • Robert, Lord Vicount Lisle
  • Theophilus, Lord Howard of Walden
  • James Mountague, Lord Bishopp of Bathe and Wells
  • Edward, Lord Zouche
  • Thomas, Lord Lawarr
  • Wiliam, Lord Mounteagle
  • Raphe, Lord Ewre
  • Edmond, Lord Sheffeild [Sheffield]
  • Grey, Lord Shandis [Chandois]
  • [Grey], Lord Compton
  • John, Lord Petre
  • John, Lord Stanhope
  • George, Lord Carew
  • Sir Humfrey Welde, Lord Mayor of London [Weld]
  • George Pertie, Esquire [Percie]
  • Sir Edward Cecill, Knight [Cecil]
  • Sir George Wharton, Knight
  • Frauncis West, Esquire
  • Sir William Waade, Knight [Wade]
  • Sir Henrie Nevill, Knight [Nevil]
  • Sir Thomas Smithe, Knight [Smith]
  • Sir Oliver Cromwell, Knight
  • Sir Peter Manwood, Knight
  • Sir Dru Drurie, Knight [Drury]
  • Sir John Scott, Knight [Scot]
  • Sir Thomas Challouer, Knight [Challoner]
  • Sir Robert Drurie, Knight [Drury]
  • Sir Anthonye Cope, Knight
  • Sir Horatio Veere, Knight [Vere]
  • Sir Edward Conwaie, Knight [Conway]
  • Sir William Browne [Brown]
  • Sir Maurice Barkeley, Knight [Berkeley]
  • Sir Roberte Maunsell, Knight [Mansel]
  • Sir Amias Presou, Knight [Preston]
  • Sir Thomas Gates, Knight
  • Sir Anthonie Ashley, Knight [Ashly]
  • Sir Michaell Sandes, Knight [Sandys]
  • Sir Henrie Carew, Knight [Carey]
  • Sir Stephen Soame, Knight
  • Sir Calisthenes Brooke, Knight
  • Sir Edward Michelborne, Knight [Michelborn]
  • Sir John Racliffe, Knight [Ratcliffe]
  • Sir Charles Willmott, Knight [Wilmot]
  • Sir George Moore, Knight [Moor]
  • Sir Hugh Wirrall, Knight [Wirral]
  • Sir Thomas Dennys, Knight [Dennis]
  • Sir John Hollis, Knight [Holles]
  • Sir William Godolphin, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Monnson, Knight [Monson]
  • Sir Thomas Ridgwaie, Knight [Ridgwine]
  • Sir John Brooke, Knight
  • Sir Roberte Killigrew, Knight
  • Sir Henrie Peyton, Knight
  • Sir Richard Williamson, Knight
  • Sir Ferdinando Weynman, Knight
  • Sir William St. John, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Holcrofte, Knight [Holcroft]
  • Sir John Mallory, Knight
  • Sir Roger Ashton, Knight
  • Sir Walter Cope, Knight
  • Sir Richard Wigmore, Knight
  • Sir William Cooke, Knight [Coke]
  • Sir Herberte Crofte, Knight
  • Sir Henrie Faushawe, Knight [Fanshaw]
  • Sir John Smith, Knight
  • Sir Francis Wolley, Knight
  • Sir Edward Waterhouse, Knight
  • Sir Henrie Sekeford, Knight [Seekford]
  • Sir Edward Saudes, Knights [Edwin Sandys]
  • Sir Thomas Wayneman, Knight [Waynam]
  • Sir John Trevor, Knight
  • Sir Warrwick Heale, Knight [Heele]
  • Sir Robert Wroth, Knight
  • Sir John Townnesende, Knight [Townsend]
  • Sir Christopher Perkins, Knight
  • Sir Daniell Dun, Knight
  • Sir Henrie Hobarte, Knight [Hobart]
  • Sir Franncis Bacon, Knight
  • Sir Henrie Mountague, Knight [Montague]
  • Sir Georg Coppin, Knight
  • Sir Samuell Sandes, Knight [Sandys]
  • Sir Thomas Roe, Knight
  • Sir George Somers, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Freake, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Horwell, Knight [Harwell]
  • Sir Charles Kelke, Knight
  • Sir Baptist Hucks, Knight [Hicks]
  • Sir John Watts, Knight
  • Sir Roberte Carey, Knight
  • Sir William Romney, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Middleton, Knight
  • Sir Hatton Cheeke, Knight
  • Sir John Ogle, Knighte
  • Sir Cavallero Meycot, Knight
  • Sir Stephen Riddlesden, Knight [Riddleson]
  • Sir Thomas Bludder, Knight
  • Sir Anthonie Aucher, Knight
  • Sir Robert Johnson, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Panton, Knight
  • Sir Charles Morgan, Knight
  • Sir Stephen Powle, Knight [Pole]
  • Sir John Burlacie, Knight
  • Sir Christofer Cleane, Knight [Cleave]
  • Sir George Hayward, Knight
  • Sir Thomas Dane, Knight [Davis]
  • Sir Thomas Dutton, Knight [Sutton]
  • Sir Anthonie Forrest, Knight [Forest]
  • Sir Robert Payne, Knight
  • Sir John Digby, Knight
  • Sir Dudley Diggs, Knight [Digges]
  • Sir Rowland Cotton, Knight
  • Doctour Mathewe Rutcliffe [Sutcliffel
  • Doctor Meddowes [Meadows]
  • Doctor Tumer
  • Doctor Poe
  • Captaine Pagnam
  • Captaine Jeffrey Holcrofte
  • Captaine Raunne [Romney]
  • Captaine Henrie Spry
  • Captaine Shelpton [Shelton]
  • Captaine Spark [Sparks]
  • [Captain] Thomas Wyatt [Wyat]
  • Captaine Brinsley
  • Captaine William Courtney
  • Captaine Herbert
  • Captaine Clarke
  • Captaine Dewhurst
  • Captaine John Blundell
  • Captaine Frier [Fryer]
  • Captaine Lewis Orwell
  • Captaine Edward Lloyd [Loyd]
  • Captaine Slingesby
  • Captaine Huntley [Hawley]
  • Captaine Orme
  • Captaine Woodhouse
  • Captaine Mason
  • Captaine Thomas Holcroft
  • Captaine John Cooke [Coke]
  • Captaine Hollis [Holles]
  • Captaine William Proude
  • Captaine Henrie Woodhouse
  • Captaine Richard Lindeley [Lindesey]
  • Captaine Dexter
  • Captaine William Winter
  • Captaine Herle [Pearsel
  • Captain John Bingham
  • Captaine Burray
  • Captaine Thomas Conwey [Conway]
  • Captaine Rookwood
  • Captaine William Lovelace
  • Captaine John Ashley
  • Captaine Thomas Wynne
  • Captaine Thomas Mewtis
  • Captaine Edward Harwood
  • Captaine Michaell Evered [Everard]
  • Captaine Connoth [Comock]
  • Captaine Miles [Mills]
  • Captaine Pigott [Pigot]
  • Captaine Edward Maria Wingfeild [Wingfield]
  • Captaine ChristopherNewporte [Newport]
  • Captaine John Siclemore, alias Ratcliffe [Sicklemore]
  • Captaine John Smith
  • Captyn John Martyn [Martin]
  • Captaine Peter Wynne
  • Captaine Waldoe [Waldo]
  • Captyn Thomas Wood
  • Captaine Thomas Button
  • George Bolls, Esquire, Sheriffe of London
  • William Crashawe, [Clerk], Bachelor of Divinite
  • William Seabright, Esquire
  • Christopher Brook, Esquire
  • John Bingley, Esquire
  • Thomas Watson, Esquire
  • Richard Percivall, Esquire [Percival]
  • John Moore, Esquire
  • Hugh Brooker, Esquire
  • David Waterhouse, Esquire [Woodhouse]
  • Anthonie Auther, Esquier [Aucher]
  • Roberte Bowyer, Esquire [Boyer]
  • Raphe Ewens, Esquire
  • Zacharie Jones, Esquire
  • George Calvert, Esquire
  • William Dobson, Esquire
  • Henry Reynold, Esquire [Reynolds]
  • Thomas Walker, Esquire
  • Anthonie Barnars, Esquire
  • Thomas Sandes, Esquire [Sandys]
  • Henrie Sand, Esquire [Sandys]
  • Richard Sand [Sandys], Sonne of Sir Edwin Sandes [Sandys]
  • William Oxenbridge, Esquire
  • John Moore, Esquire
  • Thomas Wilson, Esquire
  • John Bullocke, Esquire [Bullock]
  • John Waller, [Esquire]
  • Thomas Webb
  • Jehughe Robinson
  • William Brewster
  • Robert Evelyn
  • Henrie Dabenie [Danby]
  • Richard Hacklewte, minister [Hackluit]
  • John Eldred, marchaunt [Eldrid]
  • William Russell, marchaunt
  • John Merrick, marchaunt
  • Richard Bannester, merchant [Banister]
  • Charles Anthonie, goldsmithe [Anthony]
  • John Banck [Banks]
  • William Evans
  • Richard Humble
  • Robert Chamberleyne, marchaunt [Richard Chamberlayne]
  • Thomas Barber, marchaunt
  • Richard Pevyrell, merchaunt [Pomet]
  • John Fletcher, merchant
  • Thomas Nicholls, merchant
  • John Stoak, merchaunt [Stoke]
  • Gabriell Archer
  • Franncis Covell [Covel]
  • William Bouham [Bonham]
  • Edward Harrison
  • John Wolstenholme
  • Nicholas Salter
  • Hugh Evans
  • William Barners [Barnes]
  • Otho Mawdett [Mawdet]
  • Richard Staper, marchant
  • John Elkin, marchaunt
  • William Cayse [Coyse]
  • Thomas Perkin, cooper
  • Humfrey Ramell, cooper [Humphrey James]
  • Henry Jackson
  • Roberte Shingleton [Singleton]
  • Christopher Nicholls
  • John Harper
  • Abraham Chamberlaine [Chamberlayne]
  • Thomas Shipton
  • Thomas Carpenter
  • Anthoine Crewe [Crew]
  • George Holman
  • Robert Hill
  • Cleophas Smithe [Smith]
  • Raphe Harrison
  • John Farmer
  • James Brearley
  • William Crosley [Crosby]
  • Richard Cocks [Cox]
  • John Gearinge [Gearing]
  • Richard Strough, iremonnger [Strongarm]
  • Thomas Langton
  • Griffith Hinton
  • Richard Ironside
  • Richard Deane [Dean]
  • Richard Turner
  • William Leveson, mercer [Lawson]
  • James Chatfeilde [Chatfield]
  • Edward Allen [Edward Allen Tedder]
  • Tedder Roberts
  • Heldebrand Sprinson [Robert Hildebrand Sprinson]
  • Arthur Mouse
  • John Gardener [Gardiner]
  • James Russell [Russel]
  • Richard Casewell [Caswell]
  • Richard Evanns [Evans]
  • John Hawkins
  • Richard Kerrill [Kerril]
  • Richard Brooke
  • Mathewe Scrivener, gentleman [Screvener]
  • William Stallendge, gentleman [Stallenge]
  • Arthure Venn, gentleman
  • Saund Webb, gentleman [Sandys Webbe]
  • Michaell Phettiplace, gentleman
  • William Phetiplace, gentleman [Phettiplace]
  • Ambrose Brusey, gentleman [Prusey]
  • John Taverner, gentleman
  • George Pretty, gentleman
  • Peter Latham, gentleman
  • Thomas Monnford, gentleman [Montford]
  • William Cautrell, gentleman [Cantrel]
  • Richard Wiffine, gentleman [Wilfin]
  • Raphe Mooreton, gentleman [Moreton]
  • John Cornellis [Comelius]
  • Martyn Freeman
  • Raphe Freeman
  • Andreau Moore
  • Thomas White
  • Edward Perkin
  • Robert Osey
  • Thomas Whitley
  • George Pitt [Pit]
  • Roberte Parkehurste [Parkhurst]
  • Thomas Morris
  • Peter Vaulore [Harloe]
  • Jeffrey Duppa
  • John Gilbert
  • William Hancock
  • Mathew Bromrigg [Brown]
  • Francis Tirrell [Tyrrel]
  • Randall Carter
  • Othowell Smithe [Smith]
  • Thomas Honnyman [Hamond]
  • Marten Bonde, haberdasher [Bond]
  • Joan Mousloe [John Moulsoe]
  • Roberte Johnson
  • William Younge [Young]
  • John Woddall [Woodal]
  • William Felgate
  • Humfrey Westwood
  • Richard Champion
  • Henrie Robinson
  • Franncis Mapes
  • William Sambatch [Sambach]
  • Rauley Crashawe [Ralegh Crashaw]
  • DaruelLliacker
  • Thomas Grave
  • Hugh Willestone
  • Thomas Culpepper, of Wigsell, Esquire
  • John Culpepper, gentleman
  • Henrie Lee
  • Josias Kirton, gentleman [Kerton]
  • John Porie, gentleman [Pory]
  • Henrie Collins
  • George Burton
  • William Atkinson
  • Thomas Forrest [Forest]
  • John Russell [Russel]
  • John Houlte [Holt]
  • Harman Harrison
  • Gabriell Beedell [Beedel]
  • John Beedell [Beedel]
  • Henrie Dankes [Dawkes]
  • George Scott [Scot]
  • Edward Fleetewood, gentleman [Fleetwood]
  • Richard Rogers, gentleman
  • Arthure Robinson
  • Robert Robinson
  • John Huntley
  • John Grey [Gray]
  • William Payne
  • William Feilde [Field]
  • William Wattey
  • William Webster
  • John Dingley
  • Thomas Draper
  • Richard Glanvile [Glanvil]
  • Arnolde Lulls [Hulls]
  • Henrie Rowe [Roe]
  • William Moore [More]
  • Nicholas Grice [Gryce]
  • James Monnger [Monger]
  • Nicholas Andrewes [Andrews]
  • Jerome Haydon, iremonnger [Jeremy Haydon]
  • Phillipp Durrant [Philip Durette]
  • John Quales [Quarles]
  • John West
  • Madlew Springeham [Springham]
  • John Johnson
  • Christopher Hore
  • George Barkeley
  • Thomas Sued [Snead]
  • George Barkeley [Berkeley]
  • Ardhure Pett [Pet]
  • Thomas Careles
  • William Barkley [Berkley]
  • Thomas Johnson
  • Alexander Bent [Bents]
  • Captaine William Kinge [King]
  • George Sandes, gentleman [Sandys]
  • James White, gentleman
  • Edmond Wynn [Wynne]
  • Charles Towler
  • Richard Reynold
  • Edward Webb
  • Richard Maplesden
  • Thomas Levers [Lever]
  • David Bourne
  • Thomas Wood
  • Raphe Hamer
  • Edward Barnes, mercer
  • John Wright, mercer
  • Robert Middleton
  • Edward Litsfeild [Littlefield]
  • Katherine West
  • Thomas Webb [Web]
  • Raphe Kinge [King]
  • Roberte Coppine [Coppin]
  • James Askewe
  • Christopher Nicholls [Christopher Holt]
  • William Bardwell
  • Alexander Childe [Chiles]
  • Lewes Tate
  • Edward Ditchfeilde [Ditchfield]
  • James Swifte
  • Richard Widdowes, goldesmith
  • Edmonde Brundells [Brudenell]
  • John Hanford [Hansford]
  • Edward Wooller
  • William Palmer, haberdasher
  • John Badger
  • John Hodgson
  • Peter Monnsill [Mounsel]
  • Jahn Carrill [Carril]
  • John Busbridge [Bushridge]
  • William Dunn [Dun]
  • Thomas Johnson
  • Nicholas Benson
  • Thomas Shipton
  • Nathaniell Wade
  • Randoll Wettwood [Wetwood]
  • Mathew Dequester
  • Charles Hawkins
  • Hugh Hamersley
  • Abraham Cartwright
  • George Bennett [Bennet]
  • William Cattor [Cater]
  • Richard Goddart
  • Henrie Cromwell
  • Phinees Pett [Pet]
  • Roberte Cooper
  • Henrie Neite [Newce]
  • Edward Wilks [Wilkes]
  • Roberte Bateman
  • Nicholas Farrar
  • John Newhouse
  • John Cason
  • Thomas Harris, gentleman
  • George Etheridge, gentleman
  • Thomas Mayle, gentleman
  • Richard Stratford [Stafford]
  • Thomas
  • Richard Cooper
  • John Westrowe [Westrow]
  • Edward Welshe [Welch]
  • Thomas Brittanie [Britain]
  • Thomas Knowls [Knowles]
  • Octavian Thome
  • Edmonde Smyth [Smith]
  • John March
  • Edward Carew
  • Thomas Pleydall
  • Richard Lea [Let]
  • Miles Palmer
  • Henrie Price
  • John Josua, gentleman [Joshua]
  • William Clawday [Clauday]
  • Jerome Pearsye
  • John Bree, gentleman
  • William Hampson
  • Christopher Pickford
  • Thomas Hunt
  • Thomas Truston
  • Christopher Lanman [Salmon]
  • John Haward, clerke [Howard]
  • Richarde Partridge
  • Allen Cotton [Cassen]
  • Felix Wilson
  • Thomas Colethurst [Bathurst]
  • George Wilmer
  • Andrew Wilmer
  • Morrice Lewellin
  • Thomas Jedwin [Godwin]
  • Peter Burgoyne
  • Thomas Burgoyne
  • Roberte Burgoyne
  • Roberte Smithe, merchauntaylor [Smith]
  • Edward Cage, grocer
  • Thomas Canon, gentleman [Cannon]
  • William Welby, stacioner
  • Clement Wilmer, gentleman
  • John Clapham, gentleman
  • Giles Fraunces, gentleman [Francis]
  • George Walker, sadler
  • John Swinehowe, stacioner [Swinhow]
  • Edward Bushoppe, stacioner [Bishop]
  • Leonard White, gentleman
  • Christopher Barron [Baron]
  • Peter Benson
  • Richard Smyth [Smith]
  • George Prockter, minister [Proctor]
  • Millicent Ramesden, widowe [Ramsdent]
  • Joseph Soane
  • Thomas Hinshawe [Hinshaw]
  • John Baker
  • Robert Thorneton [Thomton]
  • John Davies [Davis]
  • Edward Facett [Facetl
  • George Nuce, gentleman [Newce]
  • John Robinson
  • Captaine Thomas Wood
  • William Browne, shoemaker [Brown]
  • Roberte Barker, shoemaker
  • Roberte Penington [Pennington]
  • Francis Burley, minister
  • William Quick, grocer
  • Edward Lewes, grocer [Lewis]
  • Laurence Campe, draper
  • Aden Perkins, grocer
  • Richard Shepparde, preacher [Shepherd]
  • William Sheckley, haberdasher [Sherley]
  • William Tayler, haberdasher [Taylor]
  • Edward Lukyn, gentleman [Edwin Lukin]
  • John Francklyn, haberdasher [Franklyn]
  • John Southicke [Southwick]
  • Peter Peate
  • George Johan, iremonnger
  • George Yardley, gentleman [Yeardley]
  • Henrie Shelly [Shelley]
  • John Pratt [Prat]
  • Thomas Church, draper
  • William Powell, gentleman [Powel]
  • Richard Frithe, gentleman [Frith]
  • Thomas Wheeler, draper
  • Franncis Hasilerigg, gentleman [Haselrig]
  • Hughe Shippley, gentleman [Shipley]
  • John Andrewes, thelder, [doctor], of Cambridge [Andrews]
  • Franncis Whistley, gentleman [Whistler]
  • John Vassall, gentleman
  • Richard Howle
  • Edward Barkeley, gentleman [Berkeley]
  • Richard Knerisborough, gentleman [Keneridgburg]
  • Nicholas Exton, draper
  • William Bennett, fishmonger [Bennet]
  • James Hawood, marchaunt [Haywood]
  • Nicholas Isaak, merchaunt [Isaac]
  • William Gibbs, merchannt
  • [William] Bushopp [Bishop]
  • Barnard Michell [Mitchel]
  • Isaake Michell [Isaac Mitchel]
  • John Streat [Streate]
  • Edward Gall
  • John Marten, gentleman [Martin]
  • Thomas Fox
  • Luke Lodge
  • John Woodleefe, gentleman [Woodliffel
  • Rice Webb [Piichard]
  • Vincent Lowe [Low]
  • Samuell Burnam [Burnham]
  • Edmonde Pears, haberdasher
  • Josua Goudge [John Googe]
  • John St. John
  • Edwarde Vaughan
  • William Dunn
  • Thomas Alcock [Alcocke]
  • John Andrewes, the younger, of Cambridge [Andrews]
  • Samuell Smithe [Smith]
  • Thomas Jerrard [Gerrard]
  • Thomas Whittingham
  • William Cannynge [Canning]
  • Paule Caminge [Canning]
  • George Chaudler [Chandler]
  • Henrye Vincent
  • Thomas Ketley
  • James Skelton
  • James Montain [Mountaine]
  • George Webb, gentleman
  • Josephe Newbroughesmith [Joseph Newbridge, smith]
  • Josias Mande [Mand]
  • Raphe Haman, the younger [Hamer]
  • Edward Brewster, the sonne of William Brewster
  • Leonard Harwood, mercer
  • Phillipp Druerdent
  • William Carpenter
  • Tristram Hill
  • Roberte Cock, grocer
  • Laurence Grene, grocer [Greene]
  • Daniell Winche, grocer [Samuel Winch]
  • Humfrey Stile, grocer
  • Averie Dransfeild, grocer [Dransfield]
  • Edwarde Hodges, grocer
  • Edward Beale, grocer
  • Raphe Busby, grocer
  • John Whittingham, grocer
  • John Hide, grocer
  • Mathew Shipperd, grocer [Shepherd]
  • Thomas Allen, grocer
  • Richard Hooker, grocer
  • Laurence Munckas, grocer [Munks]
  • John Tanner, grocer
  • Peter Gate, grocer
  • John Blunt, grocer
  • Roberte Berrisford, grocer
  • Thomas Wells, gentleman
  • John Ellis, grocer
  • Henrie Colthurst, grocer
  • John Cranage, grocer [Cavady]
  • Thomas Jenings, grocer [Jennings]
  • Edmond Peshall, grocer [Pashall]
  • Timothie Bathurst, grocer
  • Gyles Parslowe, grocer [Parslow]
  • Roberte Johnson, grocer [Richard]
  • William Janson, vintener [Johnson]
  • Ezechiell Smith
  • Richard Murrettone [Martin]
  • William Sharpe
  • Roberte Ritche [Rich]
  • William Stannerd, inholder [Stannard]
  • John Stocken
  • William Strachey, gentleman
  • George Farmer, gentleman
  • Thomas Gypes, clothworker
  • Abraham Dawes, gentleman [Davies]
  • Thomas Brockett, gentleman [Brocket]
  • George Bathe, fishmonger [Bache]
  • John Dike, fishmonger
  • Henrie Spranger
  • Richard Farringdon [Farrington]
  • Chistopher Vertue, vintener
  • Thomas Baley, vintener [Bayley]
  • George Robins, vintener
  • Tobias Hinson, grocer
  • Urian Spencer [Vrian]
  • Clement Chachelley [Chicheley]
  • John Searpe, gentleman [Scarpe]
  • James Cambell, iremonnger [Campbell]
  • Christopher Clitherowe, iremonnger [Clitheroe]
  • Phillipp Jacobson
  • Peter Jacobson, of Andwarpe
  • William Barckley [Berkeley]
  • Miles Banck, cutler [Banks]
  • Peter Highley, grocer [Higgons]
  • Henrie John, gentleman
  • John Stoakley, merchauntailor [Stokeley]
  • The companie of mercers
  • The companie of grocers
  • The companie of drapers
  • The company of fishmongers
  • The companie of gouldsmithes
  • The companie of skynners
  • The companie merchauntailors
  • The companie of haberdashers
  • The companie of salters
  • The companie of iremongers
  • The companie of vintners
  • The companie of clothworkers
  • The companie of dyers
  • The companie of bruers
  • The companie of lethersellers
  • The companie of pewterers
  • The companie of cutlers
  • The companie of whitebakers
  • The companie of waxchaundlers
  • The companie of tallowe chaundlers
  • The companie of armorers
  • The companie of girdlers
  • The companie of butchers
  • The companie of sadlers
  • The companie of carpenters
  • The companie of cordwayners
  • The companie of barbor chirurgions
  • The companie of painter stayners
  • The companie of curriers
  • The companie of masons
  • The companie of plumbers
  • The companie of inholders
  • The companie of founders
  • The companie of poulterers
  • The companie of cookes
  • The companie of coopers
  • The companie of tylers and bncklayers
  • The companie of bowyers
  • The companie of Retchers
  • The companie of blacksmithes
  • The companie of joyners
  • The companie of weavers
  • The companie of wollmen
  • The companie of wood monnvers
  • The companie of scrivenors
  • The companie of fruterers
  • The companie of plasterers
  • The companie of brownebakers
  • The companie of stacioners
  • The companie of imbroderers
  • The companie of upholsters
  • The companie of musicions
  • The companie of turners
  • The companie of baskettmakers
  • The companie of glasiers
  • John Levett, merchaunt [Levet]
  • Thomas Nomicott, clothworker [Nomicot]
  • Richard Venn, haberdasher
  • Thomas Scott, gentleman [Scot]
  • Thomas Juxson, merchauntaylor [Juxon]
  • George Hankinson
  • Thomas Leeyer, gentleman [Seyer]
  • Mathew Cooper
  • Gorge Butler, gentleman
  • Thomas Lawson, gentleman
  • Edward Smith, haberdasher
  • Stephen Sparrowe
  • John Jones, merchaunt
  • [John] Reynold, brewer [Reynolds]
  • Thomas Plummer, merchaunt
  • James Duppa, bruer
  • Rowland Coytemore [Coitmore]
  • William Sotherne [Southerne]
  • Gorge Whittmoore, haberdasher [Whitmore]
  • Anthonie Gosoulde, the younger [Gosnold]
  • John Allen, fishemonger
  • John Kettlebye, gentleman [Kettleby]
  • Symonde Yeomans, fishmonger [Simon]
  • Richard Chene, gouldsmithe
  • Launcelot Davis, gentleman [Clene]
  • John Hopkins, an alderman of Bristoll
  • George Hooker, gentlernan
  • Roberte Shevinge, yeoman [Chening]

          And to such and so manie as they doe or shall hereafter admitt to be joyned with them, in forme hereafter in theis presentes expressed, whether they goe in their persons to be planters there in the said plantacion, or whether they goe not, but doe adventure their monyes, goods or chattels, that they shalbe one bodie or communaltie perpetuall and shall have perpetual succession and one common seale to serve for the saide bodie or communaltie; and that they and their successors shalbe knowne, called and incorporated by the name of The Tresorer and Companie of Adventurers and Planters of the Citty of London for the Firste Collonie in Virginia.

          And that they and their successors shalbe from hensforth, forever enabled to take, acquire and purchase, by the name aforesaid (licens for the same from us, oure heires or successors first had and obtained) anie manner of lands, tenements and hereditaments, goods and chattels, within oure realme of England and dominion of Wales; and that they and their successors shalbe likewise enabled, by the name aforesaid, to pleade and to be impleaded before anie of oure judges or justices, in anie oure courts, and in anie accions or suits whatsoever.

          And wee doe also, of oure said speciall grace, certaine knowl- edge and mere mocion, give, grannte and confirme unto the said Tresorer and Companie, and their successors, under the reservacions, limittacions and declaracions hereafter expressed, all those lands, countries and territories scituat, lieinge and beinge in that place of America called Virginia, from the pointe of lande called Cape or Pointe Comfort all alonge the seacoste to the northward twoe hundred miles and from the said pointe of Cape Comfort all alonge the sea coast to the southward twoe hundred miles; and all that space and circuit of lande lieinge from the sea coaste of the precinct aforesaid upp unto the lande, throughoute, from sea to sea, west and northwest; and also all the island beinge within one hundred miles alonge the coaste of bothe seas of the precincte aforesaid; togeather with all the soiles, groundes, havens and portes, mynes, aswell royall mynes of golde and silver as other mineralls, pearles and precious stones, quarries, woods, rivers, waters, fishings, comodities, jurisdictions, royalties, priviledges, franchisies and preheminences within the said territorie and the precincts there of whatsoever; and thereto or there abouts, both by sea and lande, beinge or in anie sorte belonginge or appertayninge, and which wee by oure lettres patents maie or cann graunte; and in as ample manner and sorte as wee or anie oure noble progenitors have heretofore graunted to anie companie, bodie pollitique or corporate, or to anie adventurer or adventurers, undertaker or undertakers, of anie discoveries, plantacions or traffique of, in, or into anie forraine parts whatsoever; and in as large and ample manner as if the same were herin particulerly mentioned and expressed: to have, houlde, possesse and enjoye all and singuler the said landes, countries and territories with all and singuler other the premisses heretofore by theis [presents] graunted or mencioned to be grannted, to them, the said Tresorer and Companie, their successors and assignes, forever; to the sole and proper use of them, the said Tresorer and Companie, their successors and assignes [forever], to be holden of us, oure heires and successors, as of oure mannour of Estgreenewich, in free and common socage and not in capite; yeldinge and payinge, therefore, to us, oure heires and successors, the fifte parte onlie of all oare of gould and silver that from tvme to time, and at all times hereafter, shalbe there gotton, had and obtained, for all manner of service.

          And, nevertheles, oure will and pleasure is, and wee doe by theis presentes chardge, commannde, warrant and auctorize, that the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, or the major parte of them which shall be present and assembled for that purpose, shall from time to time under their common seale distribute, convey, assigne and set over such particuler porcions of lands, tenements and hereditaments, by theise presents formerly grannted, unto such oure lovinge subjects naturallie borne of denizens, or others, aswell adventurers as planters, as by the said Companie, upon a commission of survey and distribucion executed and retourned for that purpose, shalbe named, appointed and allowed, wherein oure will and pleasure is, that respect be had as well of the proporcion of the adventure[r] as to the speciall service, hazarde, exploite or meritt of anie person so as to be recompenced, advannced or rewarded.

          And for as muche as the good and prosperous successe of the said plantacion cannot but cheiflie depende, next under the blessinge of God and the supporte of oure royall aucthoritie, upon the provident and good direccion of the whole enterprise by a carefull and understandinge Counsell, and that it is not convenient that all the adventurers shalbe so often drawne to meete and assemble as shalbe requisite for them to have metings and conference aboute theire affaires, therefore we doe ordaine, establishe and confirme that there shalbe perpetually one Counsell here resident, accordinge to the tenor of oure former lettres patents, which Counsell shall have a seale for the better governement and administracion of the said plantacion besides the legall seale of the Companie or Corporacion, as in oure former lettres patents is also expressed.

          And further wee establishe and ordaine that

  • Henrie, Earl of Southampton
  • William, Earl of Pembrooke
  • Henrie, Earl of Lincoln
  • Thomas, Earl of Exeter
  • Roberte, Lord Viscounte Lisle
  • Lord Theophilus Howard
  • James, Lord Bishopp of Bathe and Wells
  • Edward, Lord Zouche
  • Thomas, Lord Laware
  • William, Lord Mounteagle
  • Edmunde, Lord Sheffeilde
  • Grey, Lord Shanndoys [Chandois]
  • John, Lord Stanhope
  • George, Lord Carew
  • Sir Humfrey Welde, Lord Mayor of London
  • Sir Edward Cecil
  • Sir William Waad [Wade]
  • Sir Henrie Nevill
  • Sir Thomas Smith
  • Sir Oliver Cromwell
  • Sir Peter Manwood
  • Sir Thomas Challoner
  • Sir Henrie Hovarte [Hobart]
  • Sir Franncis Bacon
  • Sir George Coppin
  • Sir John Scott
  • Sir Henrie Carey
  • Sir Roberte Drurie [Drury]
  • Sir Horatio Vere
  • Sir Eward Conwaye [Conway]
  • Sir Maurice Berkeley [Barkeley]
  • Sir Thomas Gates
  • Sir Michaele Sands [Sandys]
  • Sir Roberte Mansfeild [Mansel]
  • Sir John Trevor
  • Sir Amyas Preston
  • Sir William Godolphin
  • Sir Walter Cope
  • Sir Robert Killigrewe
  • Sir Henrie Faushawe [Fanshaw]
  • Sir Edwyn Sandes [Sandys]
  • Sir John Watts
  • Sir Henrie Montague
  • Sir William Romney
  • Sir Thomas Roe
  • Sir Baptiste Hicks
  • Sir Richard Williamson
  • Sir Stephen Powle [Poole]
  • Sir Dudley Diggs
  • Christopher Brooke, [Esq.]
  • John Eldred, and
  • John Wolstenholme

          shalbe oure Counsell for the said Companie of Adventurers and Planters in Virginia.

          And the said Sir Thomas Smith wee ordaine to be Tresorer of the said Companie, which Tresorer shall have aucthoritie to give order for the warninge of the Counsell and sommoninge the Companie to their courts and meetings.

          And the said Counsell and Tresorer or anie of them shalbe from henceforth nominated, chosen, contynued, displaced, chaunged, altered and supplied, as death or other severall occasions shall require, out of the Companie of the said adventurers by the voice of the greater parte of the said Counsell and adventurers in their assemblie for that purpose; provided alwaies that everie Councellor so newlie elected shalbe presented to the Lord Channcellor of England, or to the Lord Highe Treasurer of England, or the Lord Chambleyne of the housholde of us, oure heires and successors, for the tyme beinge to take his oathe of a Counsellor to us, oure heires and successors, for the said Companie and Collonie in Virginia.

          And wee doe by theis presents, of oure especiall grace, certaine knowledge and meere motion, for us, oure heires and successors, grannte unto the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, that if it happen at anie time or times the Tresorer for the tyme beinge to be sick, or to have anie such cause of absente from the cittie of London as shalbe allowed by the said Counsell or the greater parte of them assembled, so as he cannot attende the affaires of that Companie, in everie such case it shall and maie be lawfull for such Tresorer for the tyme beinge to assigne, constitute and appointe one of the Counsell for Companie to be likewise allowed by the Counsell or the greater parte of them assembled to be the deputie Tresorer for the said Companie; which Deputie shall have power to doe and execute all things which belonge to the said Tresorer duringe such tyme as such Tresorer shalbe sick or otherwise absent, upon cause allowed of by the said Counsell or the major parte of them as aforesaid, so fullie and wholie and in as large and ample manner and forme and to all intents and purposes as the said Tresorer if he were present himselfe maie or might doe and execute the same.

          And further of oure especiall grace, certaine knowledge and meere mocion, for us, oure heires and successors, wee doe by theis presents give and grannt full power and aucthoritie to oure said Counsell here resident aswell at this present tyme as hereafter, from time to time, to nominate, make, constitute, ordaine and confirme by such name or names, stile or stiles as to them shall seeme good, and likewise to revoke, dischardge, channge and alter aswell all and singuler governors, oficers and ministers which alreadie hath ben made, as also which hereafter shalbe by them thought fitt and meedefull to be made or used for the government of the said Colonie and plantacion.

          And also to make, ordaine and establishe all manner of orders, lawes, directions, instructions, formes and ceremonies of government and magistracie, fitt and necessarie, for and concerninge the government of the said Colonie and plantacion; and the same att all tymes hereafter to abrogate, revoke or chaunge, not onely within the precincts of the said Colonie but also upon the seas in goeing and cominge to and from the said Collonie, as they in their good discrecions shall thinke to be fittest for [the] good of the adventurers and inhabiters there.

          And we doe also declare that for divers reasons and consideracions us thereunto especiallie moving, oure will and pleasure is and wee doe hereby ordaine that imediatlie from and after such time as anie such governour or principall officer so to be nominated and appointed by oure said Counsell for the governement of the said Colonie, as aforesaid, shall arive in Virginia and give notice unto the Collonie there resident of oure pleasure in this behalfe, the government, power and aucthority of the President and Counsell, heretofore by oure former lettres patents there established, and all lawes and constitucions by them formerlie made, shall utterly cease and be determined; and all officers, governours and ministers formerly constituted or appointed shalbe dischardged, anie thinge in oure said former lettres patents conserninge the said plantacion contayned in aniewise to the contrarie notwithstandinge; streightlie chardginge and commaundinge the President and Counsell nowe resident in the said Collonie upon their alleadgiance after knowledge given unto them of oure will and pleasure by theis presentes signified and declared, that they forth with be obedient to such governor or governers as by oure said Counsell here resident shalbe named and appointed as aforesaid; and to all direccions, orders and commandements which they shall receive from them, aswell in the present resigninge and giveinge upp of their aucthoritie, offices, chardg and places, as in all other attendannce as shalbe by them from time to time required.

          And wee doe further by theis presentes ordaine and establishe that the said Tresorer and Counsell here resident, and their successors or anie fower of them assembled (the Tresorer beinge one), shall from time to time have full power and aucthoritie to admitt and receive anie other person into their companie, corporacion and freedome; and further, in a generall assemblie of the adventurers, with the consent of the greater parte upon good cause, to disfranchise and putt oute anie person or persons oute of the said fredome and Companie.

          And wee doe also grannt and confirme for us, oure heires and successors that it shalbe lawfull for the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, by direccion of the Governors there, to digg and to serche for all manner of mynes of goulde, silver, copper, iron, leade, tinne and other mineralls aswell within the precincts aforesaid as within anie parte of the maine lande not formerly graunted to anie other; and to have and enjoye the gould, silver, copper, iron, leade, and tinn, and all other mineralls to be gotten thereby, to the use and behoofe of the said Companie of Planters and Adventurers, yeldinge therefore and payinge yerelie unto us, oure heires and successors, as aforesaid.

          And wee doe further of oure speciall grace, certaine knowledge and meere motion, for us, oure heires and successors, grannt, by theis presents to and withe the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, that it shalbe lawfull and free for them and their assignes at all and everie time and times here after, oute of oure realme of England and oute of all other [our] dominions, to take and leade into the said voyage, and for and towards the said plantacion, and to travell thitherwards and to abide and inhabite therein the said Colonie and plantacion, all such and so manie of oure lovinge subjects, or anie other straungers that wilbecomme oure lovinge subjects and live under oure allegiance, as shall willinglie accompanie them in the said voyadge and plantation with sufficient shippinge armour, weapons, ordinannce, municion, powder, shott, victualls, and such merchaundize or wares as are esteemed by the wilde people in those parts, clothinge, implements, furnitures, catle, horses and mares, and all other thinges necessarie for the said plantation and for their use and defence and trade with the people there, and in passinge and retourninge to and from without yeldinge or payinge subsedie, custome, imposicion, or anie other taxe or duties to us, oure heires or successors, for the space of seaven yeares from the date of theis presents; provided, that none of the said persons be such as shalbe hereafter by speciall name restrained by us, oure heires or successors.

          And for their further encouragement, of oure speciall grace and favour, wee doe by theis present for us, oure heires and successors, yeild and graunte to and with the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors and everie of them, their factors and assignes, that they and every of them shalbe free and quiett of all subsedies and customes in Virginia for the space of one and twentie yeres, and from all taxes and imposicions for ever, upon anie goods or merchaundizes at anie time or times hereafter, either upon importation thither or exportation from thence into oure realme of England or into anie other of oure [realms or] dominions, by the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, their deputies, factors [or] assignes or anie of them, except onlie the five pound per centum due for custome upon all such good and merchanndizes as shalbe brought or imported into oure realme of England or anie other of theis oure dominions accordinge to the auncient trade of merchannts, which five poundes per centum onely beinge paid, it shalbe thensforth lawfull and free for the said Adventurers the same goods [and] merchaundizes to export and carrie oute of oure said dominions into forraine partes without anie custome, taxe or other duty tO be paide to us oure heires or successors or to anie other oure officers or deputies; provided, that the saide goods and merchaundizes be shipped out within thirteene monethes after their first landinge within anie parte of those dominions.

          And wee doe also confirme and grannt to the said Tresorer and Companie, and their successors, as also to all and everie such governer or other officers and ministers as by oure said Counsell shalbe appointed, to have power and aucthoritie of governement and commannd in or over the said Colonie or plantacion; that they and everie of them shall and lawfullie maie from tyme to tyme and at all tymes forever hereafter, for their severall defence and safetie, enconnter, expulse, repell and resist by force and armes, aswell by sea as by land, and all waies and meanes whatsoever, all and everie such person and persons whatsoever as without the speciall licens of the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors shall attempte to inhabite within the said severall precincts and lymitts of the said Colonie and plantacion; and also, all and everie such person and persons whatsoever as shall enterprise, or attempte at anie time hereafter, destruccion, invasion, hurte, detriment or annoyannce to the said Collonye and plantacion, as is likewise specified in the said former grannte.

          And that it shalbe lawful for the said Tresorer and Companie, and their successors and everie of them, from time to time and at all times hereafter, and they shall have full power and aucthoritie, to take and surprise by all waies and meanes whatsoever all and everie person and persons whatsoever, with their shippes, goods and other furniture, traffiquinge in anie harbor, creeke or place within the limitts or precincts of the said Colonie and plantacion, [not] being allowed by the said Companie to be adventurers or planters of the said Colonie, untill such time as they beinge of anie realmes or dominions under oure obedience shall paie or agree to paie, to the hands of the Tresorer or [of] some other officer deputed by the said governors in Virginia (over and above such subsedie and custome as the said Companie is or here after shalbe to paie) five poundes per centum upon all goods and merchaundizes soe brought in thither, and also five per centum upon all goods by them shipped oute from thence; and being straungers and not under oure obedience untill they have payed (over and above such subsedie and custome as the same Tresorer and Companie and their successors is or hereafter shalbe to paie) tenn pounds per centum upon all such goods, likewise carried in and oute, any thinge in the former lettres patents to the contrarie not withstandinge; and the same sommes of monie and benefitt as aforesaid for and duringe the space of one and twentie yeares shalbe wholie imploied to the benefitt and behoof of the said Colonie and plantacion; and after the saide one and twentie yeares ended, the same shalbe taken to the use of us, oure heires or successors, by such officer and minister as by us, oure heires or successors, shalbe thereunto assigned and appointed, as is specified in the said former lettres patents.

          Also wee doe, for us, oure heires and successors, declare by theis presents, that all and everie the persons beinge oure subjects which shall goe and inhabit within the said Colonye and plantacion, and everie of their children and posteritie which shall happen to be borne within [any] the lymitts thereof, shall have [and] enjoye all liberties, franchesies and immunities of free denizens and naturall subjects within anie of oure other dominions to all intents and purposes as if they had bine abidinge and borne within this oure kingdome of England or in anie other of oure dominions.

          And forasmuch as it shalbe necessarie for all such our lovinge subjects as shall inhabitt within the said precincts of Virginia aforesaid to determine to live togither in the feare and true woorshipp of Almightie God, Christian peace and civill quietnes, each with other, whereby everie one maie with more safety, pleasure and profitt enjoye that where unto they shall attaine with great paine and perill, wee, for us, oure heires and successors, are likewise pleased and contented and by theis presents doe give and graunte unto the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors and to such governors, officers and ministers as shalbe, by oure said Councell, constituted and appointed, accordinge to the natures and lymitts of their offices and places respectively, that they shall and maie from time to time for ever hereafter, within the said precincts of Virginia or in the waie by the seas thither and from thence, have full and absolute power and aucthority to correct, punishe, pardon, governe and rule all such the subjects of us, oure heires and successors as shall from time to time adventure themselves in anie voiadge thither or that shall at anie tyme hereafter inhabitt in the precincts and territorie of the said Colonie as aforesaid, accordinge to such order, ordinaunces, constitution, directions and instruccions as by oure said Counsell, as aforesaid, shalbe established; and in defect thereof, in case of necessitie according to the good discretions of the said governours and officers respectively, aswell in cases capitall and criminall as civill, both marine and other, so alwaies as the said statuts, ordinannces and proceedinges as neere as convenientlie maie be, be agreable to the lawes, statutes, government and pollicie of this oure realme of England.

          And we doe further of oure speciall grace, certeine knowledge and mere mocion, grant, declare and ordaine that such principall governour as from time to time shall dulie and lawfullie be aucthorised and appointed, in manner and forme in theis presents heretofore expressed, shall [have] full power and aucthoritie to use and exercise marshall lawe in cases of rebellion or mutiny in as large and ample manner as oure leiutenant in oure counties within oure realme of England have or ought to have by force of their comissions of lieutenancy. And furthermore, if anie person or persons, adventurers or planters, of the said Colonie, or anie other at anie time or times hereafter, shall transporte anie monyes, goods or marchaundizes oute of anie [of] oure kingdomes with a pretence or purpose to lande, sell or otherwise dispose the same within the lymitts and bounds of the said Collonie, and yet nevertheles beinge at sea or after he hath landed within anie part of the said Colonie shall carrie the same into anie other forraine Countrie, with a purpose there to sell and dispose there of that, then all the goods and chattels of the said person or persons so offendinge and transported, together with the shipp or vessell wherein such transportacion was made, shalbe forfeited to us, oure heires and successors.

          And further, oure will and pleasure is, that in all questions and doubts that shall arrise upon anie difficultie of construccion or interpretacion of anie thinge contained either in this or in oure said former lettres patents, the same shalbe taken and interpreted in most ample and beneficiall manner for the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors and everie member there of.

          And further, wee doe by theis presents ratifie and confirme unto the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors all privuleges, franchesies, liberties and immunties graunted in oure said former lettres patents and not in theis oure lettres patents revoked, altered, channged or abridged.

          And finallie, oure will and pleasure is and wee doe further hereby for us, oure heires and successors grannte and agree, to and with the said Tresorer and Companie and their successors, that all and singuler person and persons which shall at anie time or times hereafter adventure anie somme or sommes of money in and towards the said plantacion of the said Colonie in Virginia and shalbe admitted by the said Counsell and Companie as adventurers of the said Colonie, in forme aforesaid, and shalbe enrolled in the booke or record of the adventurers of the said Companye, shall and maie be accompted, accepted, taken, helde and reputed Adventurers of the said Collonie and shall and maie enjoye all and singuler grannts, priviledges, liberties, benefitts, profitts, commodities [and immunities], advantages and emoluments whatsoever as fullie, largely, amplie and absolutely as if they and everie of them had ben precisely, plainely, singulerly and distinctly named and inserted in theis oure lettres patents.

          And lastely, because the principall effect which wee cann desier or expect of this action is the conversion and reduccion of the people in those partes unto the true worshipp of God and Christian religion, in which respect wee would be lothe that anie person should be permitted to passe that wee suspected to affect the superstitions of the Churche of Rome, wee doe hereby declare that it is oure will and pleasure that none be permitted to passe in anie voiadge from time to time to be made into the saide countrie but such as firste shall have taken the oath of supremacie, for which purpose wee doe by theise presents give full power and aucthoritie to the Tresorer for the time beinge, and anie three of the Counsell, to tender and exhibite the said oath to all such persons as shall at anie time be sent and imploied in the said voiadge.

          Although expresse mention [of the true yearly value or certainty of the premises, or any of them, or of any other gifts or grants, by us or any of our progenitors or predecessors, to the aforesaid Treasurer and Company heretofore made, in these presents is not made; or any act, statute, ordinance, provision, proclamation, or restraint, to the contrary hereof had, made, ordained, or provided, or any other thing, cause, or matter, whatsoever, in any wise notwithstanding.] In witnes whereof [we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witness ourself at Westminster, the 23d day of May (1609) in the seventh year of our reign of England, France, and Ireland, and of Scotland the ****]

          Per ipsum Regem exactum.

The Heidelberg Catechism

 

 

The Heidelberg Catechism

Brief History

of the

Heidelberg Catechism

One of the symbolical books of the Reformed Church. Its name is derived from the city in which it was compiled and first printed. It is also sometimes styled the Palatinate Catechism, from the territory (the Palatinate) of the prince (Frederick III) under whose auspices it was prepared.

The original German title (of the editio princeps) is Catechismus, oder Christlicher Underricht, wie der in Kirchen und Schulen der Churfürstlichen Pfalz getrieben wirdt: Gedruckt in der Churfürstlichen Stad Heydelberg, dulrch Johannemr llayer, 1563 (Catechism, or Christian Instruction, according to the Usages of the Churches and Schools of the Electoral Palatinate).



I. History. — Soon after the introduction of Protestantism into the Palatinate in 1546, the controversy between Lutherans and Calvinists broke out, and for years, especially under the elector Otto Heinrich (1556-59), it raged with great violence in Heidelberg. Frederick III, who came into power in 1559, adopted the Calvinistic view on the Lord’s Supper, and favored that side with all his princely power. He reorganized the Sapienz College (founded by his predecessor) as a theological school, and put at its head (1562) Zacharias Ursinus, a pupil and friend of Melancthon, who had adopted the Reformed opinions. In order to put an end to religious disputes in his dominions, he determined to put forth a Catechism, or Confession of Faith, and laid the duty of preparing it upon Zacharias Ursinus (just named) and Caspar Olevianus, for a time professor in the University of Heidelberg, then court preacher to Frederick III. They made use, of course, of the existing catechetical literature, especially of the catechisms of Calvin and of John Lasco. Each prepared sketches or drafts, and “the final preparation was a the work of both theologians, with the constant co-operation of Frederick III. Ursinus has always been regarded as the principal author, as he was afterwards the chief defender and interpreter of the Catechism; still, it would appear that the nervous German style, the division into three parts (as distinguished from the five parts in the Catechism of Calvin and the previous draft of Ursinus), and the genial warmth and unction of the whole work, are chiefly due to Olevianus.” (Schaff, in. Am. Presb. Rev. July 1863, p. 379).
When the Catechism was completed, Frederick laid it before a synod of the superintendents of the Palatinate (December, 1562). After careful examination it was approved. The first edition, whose full title is given above, appeared in 1563. The preface is dated January 19 of that year, and runs in the name of the elector Frederick, who probably wrote it. A Latin version appeared in the same year, translated by Johannes Lagus and Lambertus Pithopeus. The German version is the authentic standard. Two other editions of the German version appeared in 1563. What is now the eightieth question (What difference is there between the Lord’s Supper and the Roman Mass?) is not to be found an the first edition; part of it appears in the second edition; and in the third, of 1563 — it is given in full as follows: “What difference is there between the Lord’s Supper and the Popish Mass? The Lord’s Supper testifies to us that we have full forgiveness of all our sins by the one sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which he himself has once accomplished on the cross; and that by the Holy Ghost we are engrafted into Christ, who with his true body is now in heaven at the right hand of the Father, and is to be there worshipped. But the Mass teaches that the living and the dead have not forgiveness of sins through the sufferings of Christ, unless Christ is still daily offered for them by the priest; and that Christ is bodily under the form of bread and wine, and is therefore to be worshipped in them. (And thus the Mass at bottom is nothing else than a denial of the one sacrifice and passion of Christ, and an accursed idolatry.)” The occasion for the introduction of this eightieth question appears to have been the decree of the Council of Trent “touching the sacrifice of the Mass,” Sept. 17, 1562. This declaration, and the anathemas pronounced at Trent against the Protestant doctrine of the sacraments, had not time to produce their effect before the issue of the first edition of the Catechism. But the elector soon saw the necessity for a strong and clear declaration on the Protestant side, and such a declaration is furnished in this eightieth question, which was added to the Catechism in 1563. The first edition of 1563 was for a long time lost; that given by Niemeyer (Collectio Confessionum, p. 390) is the third of that year. But in 1864 pastor Wolters found a copy and reprinted it, with a history of the text (Der Heidelb. Katechismus in seiner ursprüzglichen Gestalt, Bonn, 1864, sm. 8vo), which cleared up all doubt as to the various editions of 1563. In 1866 professor Schaff published a very valuable edition, revised after the first edition of 1563, with an excellent history of the Catechism (Der Heidelb. Kat. nach d. ersten Ausgabe von 1563 revidirt, Philad. 18mo). — Other editions appeared in 1571 and 1573, and in this last the questions are divided, as now, into lessons for fifty-two Sundays, and the questions are numbered. An abstract of the Catechism appeared in 1585. The larger Catechism has since been republished by millions; no book, perhaps, has gone through more editions, except the Bible, Bunyan’s Pilgrim, and Kempis. It has been translated into nearly every spoken language. It was, of course, at once used throughout the Palatinate by command of the elector. But it soon spread abroad wherever the Reformed Church had found footing, especially in North Germany and parts of Switzerland. It was early received in the Netherlands, and formally adopted at the Synod of Dort, 1618. Long and bitter controversies with Roman Catholics and Lutherans on the Catechism only endeared it the more to the Reformed. It is to this day an authoritative confession for the Reformed churches (German and Dutch). The (Dutch) Reformed Church directs all her ministers to explain the Catechism regularly before the congregations on the Sabbath day.
II. Contents. The Catechism, in its present form, consists of 129 questions and answers. It is divided into three parts:

1. Of the misery of man.
2. Of the redemption of man.
3. Of the gratitude due from man (duties, etc.).

The arrangement of the matter is admirable, looking not simply to logical order, but also to practical edification. The book is not simply dogmatic, but devotional. It assumes that all who use it are Christians, and is thus not adapted for missionary work. As to the theology taught by the book, it is, in the main, that of pure evangelical Protestantism. On the doctrine of predestination it is so reticent that it was opposed, on the one hand, by the Synod of Dort, the most extreme Calvinistic body perhaps ever assembled, and, on the other (though not without qualification), by James Arminius, the greatest of all the opponents of Calvinism. On the nature of the sacraments the Catechism is Calvinistic, as opposed to the Lutheran doctrine. Dr. Heppe (deutscher Protestantismus, 1, 443 sq.) goes too far in asserting that the Catechism is thoroughly Melancthonian, and in no sense Calvinistic. Sudhoff answers this in his article in Herzog’s Real- Encyklopadie, 5, 658 sq.; but he himself goes too far, on the other side, in finding that the Calvinistic theory of predestination, though not expressly stated, is implied and involved in the view of Sin and grace set forth in the Catechism (see Gerhart’s article in the Tercentenary Monument, p. 387 sq., and also his statement in this Cyclopaedia, 3, 827). Olevianus, it will be remembered, was educated under the influence of Calvin; Ursinus under that of Melancthon. Dr. Schaff remarks judiciously that “the Catechism is a true expression of the convictions of its authors; but it communicates only so much of these as is in harmony with the public faith of the Church, and observes a certain reticence or reservation and moderation on such doctrines (as the twofold predestination), which belong rather to scientific theology and private conviction than to a public Church confession and the instruction of youth” (American Presb. Review, July, 1863, p. 371).
Literature. — The 300th anniversary of the formation and adoption of the Heidelberg Catechism was celebrated in 1863 both in Europe and America. One of the permanent fruits of this celebration was the publication of The Heidelberg Catechism, Tercentenary Edition (New York, 1863, sm. 4to). This noble volume gives a comprehensive Introduction (by Dr. Nevin), and a critical edition of the Catechism in four texts Old German, Latin, Modern German, and English-printed in parallel columns. The Introduction gives an admirable account of the literature and history of the Catechism. The text used is that given by Niemeyer, and not that of the first edition of 1563, which, as has been stated above, was reprinted in 1864. See also Dr. Schaff as edition cited above, and an article by him in the American Presbyterian Review for 1863. The Latin text (with the German of the 3rd ed. of 1563) is given in Niemeyer, Collectio Confessionum, p. 390 sq.; also in an edition by Dr. Steiner, Catechesis Religionis Christianae seu Catechismus Heidelbergensis (Baltimore, 1862). Another valuable fruit of the anniversary is The Tercentenary Monument (Chambersburg, 1863, 8vo), containing twenty essays by eminent Reformed theologians of Germany, Holland, and America, on the Catechism, its origin, history, its special relations to the German Reformed Church, and cognate subjects. For the older literary history, see Alting, Historia Ecclesiae Palatinae (Frankf. 1701); Struve, Pfilzische Kirchenhistorie (Frankfort, 1721); Mundt, Grundriss der pfalzischen Kirchengeschichte bis 1742 (Heidelb. 1798); Kocher, Katechetische Geschichte der Reformirten Kirche (Jena, 1756); Planck, Geschichte d. prot. Theologie, 2, 2,. 475-491; Van Alpen, Geschichte u. Litteratur d. Heidelb. Katechismus (Frankf. 1800); Augusti, Einleitung in die beiden Haupt-Katechismen d. Evang. Kirche (Elberf. 1824); Ersch und Gruber’s A11. Encykl. 2, 4. 386 sq.; Nevin, Hist. and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism(Chambersburg, 1847); Sudhoff, Theologisches Handbuch zur Auslegung d. Heidelb. Kat. (Frankf. 1862). An elaborate article on the literature of the Catechism, by Dr. Harbaugh, is given in the Mercersburg Review, October, 1860. A copious list of writers on the Catechism (covering twelve pages) is given at the end of Bethune, Expository Lectures on the Heidelberg Catechism (N. York, Sheldon and Co., 2 vols. 12mo), an admirable practical commentary, with a valuable historical introduction. Among the older commentators are Ursinus, Explicationes Catechesis Palatinae (Opera, 1612, vol. — 1); Ursinus, Apologia Catechismi Palatinae (Opera, vol. 2). Translations– Ursinus, The Summe of Christian Religion, lectures on the Catechism, transl. by H. Parrie (Lond. 1617 4to). The best transl. of Ursinus’s Commentary is that of the Rev. G.W. Williard (Columbus, 1852, 8vo, 2nd ed.), with Introduction by Dr. J. W. Nevin. See also Cocceius, Heid. Cat. explicata et illustrata (Lugd. Bat. 1671, Amst. 1673); Driesseln. Ad Cct. Heid. Malnuductio (Gron. 1724, 4to), Kemp. Fifty-three Sermons on the Heidelberg Catechism, trans. by Van Harlingen (New Brunswick, N. J., 1810, 8vo). For the views of the early Dutch Arminians on the Catechism, see Considerationes Remonstrantinum in Cat. Heidelb. (in Act. et Script. Synod. Harderwlyk, 1620). See also Wolters, Zur Urgeschichte d. Heidelb. Kat., in Stud. u. Krit. 1867, Heft 1; Trechsel, in Stud. u. Krit. 1867, Heft 3; Plitt, Stud. u. Krit. 1863, Heft 1: Mercersburg Review, October, 1860.


1. Lord’s Day

Question 1. What is thy only comfort in life and death?

Answer: That I with body and soul, both in life and death, (a) am not my own, (b) but belong unto my faithful Saviour Jesus Christ; (c) who, with his precious blood, has fully satisfied for all my sins, (d) and delivered me from all the power of the devil; (e) and so preserves me (f) that without the will of my heavenly Father, not a hair can fall from my head; (g) yea, that all things must be subservient to my salvation, (h) and therefore, by his Holy Spirit, He also assures me of eternal life, (i) and makes me sincerely willing and ready, henceforth, to live unto him. (j)

(a) Rom.14:7 For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. Rom.14:8 For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord’s. (b) 1 Cor.6:19 What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own? (c) 1 Cor.3:23 And ye are Christ’s; and Christ is God’s. Tit.2:14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. (d) 1 Pet.1:18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; 1 Pet.1:19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 1 John 1:7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. 1 John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. 1 John 2:12 I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name’s sake. (e) Heb.2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; 1 John 3:8 He that committeth sin is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil. John 8:34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. John 8:35 And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but the Son abideth ever. John 8:36 If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed. (f) John 6:39 And this is the Father’s will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. 2 Thess.3:3 But the Lord is faithful, who shall stablish you, and keep you from evil. 1 Pet.1:5 Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. (g) Matt.10:29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. Matt.10:30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Matt.10:31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows. Luke 21:18 But there shall not an hair of your head perish. (h) Rom.8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. (i) 2 Cor.1:20 For all the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen, unto the glory of God by us. 2 Cor.1:21 Now he which stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God; 2 Cor.1:22 Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. 2 Cor.5:5 Now he that hath wrought us for the selfsame thing is God, who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit. Eph.1:13 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, Eph.1:14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory. Rom.8:16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: (j) Rom.8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. 1 John 3:3 And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

Question 2. How many things are necessary for thee to know, that thou, enjoying this comfort, mayest live and die happily?

Answer: Three; (a) the first, how great my sins and miseries are; (b) the second, how I may be delivered from all my sins and miseries; (c) the third, how I shall express my gratitude to God for such deliverance. (d)

(a) Matt.11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Matt.11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. Matt.11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. Luke 24:46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Luke 24:48 And ye are witnesses of these things. 1 Cor.6:11 And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. Tit.3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. Tit.3:4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Tit.3:5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Tit.3:6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; Tit.3:7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. (b) John 9:41 Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth. John 15:22 If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloke for their sin. (c) John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Acts 10:43 To him (Jesus) give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins. (d) Eph.5:8 For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light: Eph.5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) Eph.5:10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord. Eph.5:11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. 1 Pet.2:9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: 1 Pet.2:10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. Rom.6:1 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? Rom.6:2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein? Rom.6:12 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof. Rom.6:13 Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God.

 


The First Part – Of The Misery Of Man

2. Lord’s Day

Question 3. Whence knowest thou thy misery?

Answer: Out of the law of God. (a)

(a) Rom.3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

Question 4. What does the law of God require of us?

Answer: Christ teaches us that briefly, Matt. 22:37-40, “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength. This is the first and the great commandment; and the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.” (a)

(a) Deut.6:5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. Lev.19:18 Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD. Mark 12:30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. Luke 10:27 And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.

Question 5. Canst thou keep all these things perfectly?

Answer: In no wise; (a) for I am prone by nature to hate God and my neighbour.(b)

(a) Rom.3:10 As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: Rom.3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. Rom.3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; 1 John 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. (b) Rom.8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. Eph.2:3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. Tit.3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. Gen.6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Gen.8:21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man’s sake; for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. Jer.17:9 The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it? Rom.7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

 

3. Lord’s Day

Question 6. Did God then create man so wicked and perverse?

Answer: By no means; but God created man good, (a) and after his own image, (b) in true righteousness and holiness, that he might rightly know God his Creator, heartily love him and live with him in eternal happiness to glorify and praise him. (c)

(a) Gen.1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. (b) Gen.1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. Gen.1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (c) Col.3:9 Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds; Col.3:10 And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him: Eph.4:23 And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; Eph.4:24 And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. 2 Cor.3:18 But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.

Question 7. Whence then proceeds this depravity of human nature?

Answer: From the fall and disobedience of our first parents, Adam and Eve, in Paradise; (a) hence our nature is become so corrupt, that we are all conceived and born in sin. (b)

(a) Genesis 3. Rom.5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: Rom.5:18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. Rom.5:19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. (b) Ps.51:5 Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me. Gen.5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:

Question 8. Are we then so corrupt that we are wholly incapable of doing any good, and inclined to all wickedness?

Answer: Indeed we are; (a) except we are regenerated by the Spirit of God. (b)

(a) Gen.8:21 The imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Gen.6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one. Job 15:14 What is man, that he should be clean? and he which is born of a woman, that he should be righteous? Job 15:16 How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water? Job 15:35 They conceive mischief, and bring forth vanity, and their belly prepareth deceit. Isa.53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. (b) John 3:3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. John 3:5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 1 Cor.12:3 Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 2 Cor.3:5 Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our sufficiency is of God;

 

4. Lord’s Day

Question 9. Does not God then do injustice to man, by requiring from him in his law, that which he cannot perform?

Answer: Not at all; (a) for God made man capable of performing it; but man, by the instigation of the devil, (b) and his own wilful disobedience, (c) deprived himself and all his posterity of those divine gifts.

(a) Eph.4:24 And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. Eccl.7:29 Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions. (b) John 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. 2 Cor.11:3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. Gen.3:4 And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: (c) Gen.3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. Rom.5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: Gen.3:13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. 1 Tim.2:13 For Adam was first formed, then Eve. 1 Tim.2:14 And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.

Question 10. Will God suffer such disobedience and rebellion to go unpunished?

Answer: By no means; but is terribly displeased (a) with our original as well as actual sins; and will punish them in his just judgment temporally and eternally, (b) as he has declared, “Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things, which are written in the book of the law, to do them.” (c)

(a) Gen.2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Rom.5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: (b) Ps.5:5 The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity. Ps.50:21 These things hast thou done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself: but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes. Nah.1:2 God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. Exod.20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; Exod.34:7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. Rom.1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Eph.5:6 Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. Heb.9:27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: (c) Deut.27:26 Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say, Amen. Gal.3:10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

Question 11. Is not God then also merciful?

Answer: God is indeed merciful, (a) but also just; (b) therefore his justice requires, that sin which is committed against the most high majesty of God, be also punished with extreme, that is, with everlasting punishment of body and soul.

(a) Exod.34:6 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Exod.34:7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. Exod.20:6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. (b) Ps.7:9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just: for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins. Exod.20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; Exod.23:7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked. Exod.34:7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. Ps.5:5 The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity. Ps.5:6 Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the LORD will abhor the bloody and deceitful man. Nah.1:2 God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. Nah.1:3 The LORD is slow to anger, and great in power, and will not at all acquit the wicked: the LORD hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet.


The Second Part – Of Man’s Deliverance

5. Lord’s Day

Question 12. Since then, by the righteous judgment of God, we deserve temporal and eternal punishment, is there no way by which we may escape that punishment, and be again received into favour?

Answer: God will have his justice satisfied: (a) and therefore we must make this full satisfaction, either by ourselves, or by another. (b)

(a) Gen.2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Exod.20:5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; Exod.23:7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked. Ezek.18:4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die. Matt.5:26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. 2 Thess.1:6 Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; Luke 16:2 And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship; for thou mayest be no longer steward. (b) Rom.8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: Rom.8:4 That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

Question 13. Can we ourselves then make this satisfaction?

Answer: By no means; but on the contrary we daily increase our debt. (a)

(a) Job 9:2 I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God? Job 9:3 If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand. Job 15:15 Behold, he putteth no trust in his saints; yea, the heavens are not clean in his sight. Job 15:16 How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water? Job 4:18 Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly: Job 4:19 How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth? Ps.130:3 If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? Matt.6:12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. Matt.18:25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. Matt.16:26 For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?

Question 14. Can there be found anywhere, one, who is a mere creature, able to satisfy for us?

Answer: None; for, first, God will not punish any other creature for the sin which man has committed; (a) and further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of God’s eternal wrath against sin, so as to deliver others from it. (b)

(a) Ezek.18:4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die. Gen.3:17 And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; Heb.2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; Heb.2:15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Heb.2:16 For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. Heb.2:17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. (b) Nah.1:6 Who can stand before his indignation? and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him. Ps.130:3 If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?

Question 15. What sort of a mediator and deliverer then must we seek for?

Answer: For one who is very man, and perfectly (a) righteous; (b) and yet more powerful than all creatures; that is, one who is also very God. (c)

(a) 1 Cor.15:21 For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. Jer.33:16 In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely: and this is the name wherewith she shall be called, The LORD our righteousness. Isa.53:9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death; because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. 2 Cor.5:21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. (b) Heb.7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; Heb.7:16 Who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life. (c) Isa.7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Isa.9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Rom.9:5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen. Jer.23:5 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. Jer.23:6 In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. Luke 11:22 But when a stronger than he (a stromg man armed) shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils.

 

6. Lord’s Day

Question 16. Why must he be very man, and also perfectly righteous?

Answer: Because the justice of God requires that the same human nature which has sinned, should likewise make satisfaction for sin; (a) and one, who is himself a sinner, cannot satisfy for others. (b)

(a) Ezek.18:4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die. Ezek.18:20 The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. Rom.5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: Rom.5:15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. Rom.5:18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. 1 Cor.15:21 For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. Heb.2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; Heb.2:15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. Heb.2:16 For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. 1 Pet.3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: Isa.53:3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Isa.53:4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. Isa.53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. Isa.53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand. Isa.53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. (b) Heb.7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; Heb.7:27 Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people’s: for this he did once, when he offered up himself. Ps.49:7 None of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him: Ps.49:8 (For the redemption of their soul is precious, and it ceaseth for ever:) 1 Pet.3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:

Question 17. Why must he in one person be also very God?

Answer: That he might, by the power of his Godhead (a) sustain in his human nature, (b) the burden of God’s wrath; (c) and might obtain for, and restore to us, righteousness and life. (d)

(a) Isa.9:6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Isa.63:3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. (b) Isa.53:4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. Isa.53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. (c) Deut.4:24 For the LORD thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God. Nah.1:6 Who can stand before his indignation? and who can abide in the fierceness of his anger? his fury is poured out like fire, and the rocks are thrown down by him. Ps.130:3 If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? (d) Isa.53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. Isa.53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Acts 2:24 Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it. 1 Pet.3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God,